Czech language

Czech also Bohemian is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a high degree, as well as Polish. Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and flexible word order, its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by German. The Czech–Slovak group developed within West Slavic in the high medieval period, the standardization of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerged in the early modern period. In the 18th to mid-19th century, the modern written standard became codified in the context of the Czech National Revival; the main non-standard variety, known as Common Czech, is based on the vernacular of Prague, but is now spoken as an interdialect throughout most of the Czech Republic. The Moravian dialects spoken in the eastern part of the country are classified as Czech, although some of their eastern variants are closer to Slovak.

Czech has a moderately-sized phoneme inventory, comprising ten monophthongs, three diphthongs and 25 consonants. Words may contain complicated consonant clusters or lack vowels altogether. Czech has a raised alveolar trill, known to occur as a phoneme in only a few other languages, represented by the grapheme ř. Czech uses a simple orthography. Czech is a member of the West Slavic sub-branch of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family; this branch includes Polish, Kashubian and Lower Sorbian and Slovak. Slovak is the most related language to Czech, followed by Polish and Silesian; the West Slavic languages are spoken in Central Europe. Czech is distinguished from other West Slavic languages by a more-restricted distinction between "hard" and "soft" consonants; the term "Old Czech" is applied to the period predating the 16th century, with the earliest records of the high medieval period classified as "early Old Czech", but the term "Medieval Czech" is used. Around the 7th century, the Slavic expansion reached Central Europe, settling on the eastern fringes of the Frankish Empire.

The West Slavic polity of Great Moravia formed by the 9th century. The Christianization of Bohemia took place during the 10th centuries; the diversification of the Czech-Slovak group within West Slavic began around that time, marked among other things by its ephemeral use of the voiced velar fricative consonant and consistent stress on the first syllable. The Bohemian language is first recorded in writing in glosses and short notes during the 12th to 13th centuries. Literary works written in Czech appear in the late 13th and early 14th century and administrative documents first appear towards the late 14th century; the first complete Bible translation dates to this period. Old Czech texts, including poetry and cookbooks, were produced outside the university as well. Literary activity becomes widespread in the early 15th century in the context of the Bohemian Reformation. Jan Hus contributed to the standardization of Czech orthography, advocated for widespread literacy among Czech commoners and made early efforts to model written Czech after the spoken language.

There was no standardization distinguishing between Slovak prior to the 15th century. In the 16th century, the division between Czech and Slovak becomes apparent, marking the confessional division between Lutheran Protestants in Slovakia using Czech orthography and Catholics Slovak Jesuits, beginning to use a separate Slovak orthography based on the language of the Trnava region; the publication of the Kralice Bible between 1579 and 1593 became important for standardization of the Czech language in the following centuries. In 1615, the Bohemian diet tried to declare Czech to be the only official language of the kingdom. After the Bohemian Revolt, defeated by the Habsburgs in 1620, the Protestant intellectuals had to leave the country; this emigration together with other consequences of the Thirty Years' War had a negative impact on the further use of the Czech language. In 1627, Czech and German became official languages of the Kingdom of Bohemia and in the 18th century German became dominant in Bohemia and Moravia among the upper classes.

The modern standard Czech language originates in standardization efforts of the 18th century. By the language had developed a literary tradition, since it has changed little. Sometime before the 18th century, the Czech language abandoned a distinction between phonemic /l/ and /ʎ/ which survives in Slovak. With the beginning of the national revival of the mid-18th century, Czech historians began to emphasize their people's accomplishments from the 15th through the 17th centuries, rebelling against the Counter-Reformation. Czech philologists studied sixteenth-century texts, advocating the return of the language to high culture; this period is known as the Czech National Revival. During the national revival, in 1809 linguist and historian Josef Dobrovský released a German-language grammar of Old Czech entitled Ausführliches Lehrgebäude der böhmischen Sprache (Comprehensiv


Elfershausen is a municipality in the district of Bad Kissingen in Bavaria in Germany. Elfershausen is a market town or municipality that includes the following towns: Elfershausen Engenthal Langendorf Machtilshausen Trimberg Adalfrideshusen is first documented in 800 in the records of the monastery at Fulda. With secularization of the government in 1803, the territory of the present municipality became part of Bavaria. In the Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria in 1805, the lands of the Bishop of Würzburg were given to Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, he was made Grand Duke of Würzburg, a new state, as a reward for his support of Napoleon; these lands again became part of Bavaria in 1814 at the defeat of Napoleon. In 1971, Trimberg and Machtilshausen were added to the municipality, followed by Langendorf in 1978; the Trimburg and the palace of Elfershausen are the most important architectural monuments. In 1998, there were 572 local businesses. In 1999, there were 71 agricultural businesses in the municipality, with an area of 1430 hectares under cultivation, 1186 ha in fields and 229 ha in pasture.

Elfershausen-Trimberg is served by the Franconian Saaletalbahn, which runs modern diesel cars from the Erfurter Bahn. Every half-hour, there is a DBB train to and from Hammelburg. Official Web site

Damien Moore

Damien Moore is a British Conservative Party politician. He is the Member of a former Councillor on Preston City Council, he was elected in the 2017 general election with a majority of 2,914 votes, taking a seat held by Liberal Democrat John Pugh until his retirement. Moore was born in Workington in Cumbria, he studied history at the University of Central Lancashire. After graduating, he worked in various roles in the retail sector, gaining promotion to be a retail manager for Asda, he was first elected as a councillor for the Conservative Party on Preston City Council on 3 May 2010 for the Greyfriars Ward. Although the vote share for the Conservatives fell, he won by a large majority, he was re-elected with an increased majority on 5 May 2016. He has served as deputy leader of the Conservative group on the Council and as Chairman of the Preston Conservative Association, he unsuccessfully stood as the Conservative candidate in the Preston West division in the Lancashire County Council elections in 2013 and 2017.

Moore stood unsuccessfully as the Conservative candidate for Southport in the 2015 general election, losing to the incumbent Liberal Democrat John Pugh. After Pugh declined to stand again, Moore achieved a swing of 7.6% from the Liberal Democrats to take the Southport in the 2017 general election, becoming the first Conservative MP for the seat since 1997 and the first gay MP in the seat's history. The election left him as the only Conservative MP on Merseyside. In advance of the 2018 Preston City Council election, Moore resigned as a city councillor. Moore has voted for cutting ties with the EU since becoming an MP. On 11 September 2017, Damien Moore was appointed to the Petitions Committee; the committee assists members of the public in raising issues directly. Since January 2018 he has served on the Science and Technology Committee. Moore lives in Southport, he is gay. Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Profile at Preston City Council