France Télévisions is the French public national television broadcaster. It is a state-owned company formed from the integration of the public television channels France 2 and France 3 joined by the independent channels France 5, France Ô, France 4. France Télévisions is funded by the revenue from television licence fees and commercial advertising; the new law on public broadcasting will phase out commercial advertising on the public television channels. France Télévisions is a supporter of the Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV initiative, promoting and establishing an open European standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast TV and broadband multimedia applications with a single user interface, has selected HbbTV for its interactive news and weather service, plans to add catch-up TV and social media sharing capability. From 1964 to 1974, French radio and television was monopolized through an organization known as the Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française. In an effort to stimulate competition, the organization was split in 1975 so that the France's three television channels—TF1, Antenne 2, FR3, would still be owned by the French government, but be operated independently from each other.
However, the privatization of TF1 in 1987 and increased competition from other new private broadcasters led to a decline in viewership for the two remaining public channels, which lost 30% of their market share between 1987 and 1989. The channels were however saved when a single director-general was appointed to manage both Antenne 2 and FR3, becoming part of a joint entity known as France Télévision, they were renamed in 1992 as France 3 respectively. In August 2000, France Télévisions S. A. was formed as a holding company for France's public television channels, absorbing control of France 2, France 3, fellow public channel La Cinquième. In 2004, Réseau France Outre-mer was absorbed by France Télévisions. Beginning in 2008, the President of France took the duty of naming the presidents for the French public broadcasters. France 2 - The company's primary channel with the second largest viewing audience. France 3 - The company's secondary channel, consisting of a network of regional stations. France 4 - Available only on digital television.
Named "Festival", specializing in theatre and French-language and other European originated drama, it is a channel for young adults. France 5 - Focuses on societal issues with talk-shows and culture with documentary films. 1ère- A network of radio and television stations operating in French overseas departments and territories around the world. France Ô - 1ère's satellite channel, featuring only programming from 1ère's regions and now broadcast in France on a national scale by Télévision Numérique Terrestre. France Info - Non-stop news channel, with support from Radio France, France Médias Monde and Institut national de l'audiovisuel. France Télévisions has an interest in a number of thematic cable/satellite channels in France: France Télévisions holds 100% of France Télémusique SAS; the thematic channel Planète Juniors ceased operations in March 2009. France Télévisions holds 45% of the ARTE France holding company together with the French state, Radio France and INA. ARTE France and ARTE Deutschland form the ARTE Consortium that manages the bilingual French-German channel.
France Télévisions controls the new R1 digital multiplex that hosts France 2, France 3, France 5, Arte and La Chaîne parlementaire. France 4 was on the R1 multiplex but was moved to R2 to allow space for regional channels on R1. France 2 Cinéma - Films production. France 3 Cinéma - Films production. Multimédia France Productions - Production company, subtitles teletext for the hearing impaired and audio description of the group's channels. France Télévisions Publicité - Advertising department of the group. France Télévisions Distribution - Publishing and distribution of programs group channels. Radio France Television in France Official site
Channel Four Television Corporation
Channel Four Television Corporation is a publicly owned media company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. Its original and principal activity is the British national television network Channel 4; the company was founded in 1982 as Channel Four Television Company Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of the IBA, became an independent statutory corporation in 1993. November 1998 saw Channel Four expand beyond its remit of providing the'fourth service' in a significant way, with the launch of FilmFour. Since the corporation has been involved in a range of other activities, all in some way associated with the main channel, using the'4' brand. Towards the end of the 1980s, the government began a radical process of re-organisation of the commercial broadcasting industry, written onto the statute books by means of the Broadcasting Act 1990; this meant the abolition of the IBA, hence the Channel Four Television Company. The result led to the creation of a corporation to own and operate the channel, which would have greater autonomy and would go on to establish its other operations.
The new corporation, which became operational in 1993, was the Channel Four Television Corporation, was created to replace the former broadcasting operations of the Channel Four Television Company. It remained publicly owned and was regulated by the new Independent Television Commission, created under the same act; the ITC and its duties were replaced by Ofcom, which like its predecessor is responsible for appointing the Corporation's board, in agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. In terms of the station's remit and other duties, the creation of the corporation meant little change. In March 2010, Channel Four Television Corporation and its Chief Executive were criticised by the Culture and Sport select committee for breaking service commitments, a lack of transparency in accounting for digital channels, poor governance and failed investments. In 2014, the Government drew up proposals to privatise the Channel Four Television Corporation. However, the proposal was rejected by the Liberal Democrat Business Secretary Vince Cable.
Channel 4 is a national public-service television channel in the United Kingdom which began transmission on 2 November 1982. The channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the two BBC services funded from the television licence, the single commercial broadcasting network, ITV. Channel 4 is commercially self-funded. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter in Wales to digital on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time. Channel Four launched a subscription film channel, FilmFour, on 1 November 1998, it was available on digital cable. Companion services, such as FilmFour+1, FilmFour World and FilmFour Extreme were available on some digital services. In 2003 Extreme and World were discontinued, replaced with FilmFour Weekly. FilmFour Weekly closed in July 2006, when the main, newly named Film4 channel went free-to-view and became available on digital terrestrial; the switchover to digital terrestrial was advertised.
The adverts featured Lucy Liu, Christian Slater, Ewan McGregor, Judi Dench, Gael García Bernal, Willem Dafoe, Mackenzie Crook, Rhys Ifans and Ray Winstone declaring "Film4 is now free" in various situations across London. It remains the only film channel available free on digital terrestrial television; when Channel 4 had the rights to broadcast Test cricket in England, the downtime of the FilmFour channel was used to broadcast uninterrupted coverage of a match when the main channel was committed elsewhere to racing. At these times FilmFour was free-to-air. E4, a digital entertainment channel available on the Internet, with a target age range of 16–34, was launched on 18 January 2001, it features supplementary footage for programmes on its main channel. In 2005 the channel launched on digital terrestrial. E4 is available in Ireland, in close to 70% of homes, being carried on the Virgin Media Ireland cable network and on Sky; the channel operates an advertising opt-out, allowing advertisers to directly target Irish audiences.
More4 is a channel aimed at those aged 35–60. Launched on 10 October 2005, it carries news and nightly discussion programmes, such as More4 News, an extension of Channel 4 News that attempts to look "beyond the headlines", giving in-depth analysis. Launched in August 2008, 4Music is a Channel 4-branded channel within The Box Plus Network, showing music videos and entertainment programmes. Channel Four launched 4seven on 4 July 2012; the channel offers audiences the chance to catch-up on the top-rated programming from Channel Four's boutique of channels over the past week. The channel is available on Freesat, Freeview and Virgin Media. Channel Four runs timeshift variants of its services on all digital platforms. In 2007, Channel 4 was the first terrestrial broadcaster in the United Kingdom to offer a time-shift variant of its main channel. In common with many other broadcasters, these channels output the same programmes and continuity as was broadcast an hour and are titled with the station name followed by a "+1" suffix.
In July 2007, Channel Four bought 50% of Box Television Ltd for £28 million from Emap plc. Emap's stake was transferred to new owners, Bauer Consumer Media, following Bauer's acquisition of Emap's publishing and radio businesses. In 2015, Box
Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact countries – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, East Germany and Hungary – on the night of 20–21 August 1968. 250,000 Warsaw pact troops attacked Czechoslovakia that night, with Romania and Albania refusing to participate. East German forces, except for a small number of specialists, did not participate in the invasion because they were ordered from Moscow not to cross the Czechoslovak border just hours before the invasion. 137 Czechoslovakian civilians were killed and 500 wounded during the occupation. The invasion stopped Alexander Dubček's Prague Spring liberalisation reforms and strengthened the authority of the authoritarian wing within the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia; the foreign policy of the Soviet Union during this era was known as the Brezhnev Doctrine. The process of de-Stalinization in Czechoslovakia had begun under Antonín Novotný in the late 1950s and early 1960s, but had progressed more than in most other states of the Eastern Bloc.
Following the lead of Nikita Khrushchev, Novotný proclaimed the completion of socialism, the new constitution, adopted the name Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. The pace of change, was sluggish. In the early 1960s, Czechoslovakia underwent an economic downturn; the Soviet model of industrialization applied poorly to Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia was quite industrialized before World War II and the Soviet model took into account less developed economies. Novotný's attempt at restructuring the economy, the 1965 New Economic Model, spurred increased demand for political reform as well; as the strict regime eased its rules, the Union of Czechoslovak Writers cautiously began to air discontent, in the union's gazette, Literární noviny, members suggested that literature should be independent of Party doctrine. In June 1967, a small fraction of the Czech writer's union sympathized with radical socialists Ludvík Vaculík, Milan Kundera, Jan Procházka, Antonín Jaroslav Liehm, Pavel Kohout and Ivan Klíma.
A few months at a party meeting, it was decided that administrative actions against the writers who expressed support of reformation would be taken. Since only a small part of the union held these beliefs, the remaining members were relied upon to discipline their colleagues. Control over Literární noviny and several other publishing houses was transferred to the Ministry of Culture, members of the party who became major reformers – including Dubček – endorsed these moves; the Prague Spring was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, continued until 21 August when the Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to halt the reforms; the Prague Spring reforms were a strong attempt by Dubček to grant additional rights to the citizens of Czechoslovakia in an act of partial decentralization of the economy and democratization.
The freedoms granted included a loosening of restrictions on the media and travel. After national discussion of dividing the country into a federation of three republics, Moravia-Silesia and Slovakia, Dubček oversaw the decision to split into two, the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic; this was the only formal change that survived the end of Prague Spring, though the relative success of the nonviolent resistance undoubtedly prefigured and facilitated the peaceful transition to liberal democracy with the collapse of Soviet hegemony in 1989. The reforms the decentralization of administrative authority, were not received well by the Soviets, after failed negotiations, sent half a million Warsaw Pact troops and tanks to occupy the country. A large wave of emigration swept the nation. A spirited non-violent resistance was mounted throughout the country, involving attempted fraternization, painting over and turning street signs, defiance of various curfews, etc. While the Soviet military had predicted that it would take four days to subdue the country the resistance held out for eight months, was only circumvented by diplomatic stratagems.
There were sporadic acts of violence and several suicides by self-immolation, but there was no military resistance. Czechoslovakia remained controlled until 1989, when the velvet revolution ended pro-Soviet rule peacefully, undoubtedly drawing upon the successes of the non-violent resistance twenty years earlier; the resistance became an iconic example of civilian-based defense, along with unarmed civilian peacekeeping constitute the two ways that nonviolence can be and has been applied directly to military or paramilitary threats. After the invasion, Czechoslovakia entered a period of normalization: subsequent leaders attempted to restore the political and economic values that had prevailed before Dubček gained control of the KSČ. Gustáv Husák, who replaced Dubček and became president, reversed all of Dubček's reforms; the Prague Spring inspired music and literature such as the work of Václav Havel, Karel Husa, Karel Kryl, Milan Kundera's novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Leonid Brezhnev and the leaders
Radio Prague is the official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic. Radio Prague broadcasts in six languages: English, French, Spanish and Russian, it broadcasts programmes on the Internet. Broadcasting first began on August 1936 near the spa town of Poděbrady; the station broadcasts a total of 24 hours' worth of programmes per day, 3 hours of which are new programmes. Rebroadcast programmes have fresh news bulletins. All programmes last for 30 minutes and have a standard layout: news, current affairs magazine and a feature; the theme of the feature changes each day and each section tailors programmes to suit its audience. The weekend broadcasts have a more relaxed structure, they contain less news and more features devoted to the arts, social affairs, music. Radio Prague produces a number of programmes in co-operation with other radio stations, for them. Radio Prague's Czech section produces programmes for Czech expatriates through SBS Radio in Australia, Radio Daruvar in Croatia, Radio Timisoara in Romania and several radio stations in the United States.
These programmes are sent via the Internet or down telephone lines. The Russian section uses the Internet to send its features to two radio stations in Russia. From 2001 to 2008, the English section worked with Radio Slovakia International, Radio Budapest and Radio Polonia to produce a programme called Insight Central Europe, which examined contemporary issues facing Central Europe; the programme was discontinued in August 2008. The English Section participates in a weekly programme called Network Europe co-produced by Deutsche Welle, Radio France International, Radio Netherlands, Radio Polonia, Radio Prague, Radio Romania International, Radio Slovakia International, Radio Sweden and Radio Ukraine International; the English Section contributes features to Radio Polonia's Europe East programme. Both the English and German sections co-operate with a number of European radio stations on the Radio E project; the German section works together with Radio Slovakia International to produce a Czech-Slovak magazine programme.
The French section contributes towards the Accents d´Europe programme produced by Radio France Internationale. The Spanish section sends programmes to several stations in Latin America. On December 8, 2010, Radio Prague announced via its Facebook page plans to end shortwave broadcasts on January 31, 2011. Part of the post read: " The station’s financing for next year has been drastically reduced by the Foreign Ministry in line with government austerity measures aimed at cutting the state deficit." As of May 2015 however, Radio Prague buys an hour of time a day on Radio Miami International to relay its programs via shortwave on 9955 kHz in both English and Spanish, targeting the Caribbean. The interval signal, itself the opening bars of the Communist anthem Kupředu levá, was used as the first track on the album Dazzle Ships by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark. Samples from certain Radio Prague programmes were included on the tracks "ABC Auto-Industry", "This is Helena" and "International". A song named.
The final track of the CD and Download versions of the soundtrack for the Czech-designed video game Machinarium is named "The End". Battle for Czech Radio Český rozhlas, the Czech publicly funded radio broadcaster Česká televize, the Czech publicly funded television broadcaster Radio Prague Website Listen to Radio Prague on demand mp3 Audio Livestream 32kbit mp3 Audio Livestream 96kbit Network Europe Magazine
Plzeň called Pilsen in English and German, is a city in the Czech Republic. About 90 kilometres west of Prague in western Bohemia, it is the fourth most populous city in the Czech Republic; the city is known worldwide for Pilsner beer, created by Bavarian brewer Josef Groll there in 1842. Plzeň was first mentioned as a castle in 976, as the scene of a battle between Duke Boleslaus II the Pious of Bohemia and Emperor Otto II, it became a town in 1295 when King Wenceslaus II granted Plzeň its civic charter as a "Royal City" and established a new town site, some 10 km away from the original settlement, the current town of Starý Plzenec. It became an important town on trade routes leading to Nuremberg and Regensburg. During the Hussite Wars, it was the centre of Catholic resistance to the Hussites: Prokop the Great unsuccessfully besieged it three times, it joined the league of Catholic nobles against King George of Podebrady. In 1468, the town acquired a printing press. Emperor Rudolf II made Plzeň his seat from 1599–1600.
During the Thirty Years' War the town was taken by Mansfeld in 1618 after the Siege of Plzeň and it was not recaptured by Imperial troops until 1621. Wallenstein made it his winter quarters in 1633; the town was unsuccessfully besieged by the Swedes in 1637 and 1648. The town and region have been staunchly Catholic despite the Hussite Wars. From the end of the 17th century, the architecture of Plzeň has been influenced by the Baroque style; the city centre has been under cultural heritage preservation since 1989. In the second half of the 19th century Plzeň an important trade centre for Bohemia, near the Bavarian/German border, began to industrialise rapidly. In 1869 Emil Škoda started up the Škoda Works, which became the most important and influential engineering company in the country and a crucial supplier of arms to the Austro-Hungarian Army. By 1917 the Škoda Works employed over 30,000 workers. After 1898 the second largest employer was the National Railways train workshop, with about 2,000 employees: this was the largest rail repair shop in all Austria-Hungary.
Between 1861 and 1877, the Plzeň railway junction was completed and in 1899 the first tram line started in the city. This burst of industry had two important effects: the growth of the local Czech population and of the urban poor. After 1868 first Czech mayor of the city was elected. Following Czechoslovak independence from Austria-Hungary in 1918 the German-speaking minority in the countryside bordering the city of Plzeň hoped to be united with Austria and were unhappy at being included in Czechoslovakia. Many allied themselves to the Nazi cause after 1933, in the hope that Adolf Hitler might be able to unite them with their German-speaking neighbours. Following the Munich Agreement in 1938, Plzeň became a frontier town, after the creation of the Sudetenland moved the Third Reich borders to the city's outer limits. During the Nazi occupation from 1939 to 1945 the Škoda Works in Pilsen was forced to provide armaments for the Wehrmacht, Czech contributions in the field of tanks, were noted. Between 17 and 26 January 1942, over 2,000 Jewish inhabitants, most of Plzeň's Jewish population, were deported by the Nazis to the Theresienstadt concentration camp.
The German-speaking population was forcibly expelled from the city and indeed all of Czechoslovakia after the end of the war in 1945, according to the provisions of the Potsdam agreement. All of their property was confiscated. On 6 May 1945, near the end of the Second World War, Plzeň was liberated from Nazi Germany by the 16th Armored Division of General Patton's 3rd Army. Participating in the liberation of the city were elements of the 97th and 2nd Infantry Divisions supported by the Polish Holy Cross Mountains Brigade. Other Third Army units liberated major portions of Western Bohemia; the rest of Czechoslovakia was liberated from German control by the Soviet Red Army. Elements of the 3rd Army, as well as units from the 1st Army, remained in Plzeň until late November 1945, assisting the Czechs with rebuilding. After the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia coup of February 1948, the Czechoslovak government launched a currency reform in 1953; this reform caused a wave of discontent, including the Plzeň uprising.
On 1 June 1953 over 20,000 people workers at the Škoda Works, began protesting against the government. Protesters forced their way into the town hall and threw communist symbols and other objects out of the windows; the protest caused a retaliation from the government. The statue has since been re-erected; the next year, a West German homing pigeon was lost near the Czechoslovak border. It returned two days bearing a strong anti-communist message, signed "Unbowed Pilsen." The bird, named Leaping Lena, was taken to the United States where it was celebrated as a Cold War hero. Plzeň has a temperate Oceanic climate. Plzeň has low rainfall evenly spread over the year. Precipitation occurs on average every second day, the number of days with thunderstorms is 19, it receives on average 1700 hours of sunshine. Terrain features and a low altitude give some shelter from strong winds. Winters are milder than some adjacent areas. Snow cover lasts on average for 51 days. Though an average year has 113 days with minimum temperature below zero, the temperature
Hloubětín is a district of Prague located 9 kilometres from the centre, belonging to Prague 9, with parts of it belonging to Prague 14 and Prague 10. There were 10,704 people living in this area in 2001; the area, first recorded in the 13th century due to presence of the Teutonic Knights, became part of Prague in 1922. Today it is an industrial area, located on the edge of Prague's so-called průmyslový polookruh. During communist times, Hloubětín was well known as the home of the Tesla company; the name "Hloubětín" derives from the surname Hlúpata, was known as Lupatin, Glupetin and Hloupětín before becoming Hloubětín in 1907. The area lies on the Rokytka river, its northern reaches back onto the area of Kbely Airport. To the west of Hloubětín lies Hořejší rybník, a protected area centered on a lake. Hloubětín is located close to the D11 and R10 roads, Praha-Kyje railway station on the main corridor linking Prague and Pardubice, it is served by Hloubětín metro station on Line B of the Prague Metro, which opened in 1990.
It is an important hub on the Prague tram system. Prague 9 official website
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills. During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls, it is one of several worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys, based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham, Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, his publisher Pearson. In the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book; this camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are regarded as the start of the Scout movement.
The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, aquatics, hiking and sports. Another recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches; the two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for boys-only and co-educational organizations, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts for girls-only organizations but accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting started itself, but the trigger that set it going was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell.
At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa; this was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas originated here. During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour published in Scouting for Boys.
Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was little known to the British Army but well-known to the American scout Burnham. These skills formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were the British Army needed to adapt. During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Three years in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng by a much larger Boer army; the Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town, were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.
Each member received a badge that illustrated spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting adopted as its international symbol; the Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, when the siege was broken he had become a national hero; this rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. On his return to England, Baden-Powell noticed that boys showed considerable interest in Aids to Scouting, unexpectedly used by teachers and youth organizations as their first Scouting handbook, he was urged to rewrite this book for boys during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drille