Czesław Miłosz was a Polish-American poet, prose writer and diplomat. Regarded as one of the great poets of the twentieth century, he won the 1980 Nobel Prize in Literature; the Swedish Academy, in its Nobel citation, described Miłosz as a writer who "voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts". Miłosz survived the German occupation of Warsaw during World War II and became a cultural attaché for the Polish government during the post-war period; when communist authorities threatened his safety, he defected to France and chose exile in the United States, where he became a professor at the University of California at Berkeley. His poetry—particularly about his wartime experience—and his appraisal of Stalinism in a prose book, The Captive Mind, brought him renown as a leading émigré artist and intellectual. Throughout his life and work, Miłosz tackled questions of morality, politics and faith; as a translator, he introduced Western works to a Polish audience, as a scholar and editor, he championed a greater awareness of Slavic literature in the West.
Faith played a role in his work. Miłosz died in Kraków, Poland, in 2004, he is interred in Skałka, a church, known in Poland as a place of honor for distinguished Poles. Czesław Miłosz was born on June 30, 1911, in the village of Szetejnie, Kovno Governorate, Russian Empire, he was the son of Aleksander Miłosz, a Polish civil engineer, his wife, Weronika. Miłosz was born into a notable family. On his mother's side, his grandfather was Zygmunt Kunat, a descendant of a Polish family that could trace its lineage to the thirteenth century, which owned an estate in Krasnogruda. Having studied agriculture in Warsaw, Zygmunt settled in Szetejnie after marrying Miłosz's grandmother, Jozefa, a descendant of the noble Syruć family, of Lithuanian origin. One of her ancestors, Szymon Syruć, had been personal secretary to Stanisław I, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. On Miłosz's father's side, his grandfather, Artur Miłosz, was from a noble family and fought in the 1863 January Uprising for Polish independence.
Miłosz's grandmother, Stanisława, was a doctor's daughter from Riga, a member of the German/Polish von Mohl family. The Miłosz estate was located in Serbiny, a name which Miłosz's biographer, Andrzej Franaszek, has suggested could indicate a Serbian origin—it is possible the Miłosz family originated in Serbia and settled in present-day Lithuania after being expelled from Germany centuries earlier. Miłosz's father was educated in Riga. Miłosz's mother was educated in Kraków. Despite this noble lineage, Miłosz's childhood on his maternal grandfather's estate in Szetejnie was not filled with the trappings of wealth or the customs of the upper class, he memorialized his childhood in a 1955 novel, The Issa Valley, in a 1959 memoir, Native Realm. In these works, he described the influence of his Catholic grandmother, his burgeoning love for literature, his early awareness, as a member of the Polish gentry in Lithuania, of the role of class in society. Miłosz's early years were marked by upheaval; when his father was hired to work on infrastructure projects in Siberia, he and his mother traveled to be with him.
After World War I broke out in 1914, Miłosz's father was conscripted into the Russian army, tasked with engineering roads and bridges for troop movements. Miłosz and his mother were sheltered in Wilno when the German army captured it in 1915. Afterward, they once again joined Miłosz's father, following him as the front moved further into Russia, where, in 1917, Miłosz's brother, was born. After moving through Estonia and Latvia, the family returned to their home in Szetejnie in 1918. However, the Polish-Soviet War broke out in 1919, during which Miłosz's father was involved in a failed attempt to incorporate the newly independent Lithuania into the Second Polish Republic, resulting in his expulsion from Lithuania and the family's move to Wilno, which had become part of Poland after the Polish-Lithuanian War of 1920; the Polish-Soviet War continued. At one point during the conflict, Miłosz and his mother were fired upon by Polish soldiers, an episode Miłosz recounted in his memoir, Native Realm.
The family returned to Wilno when the war ended in 1921. Despite the interruptions of wartime wanderings, Miłosz proved to be an exceptional student with a facility for languages, he learned Polish, Russian, English and Hebrew. After graduation from Sigismund Augustus Gymnasium in Wilno, he entered Stefan Batory University in 1929 as a law student. While at university, Miłosz joined a student group called The Intellectuals’ Club and a student poetry group called Żagary, along with the young poets Jerzy Zagórski, Teodor Bujnicki, Aleksander Rymkiewicz, Jerzy Putrament, Józef Maśliński, his first published poems appeared in the university's student magazine in 1930. In 1931, he visited Paris, where he first met his distant cousin, Oscar Miłosz, a French-language poet of Lithuanian descent who had become a Swedenborgian. Oscar became a inspiration. Returning to Wilno, Miłosz's early awareness of class difference, his sympathy for those less fortunate than himself, inspired his defense of Jewish students at the university who were being harassed by an anti-Semitic mob.
Stepping between the mob and the Jewish students, Miłosz fended off attacks. One student was killed. Miłosz's first volume of poetry, A Poem on
Terri Sharp was a gold record-winning American songwriter and vocalist. While writing on Music Row in Nashville, Sharp's songs were recorded by many artists including Don Mclean and Hank Williams Jr, she lived in Texas and performing the majority of her work in Spanish. Sharp's 1966 recording of her song "A Love That Will Last" stayed on the charts for three months in her hometown of Houston, she moved to New Orleans in 1967 to record for White Cliff Records. There she met her arranger Allen Toussaint. Sharp did three tours of duty as a songwriter on Music Row in Nashville. During that time, she wrote for Bocephus Music and had the distinction of being the only writer that Hank Williams Jr. signed to his Bocephus publishing company. She wrote for Merle Kilgore's Paradise Cove Music for two years, before signing on with Acuff-Rose. Sharp was awarded a gold record for the song "Wild Streak", which she co-wrote with Hank Williams Jr; the song was used as the title of Williams' 1987 album and tour. Around the same time, two of Terri's songs were recorded by Don Mclean for his 1987 album Love Tracks.
The latter reached No. 49 on the U. S. country charts in 1987 and is featured on Mclean's 1993 compilation album Favorites and Rarities. Sharp co-wrote the song "Old-Fashioned Broken Heart" with Donny Kees, recorded by Lisa Stewart on her self-titled 1993 album. In Don Mclean's 2007 biography, Terri Sharp is referred to as "one of the most talented songwriters on the Nashville scene". Sharp has hundreds of songs to her credit, she performed in the San Antonio area of Texas. The majority of her work was composed and performed in Spanish, adding more depth to her intelligent, melodic songwriting and vocal style. 1987: Wild Streak - Hank Williams Jr. 1987: Love Tracks - Don Mclean 1993: Favorites and Rarities - Don Mclean 1966: "A Love That Will Last" 1985: "Are You Looking For Me?" 1986: "Sea of Cortez" 1986: "Out of the Blue" 1986: "Smokin' Gun" 1987: "Stark Ravin' Crazy" 1987: "The Piper's Song" 1987: "Wild Streak" - co-written with Hank Williams Jr. 1987: "You Can't Blame the Train" - Don Mclean 1987: "Eventually" - Don Mclean 1992: "Perfect Common Stone" 1993: "Old-Fashioned Broken Heart" - co-written with Donny Kees 1997: "Taken With You" - written about her friend Don Mclean and his wife 2000: "A La Larga" 2001: "Me andas buscando a mi?"
Gerris is computer software in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Gerris was released as free and open-source software, subject to the requirements of the GNU General Public License, version 2 or any later. Gerris solves the Navier–Stokes equations in 2 or 3 dimensions, allowing to model industrial fluids or for instance, the mechanics of droplets, thanks to an accurate formulation of multiphase flows; the latter field of study is the reason why the software shares the same name as the insect genus. Gerris provides features relevant to geophysical flows: ocean tide tsunamis river flow eddies in the ocean sea state Flow types #1 to #3 were studied using the shallow-water solver included in Gerris, case #4 brings in the primitives equations and application #5 relies on the spectral equations for generation/propagation/dissipation of swell: for this purpose Gerris makes use of the source terms from WaveWatchIII. Lastly, one can note that the Navier–Stokes solver was used in the ocean to study: fluvial plumes internal waves hydrothermal convectionOn the contrary Gerris does not allow the modeling of compressible fluids.
Several methods can be used to provide a numerical solution to partial differential equations: finite differences finite volumes finite elementsGerris belongs to the finite volumes family of CFD models. Most models use meshes which are either unstructured. Gerris is quite different on this respect: it implements a deal between structured and unstructured meshes by using a tree data structure, allowing to refine locally the description of the pressure and velocity fields. Indeed the grid evolves in the course of a given simulation owing to criteria defined by the user. Gerris aims at DNS. According to the Gerris FAQ the implementation of turbulence models will focus on the LES family rather than RANS approaches. Gerris is developed in C using the libraries Glib and GTS; the latter brings in facilities to perform geometric computations such as triangulation of solid surfaces and their intersection with fluid cells. Moreover Gerris is compliant with MPI parallelisation. Gerris does not need a meshing tool since the local refinement of the grid is on charge of the solver itself.
As far as solid surfaces are concerned, several input formats are recognized: analytic formulas in the parameter file GTS triangulated files. Simulation files, which are parameters files concatenated with fields issued from the simulation. Gfsview, a display software shipped with Gerris, able to cope with the tree structure of the Gerris grid. CFD software, as any software, can be developed in various "realms": Business; as far as CFD is concerned, a thorough discussion of these software development paths can be found in the statement by Zaleski. Gerris was distributed as open-source software right from the onset of the project. Other computing software are available in the field of fluid mechanics. Here are some of them: Advanced Simulation Library Code Saturne FEATool Multiphysics OpenFOAM SU2 code POM ROMS GOTM Telemac Delft3D