Dáil Éireann

Dáil Éireann is the lower house, principal chamber, of the Oireachtas, which includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann. It consists of 160 members, known as Teachta Dála. TDs represent 39 constituencies and are directly elected at least once every five years, by the single transferable vote form of proportional representation, its powers are similar to those of lower houses under many other bicameral parliamentary systems and it is by far the dominant branch of the Oireachtas. Subject to the limits imposed by the Constitution of Ireland, it has power to pass any law it wishes, to nominate and remove the Taoiseach. Since 1922, it has met in Leinster House in Dublin; the Dáil took its current form when the 1937 Constitution was adopted, but it claims descent from the First Dáil of 1919. The name Dáil Éireann is taken from the Irish language but is the official title of the body in both English and Irish, including both language versions of the Irish constitution. Since the Dáil was first established in 1919, it has been described variously as a "National Assembly", a "Chamber of Deputies" and a "House of Representatives".

A dáil means an assembly or parliament, so a literal translation of Dáil Éireann is "Assembly of Ireland". Article 15 of Ireland's constitution describes the body as "a House of Representatives to be called Dáil Éireann". In common usage, the word Dáil is accompanied by the definite article; the plural of Dáil in the English language is most Dáils, although the Irish-language plural Dálaí is sometimes encountered in English. As there is only one Dáil in existence at any one time, the plural should only be used when referring to the Dáil as it is constituted following different elections. Dáil Éireann has 160 members. Under current legislation, members are directly elected at least once in every five years by the people of Ireland under a system of proportional representation known as the single transferable vote. Membership of the Dáil is open to Irish citizens. A member of the Dáil is known as a Teachta TD or Deputy; the Dáil electorate consists of Irish and British citizens over 18 years of age who are registered to vote in Ireland.

Under the Constitution a general election for Dáil Éireann must occur once in every seven years, an earlier maximum of five years is set by the Electoral Act, 1992. The Taoiseach can, at any time, make a request to the president to dissolve the Dáil, in which case a general election must occur within thirty days; the President may refuse to grant the dissolution, ask the Dáil to form an alternative government without a general election taking place. The STV electoral system broadly produces proportional representation in the Dáil; the small size of the constituencies used, however gives a small advantage to the larger parties and under-represents smaller parties. Since the 1990s the norm in the state has been coalition governments. Prior to 1989, one-party government by the Fianna Fáil party was common; the multi-seat constituencies required by STV mean that candidates must compete for election with others from the same party. This is accused by some of producing TDs who are excessively parochial.

By-elections occur under the alternative vote system. Proposals to amend the constitution to change to the plurality voting system electoral system were rejected in referendums in 1959 and in 1968; every constituency elects between three and five TDs. The constitution specifies that no constituency may return fewer than three TDs but does not specify any upper limit to constituency magnitude. However, statute specifies a maximum of five seats per constituency; the constitution requires that constituency boundaries be reviewed at least once in every twelve years, so that boundaries may be redrawn to accommodate changes in population. Boundary changes are drafted by an independent commission, its recommendations are implemented by law. Malapportionment is forbidden by the constitution. Under the Constitution, the commission is required to refer to the most recent Census when considering boundary changes. In the 29th Dáil elected in 2002, there was one TD for every 25,000 citizens; this ratio is in line with that of many other European Union member state national parliaments' ratios, giving Ireland a similar MP-to-citizen ratio to Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Latvia and Sweden..

With the adoption of the current constitution in 1937 the membership of the Dáil was reduced from 153 to 138, but in the 1960s the number was increased to 144 for the 1977 election to 148, only to be increased more in 1981 to the figure of 166. The Electoral Act 2011 provides that the number of members "shall be not less than 153 and not more than 160"; this new law came into effect with a 158-seat Dáil. From the 2020 general election, it was increased to 160 seats; the Dáil chamber has confrontational benches but the end segment is curved to create a partial hemicyc

Tien (TV channel)

Tien known as Talpa, was the name of a commercial television channel in the Netherlands. Tien opened on August 13, 2005 following a name dispute with SBS Broadcasting. SBS objected to the use of the word Tien; the owner of Tien, Dutch media mogul John de Mol, decided to rebrand the channel as Talpa, the Latin word for "mole", mol in Dutch. Subsequently Talpa became the name of De Mol's holding company. In the first months Talpa shared its channel space with Nickelodeon. On December 16, 2006, Nickelodeon switched to The Box and Tien started broadcasting full days. In December 2006, Talpa and SBS Broadcasting solved their dispute. Talpa was renamed as Tien. In the summer of 2007, the assets of Talpa Media were sold to RTL Nederland, which meant the end of the Tien television channel. RTL Nederland used the vacated cable spot to launch a new television channel called RTL 8. Included in the deal were the broadcasting rights for the Dutch football league and radio station Radio 538. Tien closed on August 17, 2007.

Programmes included ` Big Brother and Expeditie Robinson. Tien is noted for programming original Dutch drama, such as Gooische Vrouwen, Van Speijk, Boks and the daily comedy show Samen. Van Speijk, a publicized police series, attracted an average amount of 900,000 viewers weekly. Season one of "Gooische Vrouwen" attracted more than a million viewers each episode. Samen was the world's first daily comedy show. From the beginning, the channel struggled with disappointing ratings. Expectations were high, because Talpa owned the rights to summaries of matches played in the Eredivisie, the Dutch top-flight football league; the live broadcasting rights were owned by another De Mol venture. In the beginning, football programme De Wedstrijden scored disappointing ratings. Although by far the most-watched programme on Talpa, De Wedstrijden failed to attract the audience that NOS programme Studio Sport used to have. Dutch celebrities like Ivo Niehe and Henny Huisman failed to attract their former audiences on Talpa.

Niehe returned to his former employer TROS in January 2007. Niehe was one of the most outspoken critics on the failure of the station in general. Huisman left for EO after his unsuccessful stint with Talpa. With Jack Spijkerman Talpa thought to have a guaranteed ratings hit, but his audience at Talpa was just one quarter of his former ratings at VARA; the football discussion program Spijkerman hosted with Humberto Tan was unsuccessful and axed. Not all programmes flopped on Talpa; the controversial show Joling & Gordon over de Vloer scored 1.2 million viewers. Other major hits were comedy drama series Gooische Vrouwen and Voetbalvrouwen, the Dutch version of Footballers' Wives. Expeditie Robinson and Postcodeloterij Miljoenenjacht and 1 vs. 100 were among the reasonably scoring shows, albeit with much smaller audiences than at the former broadcaster. Television networks in the Netherlands Versteeg, D.. Talpa — de geboorte van een televisiezender. Naarden: Strengholt's Boeken. ISBN 90-5860-233-8. Official Site

Cricket Wireless

Cricket Wireless LLC known as Cricket Wireless or Cricket, is a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T Inc. that provides wireless services to 10 million subscribers in the United States. Cricket Wireless was founded in March 1999 by Leap Wireless International. AT&T acquired Leap Wireless International in March 2014 which merged Cricket Wireless with Aio Wireless. Before AT&T's acquisition, the company had 4.5 million subscribers. Cricket's first market was Chattanooga, Tennessee, in 1999 and through much of its early growth became known as a network focused on small, rural markets. In September 2007, MetroPCS, Cricket Wireless's competing carrier at the time, announced a $5.3 billion bid to merge with Leap Wireless. Leap informally rejected the bid less than two weeks later. MetroPCS withdrew the bid less than two months later. In December 2007, Cricket acquired Hargray Communications Group's wireless telecommunications business. In September 2008, Cricket and MetroPCS entered into a 10-year roaming agreement covering both companies' existing and future markets.

The companies entered into a spectrum exchange agreement covering licenses in certain markets. In November 2008, they launched "Premium Extended Coverage", a roaming partnership with 14 wireless companies. In August 2010, Cricket and Sprint signed a five-year wholesale agreement which allowed Cricket to utilize Sprint's nationwide 3G EVDO network in the United States. In July 2013, AT&T agreed to buy Cricket Wireless' parent for $1.2 billion. The FCC approved the acquisition between AT&T and Leap Wireless in March 2014. Prior to its acquisition by AT&T, Cricket's CDMA network used its home network and roaming agreements with Sprint, among other CDMA carriers. However, Cricket's CDMA network was shut down and the spectrum was reframed for use on AT&T's HSPA+ and LTE networks. Following the acquisition by AT&T, Cricket Wireless released devices that use AT&T's 3G, 4G, 4G LTE networks. Cricket Wireless noted on their old website that CDMA service would be terminated as early as September 2015. Most devices prior to the merger would not be compatible on the GSM network except the iPhone 4s, iPhone 5, iPhone 5c, iPhone 5s.

Compatible iPhone devices would only require a new SIM card. In October 2014, Cricket Wireless came under scrutiny for intercepting and modifying its customers' email traffic to downgrade and prevent encryption of the conversation and its metadata. An engineer at a digital security and privacy firm, Golden Frog, first noticed the issue in September 2013 via their Aio Wireless connection. Upon further investigation by the privacy firm in June 2014, Golden Frog determined that Cricket masked the STARTTLS command in email server responses, thereby "putting its customers at serious risk by inhibiting their ability to protect online communications." In October, a Washington Post investigation revealed that "Cricket did not address repeated questions about the issue and did not alert customers, many of whom rely on Cricket as their sole Internet service, that they would not be able to protect their e-mails from prying eyes. AT&T, which absorbed Cricket when it acquired Leap Wireless that spring, did not respond to a request for comment."

The EFF published a technical analysis condemning ISPs like Cricket from tampering with customer internet traffic. AT&T Mobility, another subsidiary of AT&T AT&T PREPAID, AT&T Mobility's prepaid service Official website Cricket Newsroom