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Czechoslovak Legion

The Czechoslovak Legion were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks fighting on the side of the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the support of the Allied Powers for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the help of émigré intellectuals and politicians such as the Czech Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and the Slovak Milan Rastislav Štefánik, they grew into a force of over 100,000 strong. In Russia, they took part in several victorious battles of the war, including the Zborov and Bakhmach against the Central Powers, were involved in the Russian Civil War fighting Bolsheviks, at times controlling the entire Trans-Siberian railway and several major cities in Siberia. After three years of existence as a small unit in the Imperial Russian Army, the Legion in Russia was established in 1917, with other troops fighting in France since the beginning of the war as the "Nazdar" company, similar units emerging in Italy and Serbia.

An all-volunteer force, these formations were strengthened by Czech and Slovak prisoners of war or deserters from the Austro-Hungarian Army. The majority of the legionaries were Czechs, with Slovaks making up 7% of the force in Russia, 3% in Italy and 16% in France; the name Czechoslovak Legion preceded and anticipated the creation of a country called Czechoslovakia. As World War I broke out, national societies representing ethnic Czechs and Slovaks residing in the Russian Empire petitioned the Russian government to support the independence of their homelands. To prove their loyalty to the Entente cause, these groups advocated the establishment of a unit of Czech and Slovak volunteers to fight alongside the Russian Army. On 5 August 1914, the Russian Stavka authorized the formation of a battalion recruited from Czechs and Slovaks in Russia; this unit, called the "Czech Companions", went to the front in October 1914, where it was attached to the Russian Third Army. There the Družina soldiers served in scattered patrols performing a number of specialized duties, including reconnaissance, prisoner interrogation and subversion of enemy troops in the opposite trenches.

From its start and Slovak political émigrés in Russia and Western Europe desired to expand the Družina from a battalion into a formidable military formation. To achieve this goal, they recognized that they would need to recruit from Czech and Slovak prisoners of war in Russian camps. In late 1914, Russian military authorities permitted the Družina to enlist Czech and Slovak POWs from the Austro-Hungarian Army, but this order was rescinded after only a few weeks due to opposition from other branches of the Russian government. Despite continuous efforts of émigré leaders to persuade the Russian authorities to change their mind, the Czechs and Slovaks were barred from recruiting POWs until the summer of 1917. Still, some Czechs and Slovaks were able to sidestep this ban by enlisting POWs through local agreements with Russian military authorities. Under these conditions, the Czechoslovak unit in Russia grew slowly from 1914–1917. In early 1916, the Družina was reorganized as the 1st Czecho-Slovak Rifle Regiment.

During that year, two more infantry regiments were added. This unit distinguished itself during the Kerensky Offensive in July 1917, when the Czecho-Slovak troops overran Austrian trenches during the Battle of Zborov. Following the soldiers' stellar performance at Zborov, the Russian Provisional Government granted their émigré leaders on the Czechoslovak National Council permission to mobilize Czech and Slovak volunteers from the POW camps; that summer, a fourth regiment was added to the brigade, renamed the First Division of the Czechoslovak Corps in Russia known as the Czechoslovak Legion in Russia. A second division, consisting of four regiments, was added to the Legion in October 1917, raising its strength to about 40,000 troops by 1918. In November 1917, the Bolsheviks seized power throughout Russia and soon began peace negotiations with the Central Powers at Brest-Litovsk; the chairman of the Czechoslovak National Council, Tomáš Masaryk, who had arrived in Russia earlier that year, began planning for the Legion's departure from Russia and transfer to France so the Czechoslovaks could continue to fight against the Central Powers.

Since most of Russia's main ports were blockaded, Masaryk decided that the Legion should travel from Ukraine to the Pacific port of Vladivostok, where the men would embark on transport vessels that would carry them to Western Europe. In February 1918, Bolshevik authorities in Ukraine granted Masaryk and his troops permission to begin the 9,700-kilometre journey to Vladivostok. However, on 18 February, before the Czechoslovaks had left Ukraine, the German Army launched Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front to force the Soviet government to accept its terms for peace. From 5 to 13 March, the Czechoslovak legionaries fought off German attempts to prevent their evacuation in the Battle of Bakhmach. After leaving Ukraine and entering Soviet Russia, representatives of the Czechoslovak National Council continued to negotiate with Bolshevik authorities in Moscow and Penza to iron out the details of the corps' evacuation. On 25 March, the two sides signed the Penza Agreement, in which the legionaries were to surrender most of their weapons in exchange for unmolested passage to Vladivostok.


PKP class EW90

EW90 is the name for German Reichsbahn ET 165 electric multiple units working for Polish State Railways after World War II. The German ET 165 units were built in the period between 1928 and 1936 to service Berlin S-Bahn lines. While many units of this type were destroyed during the war, 189 ET 165, ET 166 and ET 167 vehicles were stabled in Schweidnitz, which after 1945 became part of Poland; as part of German reparations 54 were taken over by the PKP. From 1951 to 1957 were refurbished in Lubań as EW90, EW91 and EW92 units to service SKM lines in the Tricity area of Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia, it was necessary to rebuild cars to change the power supply from third rail system into pantographs. EW90 EMUs finished their service in 1976 when the power supply on SKM lines changed from 800 V. into 3 000 V. Each unit consisted of two cars: engine car and trailer, it was possible to connect four units. GBM-700 type electric engines used in EW90, EW91 and EW92 units have four main poles and four commutation poles.

Two-step reduction of engine excitation is made by a short-circuit of parts of main poles. Engine cooling is done with a fan installed on the engines' shafts. EW90 pictures gallery at Chester home page, URL accessed on May 4, 2007. EW90, EW91 and EW92 information at Pojazdy Komunikacji, URL accessed on May 4, 2007. Polish locomotives designation

Michael Montes

Michael Montes is an American composer. Michael Montes is a composer of music for album projects and all other media, he was born in Houston, the son of Anne Pryor, an American nurse and Mario Montes, a Peruvian doctor who came to the United States in the early fifties. The family settled in Eden, NY, he began piano studies at age seven, quit in frustration, returned to his study of music at age thirteen and dropped out of medical school in order to pursue composition as his life's work. As a child his first film music experience occurred while watching the Jules Verne classic Mysterious Island. Years he discovered that Bernard Herrmann had composed the score. On Pink Floyd became an influence their innovative production techniques and use of hallucinatory textures. While studying at Bard College he joined the chamber choir that specialized in the works of Renaissance composer Josquin des Prez. After dropping out of medical school he steeped himself in the world of Brian Eno, tape loops and musique concrète while working with modern dance troupe Floorplay.

Moving to New York City he began an extended period of composing in every possible genre for television commercials while collecting multiple Clio and AICP awards. Several of his pieces are included in the permanent collection of New York's Museum of Modern Art, he was brought in to work with Aimee Mann's band'Til Tuesday as keyboardist for their album Everything's Different Now and subsequent tour. He created a series of dark atmospheric albums; the debut album, was released on the Philip Glass label Point Music. He began a collaboration with noted filmmaker Bill Morrison, scoring his films Ghost Trip and Trinity, he produced cellist Erik Friedlander's breakthrough solo album Maldoror. Allan Kozinn of The New York Times called his String Quartet No. 2 "an experiment in intensity...a forceful wave of sound."Subsequently he has composed scores for numerous films including Joan Stein's Oscar® nominated One Day Crossing, Alexander Olch's The Windmill Movie, Michael Tully's Don't Leave Home and Sophia Takal's Always Shine.

His latest personal albums are Persona Ficta. Favorite authors include John Berger, Henry Miller and Cormac McCarthy, he lives in New York City with his son Mario. Into the Dark: New Year, New You The Changing Same Don't Leave Home The Sweet Requiem City of Joel The Sweet Requiem Funeral Don't Leave Home Sayid Brigsby Bear Always Shine To Die or to Dream King Georges Applesauce Wild Canaries Ping Pong Summer 35 Year Old Man Welcome to the Machine Danland Septien Consent Prescott Place Private Party The Windmill Movie Kung Fu Granny Slaying Goliath Able Danger Red Dog. Scooter. Applesauce; the Lovers 10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America: Gold Rush Solidarity. Live at Five A Perfect Fit City Minutes America Brown Belle Sunset Town Trinity Secrets of the Dead One Day Crossing Majestic Ghost Trip Remembering Marshall: Thirty Years Later Whipped Cusp I Remember The Headhunter's Sister MugShot Covert Action Firehouse Hangmen Pumping Iron II: The Women Persona Ficta Always Shine King Georges Wild Canaries Ping Pong Summer Welcome to the Machine Danland The Earlier Time Septien Filmscores Chamber Works Piano at Dusk Such Siren Worlds Clouds Without Water In the Bloodlit Dark Cassandra Michael Montes official site Zoar official site Sacred Noise official site Michael Montes on IMDb

Eifion Williams

Eifion Wyn Williams is a Welsh former footballer who played over 300 games in the Football League, over 200 of which were for Hartlepool United. He has represented Wales at B level, he played either on the wing. Williams was born in Bangor in North Wales and began his career as a Wolverhampton Wanderers apprentice. However, things did not work out and he moved back to Anglesey and joined League of Wales side Caernarfon Town, while working on a building site. Williams scored for Caernarfon and this attracted the attention of bigger clubs. On the eve of the 1997–98 season, Williams left Caernarfon for Barry Town the only professional side in the League of Wales, breaking their transfer fee in the process at a cost of £25,000, he began scoring including one against Dynamo Kiev in the UEFA Champions League. Williams helped Barry Town record their highest win when he contributed four goals to help Barry Town beat Conwy United 9–0. Williams' performances and goal scoring record attracted scouts from English football league clubs.

On 25 March 1999, after over 200 League of Wales goals in four seasons, Torquay United paid £70,000 to sign Williams, beating off competition from a number of clubs helped by his Barry teammates Lee Barrow and Paul Mitchell, both former Torquay players, passing on happy memories of Plainmoor. He made his league debut against Hartlepool United and made an instant impact as he became only the second Torquay player to score a hat-trick on his debut; this led to massive expectations being placed on Williams' shoulders, for example, Neville Southall, in goal for Torquay that day, predicted, "He can go all the way to the Premiership."Injuries affected his form, causing him to play with a broken toe for part of 2000–01, although he still managed nine goals in a dismal season. He was placed on the transfer list on 2 November 2001 by mutual consent after finding himself playing as a substitute in Roy McFarland's side and left to join Hartlepool United on 5 March 2002 for a fee of £30,000. Williams spent his first weeks with Hartlepool playing for the reserves to gain match fitness.

However it was not long before Williams made his Hartlepool debut against Bristol Rovers after coming on as a substitute, replacing Gordon Watson. As the season reached its climax, Williams notched five goals in 10 appearances to help Pools make the play-offs; the following season saw. Due to the injury of Gordon Watson he became Hartlepool's first choice striker and finished as Hartlepool's top scorer, scoring 15 goals in 45 games and helped Hartlepool get automatic promotion. William's first season in League One saw him repeat the success of the previous season as he participated in 41 games and scored 13 goals despite playing right wing for a large majority of the season, his performances earned him a call up to Mark Hughes' Welsh national side. However the season would end bitterly for Williams as he picked up an injury during Hartlepool's play-off defeat to Bristol City and missed out on the opportunity to play for his country. Williams' spent the majority of the 2004–05 season on the right wing with manager Neale Cooper preferring the partnership of Adam Boyd and Joel Porter up front.

This reduced his goal scoring record. However, he did manage to equalise for Hartlepool in their play-off final against Sheffield Wednesday in front of a crowd of 59,808 at the Millennium Stadium, Hartlepool went on to lose 4–2 after extra time; the 2005–06 season saw Williams once again playing up front due to the injuries of Adam Boyd, Joel Porter and James Brown. During this season he managed to score eight goals. Williams was released from his Hartlepool United contract at the end of the 2006–07 season in a season which saw Hartlepool promoted back to League 1 and Eifion scoring Hartlepool's goal of the season for his stunning strike in a 3–0 win over arch-rivals Darlington. Williams was signed by League Two side Wrexham on a two-year contract on 11 June 2007, he scored two goals on his début in a 3–2 home defeat friendly to Liverpool. Liverpool were 3–0 up at half-time, he retired during the 2007–08 football season and returned to the north-east of England to be with his family. He scored his first and only goal for Wrexham in a 1–0 win over Bury on 4 December 2007.

However, he injured his hamstring scoring the goal and was replaced by Marc Williams shortly afterwards. This turned out to be his final appearance as a professional. However, Williams came out of retirement to sign for North-East Northern League Division One club Jarrow Roofing. Whilst playing part-time for Northern League side Jarrow Roofing, Williams began working for Hartlepool Youth Offending Service, he still resides in Hartlepool where he is a P. E. teacher at Dyke House College. HartlepoolDivision Three: Promotion, 2002–03 League One: Play-off Final runner-up: 2004–05 League Two: Promotion, 2006–07 IndividualLeague of Wales Golden Boot winner: 1997–98, 1998–99 Eifion Williams at Soccerbase Eifion Williams' Official Hartlepool United profile

Adamstown, County Wexford

Adamstown is a village in County Wexford, Ireland. It is about 24 km north-west of Wexford, 20 km east of New Ross, 20 km south-west of Enniscorthy. A monastery called Magheranoidhe was built in the area c. 600 AD by a Saint Abban different from Abbán moccu Corbmaic. Following the Norman conquest of Ireland, the monastery became property of the Marshall family; the de Heddon and Devereux families were granted control of it and the surrounding lands. A castle was built in the area by Adam Devereux, for who the village is named, in 1418; the castle was rebuilt in 1556 by Nicholas Devereux. The Adamstown estate passed to the Earle of Albermarle, the Downes family by the 1800s. A church dedicated to St. Abban was built in Adamstown in 1835; the village contains a primary school, a secondary school, a GAA pitch and soccer pitch, a community centre, two pubs, a shop, a R. C. church and an adjoining cemetery, Almost adjacent to the village is Adamstown castle, which dates from the 16th century. The Adamstown Agricultural Show is held there on the first Saturday of July every year.

Pádraic Delaney - Irish actor Kevin Doyle - Irish football player Bus Éireann routes 371 & 382 serve the village on Fridays providing links to Wexford and New Ross. Adamstown Show website Local secondary school website

Douangdeuane Bounyavong

Douangdeuane Bounyavong, pen name Dok Ked, is a Laotian writer. She married to Outhine Bounyavong, known for a contemporary Laotian fiction writer, she has written poems, several textiles books and novels and transcribed numerous traditional stories, of which the best-known is Kam Pha Phi Noi. She is engaged in literacy, e.g. by participating at the Big Brother Mouse project, participates on running a publishing house and a shop providing children's books in Lao language. In 2005, Peace Women Across the Globe selected her as one of the thousand peace women from Asia Pacific region, she was awarded with the Fukukoa Culture Prize. She is a recipient of the S. E. A. Write Award. Dō̜kkēt'Athan hǣng phongphai Viangchan: Bō̜risat Phainām Kānphim læ Khō̜mphiutœ, 1995 Dō̜kkēt Dō̜k sutthāi lư̄ ngām: Kom Vannakhadī læ Vatthanatham Mahāson, 1995 Douangdeuane Bounyavong et al. Phǣnphan lāi nai sin sāimai = Infinite Design: The Art of Silk Vientiane: Lao Women's Union, 1995 Douangdeuane Bounyavong Thao Hung Khun Cheuang, Weeraburut song phang khong Bangkok: Phikkhanet Printing Center, 1995 Douangdeuane Bounyavong Vatchanānukom pakō̜p hūp Vientiane: K. S. Kanphim, 1998 Dō̜kkēt Chotmāi nī khō̜ fāk thœng ʻāi: hōm lư̄angsan Vientiane: Dokket, 2004 Douangdeuane Bounyavong et al.

Thao Hung Thao Cheuang Epic: Adaptation into Modern Prose Vientiane: The National Library of Laos, 2000 Douangdeuane Bounyavong, Inkiane Dejvongsa Mư̄a mǣ khao khuk: lưangching khō̜ng phūying khonnưng = When Mother Was In Prison Vientiane: Dokked, 2004 Douangdeuane Bounyavong, Othong Khaminxu Traditions and rites in Thao Hung epic Vientiane: Vannasin, 1991 Douangdeuane Bounyavong A comparative study on the political ideology expressed in the Thao Hung Thao Cheaung epic, with reference to local chronicle of Lao-Thai groups Tokyo: Institute of Asian CulturesSophia University, 1995 Duang Deuane Bounyavong, Kham Pin Phiatheb Report on the survey and situation regarding the trafficking of children in Lao PDR Vientiane: PDR, 1995 Douangdeuane Bounyavong et al. Legends in the Weaving Vientiane: Dokked, 2001 Douangdeuane Bounyavong Lao textiles: prayers floating on fabric Fukuoka-shi: Fukuoka Art Museum, 2005 "Introduction of Laureates: Brief Biography". Fukukoa Prize. 2005. Retrieved 2013-10-11.

"Modern Lao literature since 1975". Archived from the original on 2010-06-18. Retrieved 2013-10-11