Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines are peptides, cannot cross the lipid bilayer of cells to enter the cytoplasm. Cytokines have been shown to be involved in autocrine and endocrine signaling as immunomodulating agents, their definite distinction from hormones is still part of ongoing research. Cytokines include chemokines, interleukins and tumour necrosis factors, but not hormones or growth factors. Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells and various stromal cells, they act through receptors, are important in the immune system. Some cytokines inhibit the action of other cytokines in complex ways, they are different from hormones, which are important cell signaling molecules, in that hormones circulate in higher concentrations and tend to be made by specific kinds of cells. They are important in health and disease in host responses to infection, immune responses, trauma, sepsis and reproduction.
The word comes from Greek: cyto, from Greek "κύτος" kytos "cavity, cell" + kines, from Greek "κίνησις" kinēsis "movement". Interferon-alpha, an interferon type I, was identified in 1957 as a protein that interfered with viral replication; the activity of interferon-gamma was described in 1965. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor was identified in 1966 by John David and Barry Bloom. In 1969 Dudley Dumonde proposed the term "lymphokine" to describe proteins secreted from lymphocytes and proteins derived from macrophages and monocytes in culture were called "monokines".ln 1974, Stanley Cohen published an article describing the production of MIF in virus-infected allantoic membrane and kidney cells, showing its production is not limited to immune cells. This led to his proposal of the term cytokine. Ogawa described the early acting growth factors, intermediate acting growth factors and late acting growth factors. Classic hormones circulate in nanomolar concentrations that vary by less than one order of magnitude.
In contrast, some cytokines circulate in picomolar concentrations that can increase up to 1,000 times during trauma or infection. The widespread distribution of cellular sources for cytokines may be a feature that differentiates them from hormones. All nucleated cells, but endo/epithelial cells and resident macrophages are potent producers of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α. In contrast, classic hormones, such as insulin, are secreted from discrete glands; the current terminology refers to cytokines as immunomodulating agents. A contributing factor to the difficulty of distinguishing cytokines from hormones is that some immunomodulating effects of cytokines are systemic rather than local. For instance, to utilize hormone terminology, cytokines may be autocrine or paracrine in nature, chemotaxis and endocrine as a pyrogen. Cytokines are not limited to their immunomodulatory status as molecules. Cytokines have been classed as lymphokines and chemokines, based on their presumed function, cell of secretion, or target of action.
Because cytokines are characterised by considerable redundancy and pleiotropism, such distinctions, allowing for exceptions, are obsolete. The term interleukin was used by researchers for those cytokines whose presumed targets are principally leukocytes, it is now used for designation of newer cytokine molecules and bears little relation to their presumed function. The vast majority of these are produced by T-helper cells. Lymphokines: produced by lymphocytes Monokines: produced by monocytes Interferons: involved in antiviral responses Colony stimulating factors: support the growth of cells in semisolid media Chemokines: mediate chemoattraction between cells. Structural homogeneity has been able to distinguish between cytokines that do not demonstrate a considerable degree of redundancy so that they can be classified into four types: The four-α-helix bundle family: member cytokines have three-dimensional structures with a bundle of four α-helices; this family, in turn, is divided into three sub-families: the IL-2 subfamily This is the largest family.
It contains several non-immunological cytokines including thrombopoietin. Some members share a gamma-chain in their receptors; the interferon subfamily the IL-10 subfamily. Furthermore, four-α-helix bundle cytokines can be grouped into long-chain and short-chain cytokines by topology; the IL-1 family, which includes IL-1 and IL-18 the IL-17 family, which has yet to be characterized, though member cytokines have a specific effect in promoting proliferation of T-cells that cause cytotoxic effects. The cysteine-knot cytokines include members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily, including TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3. A classification that proves more useful in clinical and experimental practice outside of structural biology divides immunological cytokines into those that enhance cellular immune responses, type 1, type 2, wh
René Wellek was a Czech-American comparative literary critic. Like Erich Auerbach, Wellek was an eminent product of the Central European philological tradition and was known as a vastly erudite and "fair-minded critic of critics."René Wellek was born and raised in Vienna, speaking Czech and German. He studied literature at the Charles University in Prague, was active among the Prague School linguists there, before moving to teach at School of Slavonic and East European Studies in 1935, his younger brother Albert Wellek was one of the founders of musical psychology and lived in Germany. Before 1939, Wellek published all written in Czech. From 1939, the beginning of World War II in Europe, Wellek lived in America, he taught first at the University of Iowa for seven years until 1946, beginning in that year, at Yale University, where he established and chaired a department of comparative literature. In the United States, he was "widely regarded as a founder of the study of comparative literature."
With Austin Warren, Wellek published a landmark volume entitled Theory of Literature, one of the first works to systematize literary theory. Beginning in the 1960s, Wellek defended the New Critics against the condemnation of their work in the name of a structuralist-influenced literary theory, is thus sometimes classed as a conservative critic. Wellek advocated a synthesized approach to literary criticism, one that included 1) literary theory, 2) a careful study of previous works of criticism, 3) a thorough understanding of the surrounding history involved in an author's creation of a work, including the author's personal history and milieu. Any approach elevating one of these aspects above the other would be in error. Wellek said the best literary critic must "do what every scientist and scholar does: to isolate his object, in our case, the literary work of art, to contemplate it intently, to analyze, to interpret, to evaluate it by criteria derived from, verified by, buttressed by, as wide a knowledge, as close an observation, as keen a sensibility, as honest a judgment as we can command."
According to Wellek, bringing all of literary theory and history into consideration allows a critic to achieve "victory over impermanence and history."The crowning work of Wellek's career was an eight-volume magnum opus entitled A History of Modern Criticism: 1750-1950, the last two volumes of which he dictated from his bed in a nursing home at age 90. Immanuel Kant in England 1793-1838, Princeton: Princeton UP, 1931; the Rise of English Literary History, Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1941. Literature and Ideas, Charlottesville: The University of Virginia, 1948. Theory of Literature, New York: Harcourt, Co. 1949. A History of Modern Criticism 1750-1950, New Haven: Yale UP, 1955-1992. Dostoevsky: A Collection of Critical Essays, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1962. Concepts of Criticism, Ed. Stephen G. Nichols, Jr. New Haven: Yale UP, 1963. Essays on Czech Literature, The Hague: Mouton and Co. 1963. Confrontations: Studies in the Intellectual and Literary Relations between Germany and the United States during the Nineteenth Century, Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965.
The Literary Theory and Aesthetics of the Prague School, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1969. Discriminations: Further Concepts of Criticism, New Haven: Yale UP, 1971. Evidence in Literary Scholarship: Essays in Memory of James Marshall Osborn, Oxford: Oxford UP, 1979. Four Critics: Croce, Valéry, Lukács, Ingarden, Seattle: Washington UP, 1981. Chekhov: New Perspectives, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc. 1981. The Attack on Literature and Other Essays, Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1982. "Prospect and Retrospect", Journal of Comparative Literature and Aesthetics, Vol. 1, No. 2, Winter 1978. Champion, Rafe. "Rene Wellek - premier scholar of literature". Retrieved 2009-02-16. Yeghiayan, Eddie. "René Wellek: A Bibliography". Regents of the University of California. Retrieved 2011-08-26. Yeghiayan, Eddie. "Special Issues of Journals on René Wellek". Regents of the University of California. Retrieved 2009-02-16. Guide to the René Wellek Papers. Special Collections and Archives, The UC Irvine Libraries, California.
Http://easyliteraturenotes.blogspot.in/2012/08/the-name-and-nature-of-comparative.html On Nature of Literature from the Theory of Literature
Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays is a voluntary organisation and registered charity in the United Kingdom which offers support to parents and their lesbian/gay/bisexual and transgender children. They have a national telephone helpline as well as several parent support groups and are a support group recognised by the UK Government. FFLAG works outside the UK with other LGBT family support organisations in Europe; the organisation has its roots in 1965 when Rose Robertson, a former World War II SOE agent set up Parents Enquiry, inspired by events she had seen whilst working with the resistance in occupied France. Rose was herself heterosexual, her maiden name being Laimbeer, Rose had married George Robertson in 1954, he died in 1984. Rose launched Britain’s first helpline to assist and support parents and their lesbian and bisexual sons and daughters three years before the Sexual Offences Act 1967 decriminalised homosexuality in England and Wales in a period of severe Homophobia, when LGBT+ people experienced prejudice and oppression.
Rose used her own money to help young LGBT + people in need. Rose Robertson was receiving over 100 phone calls and letters a week from distressed gay teenagers, many of whom had self harmed. Rose mediated between parents successfully, who had rejected their own sons and daughters due to sexuality. Despite being verbally abused, physically attacked, targeted with extreme homophobia and Right-wing extremists, arson attacks on her home, excrement through the letterbox, abusive phone calls and hate mail she did not give up and persevered until her death in helping young LGBT+ people. Obituaries to Rose appeared in The Telegraph, The Guardian and The Pink Paper news papers and at the Peter Tatchell Foundation; the Manchester Parents Group had produced a video introduced by Sir Ian McKellen in 1990 in which Rose Robertson appeared, one of the last surviving VHS Video copies, although in worn condition was transferred by a volunteer to Mpeg video in 1999 for preservation. The helpline that Rose created ran for three decades and Rose's work inspired parents in various parts of the country to set up their own groups and helplines.
Among the first were those in Manchester and Scotland. By 1993 it was felt that there was a need for a national organisation to act as an umbrella group to support and co-ordinate the local groups and to respond to the increasing request for information from the media, social services and other organisations and individuals.'Friends and Families of Lesbians and Gays' was the successor to Parents Enquiry set up in 1993, became a registered charity in 2000 with aims were to support parents and their lesbian and bisexual daughters and sons and to campaign for human and civil rights. FFLAG is a voluntary organisation; the equal rights legislation FFLAG has campaigned for include: The repeal of section 28 Equalisation of the age of consent Lifting the ban on gays and lesbians in the armed forces Adoption rights for same sex couples Civil partnership Same sex marriageIn 2000 FFLAG joined with parent's organisations in Italy, Belgium and Spain to set up EuroFFLAG, now followed by the European Network of Parents of LGBTQI children.
FFLAG's vision: is a world free from ignorance and prejudice about sexuality and gender identity in which LGBT+ people are valued and respectedTheir mission: To support families with LGBT+ members To be the national umbrella organisation for affiliated groups supporting families with LGBT+ members To support and develop a network of local family support groups To provide direct individual support where local family support groups are not involved To educate and advocate for a world in line with their vision To work with other organisations to achieve their vision To ensure that they have the necessary resources to achieve their mission FFLAG's website provides information about helpful resources including their downloadable booklets. The booklet'A Guide For Family & Friends' looks at issues and emotions that parents and families may face when their LGB loved one comes out. Another booklet'How Do I Tell My Parents?' considers ways of telling parents as well as discussing the issues that worry lesbian and bisexual people when they want to talk to their family about their sexuality.
The booklets written by Rose Robertson, were rewritten by FFLAG Parents in 2012 and updated again in 2017. The booklets contain experiences from parents and LGB young people. FFLAG has found that many of the enquiries received are from parents of trans youngsters, they have decided to extend their remit to include support for family and friends of trans people. On 31 March 2018, coinciding with Trans Visibility Day, FFLAG launched its new booklet'A Guide For Family & Friends - information for family and friends with a transgender member'. There are plans for a second new booklet'How Do I Tell My Parents? - I'm transgender' to be available this year. President of the organisation is Jenny Broughton, Hugh Fell is Chair of Trustee's alongside fellow Trustee's Sorrel Atkinson, Janet Kent, Hilary Beynon and Sarah Furley. Long standing Patrons of the organisation are Baron Cashman of Limehouse, Angela Mason CBE, Sir Ian McKellen CH CBE, Baroness Massey of Darwen, Professor Ian Rivers, Deidre Sanders and Peter Tatchell.
PFLAG Official website'Parents Talking', free online video resource, produced 1990
Amarwara is a town and a Nagar Palika Parishad in Chhindwara district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Amarwara is located at 22.3°N 79.17°E / 22.3. It has an average elevation of 796 metres. Amarwara is located in between the Mountains of Satpura confined between Dulha Dev Ghati and Bhumka Ghati; the climate is temperate in Amarwara. In winter, there is much more rainfall in Amarwara than in summer. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as Csa; the average annual temperature is 23.5 °C in Amarwara. About 1088 mm of precipitation falls annually; as of 2011 India census, Amarwara had a population of 14,141. Males constitute 50.3% of the population and females 49.7%. Amarwara has an average literacy rate of 85.58%, higher than the state average of 69.32% and national average of 74.04%. 11.43% of the population is under 6 years of age. National Highway 547 connects the town with Chhindwara and Narsinghpur. Amarwara
The European Maritime Safety Agency is a European Union agency charged with reducing the risk of maritime accidents, marine pollution from ships and the loss of human lives at sea by helping to enforce the pertinent EU legislation. It is headquartered in Lisbon. EMSA has the following mission: assist the Commission in preparing EU legislation in the field of maritime safety and prevention of pollution by ships assist the Commission in the effective implementation of EU legislation on maritime safety and maritime security, in particular by monitoring the overall functioning of the EU port State control regime, organise training activities, develop technical solutions and provide technical assistance related to the implementation of EU legislation help develop a common methodology for investigating maritime accidents provide data on maritime safety and on pollution by ships and help improve the identification and pursuit of ships making unlawful dischargesIn doing so, EMSA cooperates with the Member States' maritime services.
EMSA was founded in 2002, after the EU adopted substantial packages of legislation relating to maritime security in the wake of major shipping disasters in European waters, such as those involving the ferry Estonia and the oil tankers Erika and Prestige. It was felt that a specialised technical agency was necessary to overview the enforcement of this legislation and help in its implementation. EMSA is headquartered in Lisbon and moved in June 2009 to new, purpose-built premises near Cais do Sodré in central Lisbon, it has a staff of just under 200 and operates a small network of stand-by oil recovery vessels contracted from the commercial sector, designed to provide top-up capacity to Member States' own response resources. Its Executive Director, since 2012, is Markku Mylly from Finland; the 2008 budget for EMSA was just over EUR 50,000,000, of which over a third, EUR 18,000,000 is used for at sea pollution response tasks. CleanSeaNet Official website
Campo Baixo is a small settlement located in the southwestern part of the island of Brava, Cape Verde. In English, the name of the village means "low field", it is situated in the mountains, 1.5 km southwest of Nossa Senhora do Monte and 4 km southwest of the island capital Nova Sintra. From Nossa Senhora do Monte, Campo Baixo is accessible by "Aluguer" buses. Close to Campo Baixo, a small chapel on a hill, shaped like a ship, is worth a visit; the name "Santa Maria" referring to the ship of Christopher Columbus is painted on the ship. There are similar chapels in other places in Cape Verde as well, e.g. in Nova Sintra. From the hill, close to the road to Palhal, there is a beautiful view of the village and its surroundings