Federal Judicial Center
The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency of the United States federal courts. It was established by Pub. L. 90–219 in 1967, at the recommendation of the Judicial Conference of the United States. According to 28 U. S. C. § 620, the main areas of responsibility for the Center include: conducting and promoting "research and study of the operation of the courts of the United States," and to act to encourage and coordinate the same by others. S.. S. judiciary, for all employees in the justice system, from judges through probation officers and mediators. In addition to these major provisions, §620 sets forth the additional provisions that the FJC will provide staff and assistance to the Judicial Conference and component bodies, coordinate programs and research on the administration of justice with the State Justice Institute, cooperatively assist other government agencies in providing advice, receiving advice, regarding judicial administration in foreign countries, in each of these cases, to the extent it is "consistent with the performance of the other functions set forth" earlier.
The Code states that the Chief Justice of the United States is the permanent Chair of the Center's board, that it includes the director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts and seven federal judges elected by the Judicial Conference. The Board appoints the Center's deputy director. Since its founding in 1967, the Center has had eleven directors; the current director is John S. Cooke; the deputy director is Clara Altman. The Federal Judicial Center was established by Congress on the recommendation of Chief Justice Earl Warren and other members of the judiciary who hoped that regular programs of research and education would improve the efficiency of the federal courts and help to relieve the backlog of cases in the lower courts. Governed by its own board, the Federal Judicial Center offered the courts the benefits of independent social science research and educational programs designed to improve judicial administration. In the 1950s and early 1960s, the Judicial Conference and the Administrative Office commissioned research projects to examine problems of judicial administration and organized educational programs to help judges manage growing and complicated caseloads.
These research and educational programs had funding. Support for an institutionalized program of judicial research and education increased after the establishment of 60 new district judgeships in 1961 demonstrated that the number of judges alone would not solve all of the problems of overworked courts. A growing number of judges and members of the bar urged the judiciary to establish a formal means to bring improved research and education to the courts. At the suggestion of Chief Justice Warren, the Judicial Conference in 1966 authorized a committee to examine the research and education requirements of the judiciary. Former Justice Stanley Reed agreed to Warren’s request to chair the committee; as the Reed committee formulated its recommendation for establishment of a Federal Judicial Center, President Johnson, at Warren’s request, included the proposal in his publicized message on crime in February 1967. The Judicial Committee adopted the recommendation. Bills to create the Center were soon submitted in both houses of Congress.
With broad support for the concept of a research and education center for the judiciary, discussion in the House and Senate hearings centered on questions about the proper institutional form and leadership for the Center. The Reed Committee and the director of the Administrative Office, among others, advocated an independent agency with its own governing board to which the Center director would report; the goal was to protect the research and education resources from being absorbed into administrative duties and to insure the objectivity of research. The Federal Judicial Center’s board consists of the Chief Justice, a rotating group of judges selected by the Judicial Conference, the director of the Administrative Office; the statute authorizes the Center to conduct and support research on the operation of the courts, to offer education and training for judges and court personnel, to assist and advise the Judicial Conference on matters related to the administration and management of the courts.
Legislation expanded the Center’s mandate to include programs related to the history of the federal judiciary. The Center includes several divisions; the Director's Office is responsible for the Center's overall management and its relations with other organizations. Its Office of Systems Innovation and Development provides technical support for Center education and research. Communications Policy and Design edits and distributes all Center print and electronic publications, operates the Federal Judicial Television Network, through the Information Services Office maintains a specialized library collection of materials on judicial administration; the Research Division undertakes empirical and exploratory research on federal judicial processes, judicial resources, court administration and case management, sentencing and its consequences at the request of the Judicial Conference and its committees, the courts themselves, or other groups in the federal system. James B. Eaglin is the current director of the research division.
United States Statutes at Large
The United States Statutes at Large referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat. are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is published as a slip law, classified as either public law or private law, designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications; the session law publication for U. S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U. S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, codification. Large portions of public laws are enacted as amendments to the United States Code. Once enacted into law, an Act will be published in the Statutes at Large and will add to, modify, or delete some part of the United States Code.
Provisions of a public law that contain only enacting clauses, effective dates, similar matters are not codified. Private laws are not codified; some portions of the United States Code have been enacted as positive law and other portions have not been so enacted. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. Publication of the United States Statutes at Large began in 1845 by the private firm of Little and Company under authority of a joint resolution of Congress. During Little and Company's time as publisher, Richard Peters, George Minot, George P. Sanger served as editors. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office under the direction of the Secretary of State. Pub. L. 80–278, 61 Stat. 633, was enacted July 30, 1947 and directed the Secretary of State to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large.
Pub. L. 81–821, 64 Stat. 980, was enacted September 23, 1950 and directed the Administrator of General Services to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large. Since 1985 the Statutes at Large have been prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register of the National Archives and Records Administration; until 1948, all treaties and international agreements approved by the United States Senate were published in the set, but these now appear in a publication titled United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, abbreviated U. S. T. In addition, the Statutes at Large includes the text of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, amendments to the Constitution, treaties with Indians and foreign nations, presidential proclamations. Sometimes large or long Acts of Congress are published as their own "appendix" volume of the Statutes at Large. For example, the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was published as volume 68A of the Statutes at Large.
Revised Statutes of the United States Procedures of the United States Congress Enrolled Bill Federal Register United States Reports California Statutes Laws of Florida Laws of Illinois Laws of New York Laws of Pennsylvania This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U. S. Government Publishing Office. How Our Laws Are Made, by the Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives. Volumes 1 to 18 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Library of Congress Volumes 1 to 64 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Congressional Data Coalition via LEGISWORKS.org Volumes 65 to 125 of the Statutes at Large made available by the GPO and the Library of Congress via FDsys Sortable by Bills Enacted into Laws, Concurrent Resolutions, Popular Names, Presidential Proclamations, or Public Laws. Volumes 1–124 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Constitution Society Public and private laws from 104th Congress to present from the Government Printing Office, in slip law format with Statutes at Large page references Early United States Statutes includes Volumes 1 to 44 of the Statutes at Large in DjVu and PDF format, along with rudimentary OCR of the text.
United States Statutes and the United States Code: Historical Outlines, Lists and Sources from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC Second Edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States
Lancaster is an unincorporated community in and the county seat of Lancaster County, United States. Lancaster lies along State Route 3; the community is known as Lancaster Courthouse or by an alternative spelling, Lancaster Court House. Belle Isle and the Lancaster Court House Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Virginia House of Delegates
The Virginia House of Delegates is one of two parts in the Virginia General Assembly, the other being the Senate of Virginia. It has 100 members elected for terms of two years; the House is presided over by the Speaker of the House, elected from among the House membership by the Delegates. The Speaker is a member of the majority party and, as Speaker, becomes the most powerful member of the House; the House shares legislative power with the Senate of Virginia, the upper house of the Virginia General Assembly. The House of Delegates is the modern-day successor to the Virginia House of Burgesses, which first met at Jamestown in 1619; the House is divided into Republican caucuses. In addition to the Speaker, there is a majority leader, majority caucus chair, minority leader, minority caucus chair, the chairs of the several committees of the House; the House of Burgesses was the first elected legislative body in the New World. Having 22 members, the House of Burgesses met from 1619 through 1632 in the choir of the church at Jamestown.
From 1632 to 1699 the legislative body met at four different state houses in Jamestown. The first state house convened at the home of Colonial Governor Sir John Harvey from 1632 to 1656; the burgesses convened at the second state house from 1656 until it was destroyed in 1660. Historians have yet to identify its location; the House has met in Virginia's Capitol Building, designed by Thomas Jefferson, since 1788. The legislative body met from 1788 to 1904 in what is known as today the Old Hall of the House of Delegates or referred to as the Old House Chamber; the Old House Chamber is part of the original Capitol building structure. It measures 76 feet in width and is filled today with furnishings that resemble what the room would have looked like during its time of use. There are many bronze and marble busts of historic Virginians on display in the Old House Chamber, including: George Mason, George Wythe, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Meriwether Lewis. From 1904 to 1906, University of Virginia graduate and architect John K. Peeples designed and built compatible classical wings to the west and east side of the Capitol building.
The new wings added to provide more space and serve as the legislative chambers in the Virginia General Assembly, the Senate of Virginia resides in the west chamber and the House of Delegates resides in the east chamber. The General Assembly members and staff operate from offices in the General Assembly Building, located in Capitol Square. Prior to 1788 the House of Delegates met in the Colonial Capital of Williamsburg. In 1999, Republicans took control of the House of Delegates for the first time since Reconstruction; the Republican Party has held the majority in the House since then. The annual salary for delegates is $17,640 per year; each delegate represents 84,702 people. Candidates for office must be at least 21 years of age at the time of the election, residents of the districts they seek to represent, qualified to vote for General Assembly legislators; the regular session of the General Assembly is 60 days long during numbered years and 30 days long during odd numbered years, unless extended by a two-thirds vote of both houses.
Article IV, Section 3 of the Constitution of Virginia stipulates that the House of Delegates shall consist of between 90 and 100 members. It does not put any condition on the number of districts and only speaks of "several house districts". While there used to be multi-member districts, starting with the 1982 election there have been 100 districts electing one member each; the House has 14 standing committees. The Virginia House of Delegates is reelected every two years, with intervening vacancies filled by special election; the list below contains the House delegates serving through January 2020. In January 2019, to mark the 400th anniversary of the House of Burgesses, the Virginia House of Representatives Clerk’s Office announced a new Database of House Members called "DOME" that " the 9,700-plus men and women who served as burgesses or delegates in the Virginia General Assembly over the past four centuries." List of Speakers of the Virginia House of Delegates Virginia House of Delegates elections, 2017 Senate of Virginia Members of the Virginia House of Delegates Mace of the Virginia House of Delegates Redistricting in Virginia Political party strength in Virginia List of Virginia state legislatures Virginia General Assembly Official website Project Vote Smart – State House of Virginia
Williamsburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 14,068. In 2014, the population was estimated to be 14,691. Located on the Virginia Peninsula, Williamsburg is in the northern part of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, it is bordered by James City York County. Williamsburg was founded in 1632 as Middle Plantation, a fortified settlement on high ground between the James and York rivers; the city served as the capital of the Colony and Commonwealth of Virginia from 1699 to 1780 and was the center of political events in Virginia leading to the American Revolution. The College of William & Mary, established in 1693, is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and the only one of the nine colonial colleges located in the South. S. Presidents as well as many other important figures in the nation's early history; the city's tourism-based economy is driven by Colonial Williamsburg, the restored Historic Area of the city.
Along with nearby Jamestown and Yorktown, Williamsburg forms part of the Historic Triangle, which attracts more than four million tourists each year. Modern Williamsburg is a college town, inhabited in large part by William & Mary students and staff. Prior to the arrival of the English colonists at Jamestown in the Colony of Virginia in 1607, the area which became Williamsburg was within the territory of the Powhatan Confederacy. By the 1630s, English settlements had grown to dominate the lower portion of the Virginia Peninsula, the Powhatan tribes had abandoned their nearby villages. Between 1630 and 1633, after the war that followed the Indian Massacre of 1622, the English colonists constructed a defensive palisade across the peninsula and a settlement named Middle Plantation as a primary guard station along the palisade. Jamestown was the original capital of Virginia Colony, but was burned down during the events of Bacon's Rebellion in 1676; as soon as Governor William Berkeley regained control, temporary headquarters for the government to function were established about 12 miles away on the high ground at Middle Plantation, while the Statehouse at Jamestown was rebuilt.
The members of the House of Burgesses discovered that the'temporary' location was both safer and more pleasant environmentally than Jamestown, humid and plagued with mosquitoes. A school of higher education had long been an aspiration of the colonists. An early attempt at Henricus failed after the Indian Massacre of 1622; the location at the outskirts of the developed part of the colony had left it more vulnerable to the attack. In the 1690s, the colonists tried again to establish a school, they commissioned Reverend James Blair, who spent several years in England lobbying, obtained a royal charter for the desired new school. It was to be named the College of Mary in honor of the monarchs of the time; when Reverend Blair returned to Virginia, the new school was founded in a safe place, Middle Plantation in 1693. Classes began in temporary quarters in 1694, the College Building, a precursor to the Wren Building, was soon under construction. Four years in 1698, the rebuilt Statehouse in Jamestown burned down again, this time accidentally.
The government again relocated'temporarily' to Middle Plantation, in addition to the better climate now enjoyed use of the College's facilities. The College students made a presentation to the House of Burgesses, it was agreed in 1699 that the colonial capital should be permanently moved to Middle Plantation. A village was laid out and Middle Plantation was renamed Williamsburg in honor of King William III of England, befitting the town's newly elevated status. Following its designation as the Capital of the Colony, immediate provision was made for construction of a capitol building and for plotting out the new city according to the survey of Theodorick Bland, his design utilized the extant sites of the College and the almost-new brick Bruton Parish Church as focal points, placed the new Capitol building opposite the College, with Duke of Gloucester Street connecting them. Alexander Spotswood, who arrived in Virginia as lieutenant governor in 1710, had several ravines filled and streets leveled, assisted in erecting additional College buildings, a church, a magazine for the storage of arms.
In 1722, the town of Williamsburg was granted a royal charter as a "city incorporate". However, it was a borough. Middle Plantation was included in James City Shire when it was established in 1634, as the Colony reached a total population of 5,000.. However, the middle ground ridge line was the dividing line with Charles River Shire, renamed York County after King Charles I fell out of favor with the citizens of England; as Middle Plantation and Williamsburg developed, the boundaries were adjusted slightly. For most of the colonial period, the border between the two counties ran down the center of Duke of Gloucester Street. During this time, for 100 years after the formation of the Commonwealth of Virginia and the United States, despite practical complications, the town remained divided between the two counties. Williamsburg was the site of the first attempted canal in the United States. In 1771, Lord Dunmore, who would turn out to be Virginia's last Royal Governor, announced plans to connect Archer's Creek, which leads to the James River with Queen's Creek, leading to the York River.
It was not completed. Remains of this c
Bruton Parish Church
Bruton Parish Church is located in the restored area of Colonial Williamsburg in Williamsburg, United States. It was established in 1674 by the consolidation of two previous parishes in the Virginia Colony, remains an active Episcopal parish; the building, constructed 1711-15, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970 as a well-preserved early example of colonial religious architecture. The roots of Bruton Parish Church trace back to both the Church of England and the new settlement of the Colony of Virginia at Jamestown in the early 17th century; the role of the church and its relationship to the government had been established by King Henry VIII some years earlier. The same relationship was established in the new colony; when the English colony was established at Jamestown on May 14, 1607, the conduct of worship and the building of a primitive chapel were given priority as the first fort was built. The Reverend Robert Hunt served as the first chaplain, he had been the chaplain appointed to serve as spiritual leader of the three-ship expedition headed by Christopher Newport, he lit the candle for the Anglican Church in Virginia a few weeks earlier when he first lifted his voice in public thanksgiving and prayer on April 29, as the settlers made what has come to be known as their "First Landing" near the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay.
He was the one to plant the cross at Cape Henry. Captain John Smith described the Reverend Mr Hunt as our honest and courageous divine. In his role as religious leader, he was a peacemaker bringing harmony to a quarreling group of men. Hunt was among those. After five difficult years, during which the majority of the constant flow of colonists did not survive, the colony began to grow; as in England, the parish became a unit of local importance equal in power and practical aspects to other entities such as the courts and the House of Burgesses. The earlier settlements were along the major waterways, such as the York River; the expansion and subdivision of the church parishes and shires of Virginia after 1634 both followed this growth. Parishes needed to be close enough for travel to church for worship, an obligation everyone was expected to fulfil.. The interior area of the Virginia Peninsula was not settled until a period beginning in the 1630s when a stockade was completed across the Peninsula between Archer's Hope Creek and Queen's Creek, each navigable to an opposing river.
Dr John Potts figured prominently in the early development. In 1625, he was commissioned a member of the Governor's Council, on which he served for a number of years. In 1628 he was chosen Governor, held the position from 1629 until the early part of 1630, when he was superseded by Sir John Harvey. Dr Potts had a plantation which he called "Harrop" named in honor of his ancestral home, Harrop, in Cheshire, where some of the Potts family resided at that period.. On July 12, 1632, Dr Potts obtained a patent for 1,200 acres at the head of Archer's Hope Creek. Part of this land was to become the fortified palisade across the peninsula. Palisades, six miles in length, were run from creek to creek, and, on the ridge between, a settlement to be called Middle Plantation was made. Middle Plantation consisted of property owned by Colonel John Page. John Page was a member of the Council of the Virginia Colony. A wealthy landowner, Page donated land and funds for the first brick Bruton Parish Church. Col. Page was a prime force behind the small community gaining the site for the College of William and Mary, Founded in 1693.
He was a chief proponent of the village and donated more land to create the village. The Dr. Potts would have recognized the sanitary advantages of the country around Middle Plantation; as the ridge between the creeks was remarkably well drained, there were few mosquitoes. The deep ravines penetrating from the north and south made the place of much strategic value; the only practical road down the Peninsula was over this ridge, this road was defended. At Middle Plantation, some years this road was to be called Duke of Gloucester Street, it would form the dividing boundary line between portions of James City and York County for many years. Despite the favorable location, development of Middle Plantation as a residential and trade community did not take place; the area was still on the edge of the frontier and subject to attacks by the Native Americans, who were being crowded out of their homeland by the ever-expanding colony. This was true prior to the second major conflict with the Powhatan Confederacy in 1644, after which a peace was established.
Although the local Natives had been overwhelmed and subdued, conflicts continued further west with tribal groups other than the Powhatan. Beginning after 1644, the interior areas of the Peninsula such as that of Middle Plantation became more attractive for settlement. By the 1650s, Middle Plantation began to look both populated and wealthy, straddling the boundary between James City County and York County. Colonel John Page, a merchant who had emigrated from Middlesex, England with his wife Alice Luckin Page in 1650, was responsible for building Middle Plantat