Congo red is an organic compound, the sodium salt of 3,3′-bis. It is an azo dye. Congo red is water-soluble. However, the use of Congo red has long been abandoned because of its carcinogenic properties. Congo red was first synthesized in 1883 by Paul Böttiger, employed at Friedrich Bayer Company in Elberfeld, Germany, he was looking for textile dyes. The company was not interested in this bright red color, so he filed the patent under his own name and sold it to the AGFA company of Berlin. AGFA marketed the dye under the name "Congo red", a catchy name in Germany at the time of the 1884 Berlin West Africa Conference, an important event in the Colonisation of Africa; the dye was a major commercial success for AGFA. In the following years, for the same reason, other dyes were marketed using the "Congo" name: Congo rubine, Congo corinth, brilliant Congo, Congo orange, Congo brown, Congo blue. Once of economic significance, Congo red has fallen into disuse as have all benzidine-derived dyes, owing to their carcinogenic activity.
It is prepared by azo coupling of the bis derivative of benzidine with naphthionic acid. Due to a color change from blue to red at pH 3.0–5.2, Congo red can be used as a pH indicator. Since this color change is an approximate inverse of that of litmus, it can be used with litmus paper in a simple parlor trick: add a drop or two of Congo red to both an acid solution and a base solution. Dipping red litmus paper in the red solution will turn it blue, while dipping blue litmus paper in the blue solution will turn it red; this property gives Congo red a metachromatic property as a dye, both in acidic solutions and with acidophilic tissue. Congo red has a propensity to aggregate in organic solutions; the proposed mechanisms suggest hydrophobic interactions between the aromatic rings of the dye molecules, leading to a pi–pi stacking phenomenon. Although these aggregates are present under various sizes and shapes, the "ribbon-like micelles" of a few molecules seem to be the predominant form; this aggregation phenomenon is more prevalent in high Congo red concentrations, at high salinity and/or low pH.
In histology and microscopy, Congo red is used for staining in amyloidosis, for the cell walls of plants and fungi, for the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Apple-green birefringence of Congo red stained preparations under polarized light is indicative of the presence of amyloid fibrils. Additionally, Congo red is used for the diagnostics of the Shigella flexneri serotype 2a, where the dye binds the bacterium's unique lipopolysaccharide structure. Furthermore, Congo red may be used to induce expression of the type III secretion system of Shigella flexneri, bringing about the secretion of IpaB and IpaC, which form translocation pores within host cell membrane, allowing effector proteins to pass through and alter the host cell's biochemistry; the dye can be used in flow cytometry experiments for the detection of Acanthamoeba and other amoebal cysts
A hyaline substance is one with a glassy appearance. The word is derived from Greek: Greek: ὕαλος crystal, glass. In histopathological medical usage, a hyaline substance appears glassy and pink after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin—usually it is an acellular, proteinaceous material. An example is a transparent, glossy articular joint cartilage; some mistakenly refer to all hyaline as hyaline cartilage. Arterial hyaline is seen in aging, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and in association with some drugs, it is bright pink with PAS staining. In ichthyology and entomology, hyaline denotes a colorless, transparent substance, such as unpigmented fins of fishes or clear insect wings. Hyaline arteriolosclerosis Hyalopilitic Hyaloserositis Infant respiratory distress syndrome known as hyaline membrane disease
The Strophariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Agaricales. Under an older classification, the family covered 18 genera and 1316 species; the species of Strophariaceae have red-brown to dark brown spore prints, while the spores themselves are smooth and have an apical germ pore. These agarics are characterized by having a cutis-type pileipellis. Ecologically, all species in this group are saprotrophs, growing on various kinds of decaying organic matter; the family was circumscribed in 1946 by Alexander H. Smith; the genus Stropharia consists of medium to large agarics with a distinct membranous annulus. Spore-print color is medium to dark purple-brown, except for a few species with rusty-brown spores. There is a great deal of variation, since this group, as presently delimited, is polyphyletic. Members of the core clade of Stropharia are characterized by crystalline acanthocytes among the hyphae that make up the rhizoids at the base of the mushroom; the genus Hypholoma is a saprobe on wood and grows in caespitose clusters.
Spore print varies from medium brown to purple brown. These species all share a subcutaneous layer of inflated cells; the genus Pholiota is characterized by a dull brown to cinnamon brown spore print. A well-known edible species is the Japanese nameko mushroom. A secotioid form of Pholiota was recognized as a distinct genus, Nivatogastrium; the genus Psilocybe is well known for its psychedelic mushrooms and used to be classified in the Strophariaceae, but is now separated from the nonhallucinogenic species that remain in the family under the name Deconica. Psilocybe is now phylogenetically classified in the Hymenogastraceae; the genus Deconica consists of species of agarics classified as nonhallucinogenic Psilocybe and of species called Melanotus. List of Agaricales families MushroomExpert.com - Taxonomy in Transition: The Strophariaceae MushroomExpert.com - Stropharia and Psilocybe MushroomExpert.com - The Genus Hypholoma
Inocybe is a large genus of mushroom-forming fungi. Members of Inocybe are mycorrhizal, some evidence shows that the high degree of speciation in the genus is due to adaptation to different trees and even local environments. Typical mushrooms of the genus are any of various shades of brown, although some lilac or purplish species exist. Caps are small and conical, though flattening somewhat in age with a pronounced raised central knob or umbo; the cap appears fibrous or frayed, giving the genus its common name of "fiber caps". Many species have a distinctive odor, various described as spermatic. Placed in the family Cortinariaceae, phylogenetic analyses suggests that the genus is better placed as the type genus of the family Inocybaceae. Inocybe species are not considered suitable for consumption, although in some underdeveloped countries certain species of Inocybe mushrooms are eaten. Many species contain large doses of muscarine, no easy method of distinguishing them from edible species exists.
In fact, Inocybe is the most encountered mushroom genus for which microscopic characteristics are the only means of certain identification to the species level. While the vast majority of Inocybes are toxic, seven rare species of Inocybe are hallucinogenic, having been found to contain psilocybin, including Inocybe aeruginascens which contains aeruginascine. Two supersections are informally recognized: Cortinate supersection: The stipe are no pruinose, only in the apex or the upper half; the stipe base is not bulbous and a remnant of a cortina is present in the margin of the young caps. Marginate supersection: The stipe are pruinose and has a bulbose base as general. Several subgenera/sections are recognized: Inocybe This subgenera has pleurocystidia thick-walled and in the apex has crystals; the basidiospores are angular-nodulose. The basidia is not necropigmented; the hilar appendice is conspicuous. This subgenera is frequent in temperate ecosystems. Auritella This subgenera has necropigmented basidia.
The spores are smooth and the hilar appendix is inconspicuous. Large cheilocystidia; this is know from tropical Africa, Tropical and temperate Australia. Inosperma The sporomes of this subgenera has a distinct odor; the pileus can be squamulose to squarrose. The lamella has cheilocystidia. Basidia necropigmented or not; the spores are smooth. In temperate areas. Wide distribution. Mallocybe The cap is woolly-squamulose, the cap surface is conspicuously darkening with alkali; the lamella broadly adnate to subdecurrent. The stipe has not pleurocystidia; the basidia has cheilocystidia as terminal elements. Spores smooth. Wide distribution Nothocybe The lamellae has cheilocystidia. Spores smooth. Known from tropical India. Pseudosperma Fruitbodies has spermatic or green corn odor; the pileus is radially rimose or rimulose, never squarrulose and squamulose. The pleurocystidia are absent and the cheilocystida present. Spores smooth. Wide distribution. Tubariomyces Small sporomes with omphalinoid habit. Decurrent lamella and cheilocystiida present.
Spores smooth. Known from mediterranean and tropical Africa; the genus of the Inocybe is species-rich. The genus is divided according to Bon into three subgenera with sections: Subgenus: Inosperma - without crystal-bearing cystide Section: Depauperatae Inocybe dulcamara Section: Cervicolores Inocybe bongardii Section: Rimosae Inocybe rimosa Inocybe erubescensSubgenus: Inocibium - with thick-walled, crystal-bearing pleurocystidia. Section: Lactiferae Inocybe piriodora Section: Lilacinae Inocybe oscura Section: Lacerae Inocybe lacera Section: Tardae Inocybe geophylla Section: Splendentes Inocybe hirtellaSubgenus: Clypeus - spores tuberculate or star-shaped Section: Cortinatae Inocybe lanuginosa Section: Petiginosae Inocybe fibrosa Section: Marginatae Inocybe asterospora There are hundreds of species of Inocybe. Representatives of the genus include: Inocybe aeruginascens Inocybe coelestium Inocybe corydalina var. corydalina Quél. Inocybe corydalina var. erinaceomorpha Inocybe erubescens red-staining inocybe Inocybe geophylla Inocybe haemacta Inocybe hystrix Inocybe lacera Inocybe tricolor Atkinson, G. F..
"Some new species of Inocybe". American Journal of Botany. 5: 210–218. Doi:10.2307/2435009. JSTOR 2435009. Cripps, C. L.. "The genus Inocybe in Montana aspen stands". Mycologia. 89: 670–688. Doi:10.2307/3761005. JSTOR 3761005. Stuntz, D. E.. Interim skeleton key to some common species of Inocybe in the Pacific Northwest. Notes and species descriptions by Gibson, I.. Inocybe Photos http://www.inocybe.org/
In mycology, a stipe is the stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom. Like all tissues of the mushroom other than the hymenium, the stipe is composed of sterile hyphal tissue. In many instances, the fertile hymenium extends down the stipe some distance. Fungi that have stipes are said to be stipitate; the evolutionary benefit of a stipe is considered to be in mediating spore dispersal. An elevated mushroom will more release its spores into wind currents or onto passing animals. Many mushrooms do not have stipes, including cup fungi, earthstars, some polypores, jelly fungi and smuts, it is the case that features of the stipe are required to make a positive identification of a mushroom. Such distinguishing characters include: the texture of the stipe whether it has remains of a partial veil or universal veil whether the stipes of many mushrooms fuse at their base its general size and shape whether the stipe extends underground in a root-like structure When collecting mushrooms for identification it is critical to maintain all these characters intact by digging the mushroom out of the soil, rather than cutting it off mid-stipe
A lamella, or gill, is a papery hymenophore rib under the cap of some mushroom species, most but not always agarics. The gills are used by the mushrooms as a means of spore dispersal, are important for species identification; the attachment of the gills to the stem is classified based on the shape of the gills when viewed from the side, while color and the shape of individual gills can be important features. Additionally, gills can have distinctive macroscopic features. For instance, Lactarius species seep latex from their gills, it was believed that all gilled fungi were Agaricales, but as fungi were studied in more detail, some gilled species were demonstrated not to be. It is now clear that this is a case of convergent evolution rather than being an anatomic feature that evolved only once; the apparent reason that various basidiomycetes have evolved gills is that it is the most effective means of increasing the ratio of surface area to mass, which increases the potential for spore production and dispersal.
Other groups of fungi to bear gills include: The genera Russula and Lactarius of the Russulales. Several genera in the Boletales, including Gomphidius and Chroogomphus as well as Tapinella atrotomentosa and other species in that genus, the False chanterelle; such polypore-like fungi such as Daedalea quercina, Daedaleopsis confragosa, Lenzites betulina and Gloeophyllum sepiarium. Members of the two related genera of chanterelles and Craterellus, have rudimentary lamellar structures which are sometimes referred to as "false gills", they are distinguished from "true gills" because the structure of the fertile surface continues uninterrupted over the gill edge, so they are little more than folds, wrinkles or veins. The genus Gomphus has false gills; these primitive lamellae indicate how the evolution towards true gills happened. Morphologically, gills are classified according to their attachment to the stem: IMA Mycological Glossary: Gill
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard for the name "mushroom" is Agaricus bisporus. "Mushroom" describes a variety of other gilled fungi, with or without stems, therefore the term is used to describe the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface. Forms deviating from the standard morphology have more specific names, such as "bolete", "puffball", "stinkhorn", "morel", gilled mushrooms themselves are called "agarics" in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their order Agaricales. By extension, the term "mushroom" can refer to either the entire fungus when in culture, the thallus of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself. Identifying mushrooms requires a basic understanding of their macroscopic structure. Most are gilled, their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result.
At the microscopic level, the basidiospores are shot off basidia and fall between the gills in the dead air space. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight, a powdery impression reflecting the shape of the gills is formed; the color of the powdery print, called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them. Spore print colors include white, black, purple-brown, pink and creamy, but never blue, green, or red. While modern identification of mushrooms is becoming molecular, the standard methods for identification are still used by most and have developed into a fine art harking back to medieval times and the Victorian era, combined with microscopic examination; the presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, tastes, shades of color, habitat and season are all considered by both amateur and professional mycologists. Tasting and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens.
Chemical tests are used for some genera. In general, identification to genus can be accomplished in the field using a local mushroom guide. Identification to species, requires more effort. However, over-mature specimens cease producing spores. Many novices have mistaken humid water marks on paper for white spore prints, or discolored paper from oozing liquids on lamella edges for colored spored prints. Typical mushrooms are the fruit bodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom, Agaricus campestris. However, in modern molecularly defined classifications, not all members of the order Agaricales produce mushroom fruit bodies, many other gilled fungi, collectively called mushrooms, occur in other orders of the class Agaricomycetes. For example, chanterelles are in the Cantharellales, false chanterelles such as Gomphus are in the Gomphales, milk-cap mushrooms and russulas, as well as Lentinellus, are in the Russulales, while the tough, leathery genera Lentinus and Panus are among the Polyporales, but Neolentinus is in the Gloeophyllales, the little pin-mushroom genus, along with similar genera, are in the Hymenochaetales.
Within the main body of mushrooms, in the Agaricales, are common fungi like the common fairy-ring mushroom, enoki, oyster mushrooms, fly agarics and other Amanitas, magic mushrooms like species of Psilocybe, paddy straw mushrooms, shaggy manes, etc. An atypical mushroom is the lobster mushroom, a deformed, cooked-lobster-colored parasitized fruitbody of a Russula or Lactarius and deformed by the mycoparasitic Ascomycete Hypomyces lactifluorum. Other mushrooms are not gilled, so the term "mushroom" is loosely used, giving a full account of their classifications is difficult; some have pores underneath, others have spines, such as the hedgehog mushroom and other tooth fungi, so on. "Mushroom" has been used for polypores, jelly fungi, coral fungi, bracket fungi and cup fungi. Thus, the term is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning. 14,000 species of mushrooms are described. The terms "mushroom" and "toadstool" go back centuries and were never defined, nor was there consensus on application.
Between 1400 and 1600 AD, the terms mushrom, muscheron, mussheron, or musserouns were used. The term "mushroom" and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss. Delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a "mushroom" may be edible, poisonous, or unpalatable. Cultural or social phobias of mushrooms and fungi may be related; the term "fungophobia" was coined by William Delisle Hay of England, who noted a national superstition or fear of "toadstools". The word "toadstool" has apparent analogies in German Krötenschwamm. In German folklore and old fair