Dál Riata

Dál Riata or Dál Riada was a Gaelic kingdom and political entity that encompassed the western seaboard of Scotland and the north-eastern corner of Ireland, stretching across each side of the North Channel. At its height in the 6th and 7th centuries, it encompassed a large territory of what is now Argyll in Scotland and part of County Antrim in Northern Ireland and Southern Pictland. After a period of expansion, the kingdom became associated with the gaelic Kingdom of Alba. In Argyll, it consisted of four main kindreds each with their own leader: Cenél Loairn in north and mid-Argyll, who gave their name to the district of Lorn Cenél nÓengusa based on Islay Cenél nGabráin based in Kintyre Cenél Comgaill based in Strathearn.. It is believed that the district of Cowal is named for them. Latin sources referred to the inhabitants of Dál Riata as Scots, a name used by Roman and Greek writers for the Irish Gaels who raided and colonized Roman Britain, it came to refer to Gaelic-speakers, whether from Ireland or elsewhere.

They are referred to herein as Dál Riatans. The hillfort of Dunadd is believed to have been its capital. Other royal forts included Dunollie and Dunseverick. Within Dál Riata was the important monastery of Iona, which played a key role in the spread of Celtic Christianity throughout northern Britain, in the development of insular art. Iona produced many important manuscripts. Dál Riata had a large fleet. Dál Riata is said to have been founded by the legendary king Fergus Mór in the 5th century; the kingdom reached its height under Áedán mac Gabráin. During his reign Dál Riata's power and influence grew. However, King Æthelfrith of Bernicia checked its growth at the Battle of Degsastan in 603. Serious defeats in Ireland and Scotland during the reign of Domnall Brecc ended Dál Riata's "golden age", the kingdom became a client of Northumbria for a time. In the 730s the Pictish king Óengus I led campaigns against Dál Riata and brought it under Pictish overlordship by 741. There is disagreement over the fate of the kingdom from the late 8th century onwards.

Some scholars have seen no revival of Dál Riatan power after the long period of foreign domination, while others have seen a revival under Áed Find. Some claim that the Dál Riata usurped the kingship of Fortriu. From 795 onward there were sporadic Viking raids in Dál Riata. In the following century, there may have been a merger of the Dál Pictish crowns; some sources say Cináed mac Ailpín was king of Dál Riata before becoming king of the Picts in 843, following a disastrous defeat of the Picts by Vikings. The kingdom's independence ended sometime after, as it merged with Pictland to form the Kingdom of Alba; the name Dál Riata is derived from Old Irish. Dál, cognate to English dole and deal, German Teil, Latin tāliō and descendants including French taille and Italian taglia, means "portion" or "share". Thus, the name refers to "Riada's portion" of territory in the area; the Dalradian geological series, a term coined by Archibald Geikie in 1891, was named after Dál Riata because its outcrop has a similar geographical reach to that of the former kingdom.

Dál Riata included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland. In Scotland, it corresponded to Argyll and grew to include Skye. In Ireland, it took in the northeast of County Antrim corresponding to the baronies of Cary and Glenarm; the modern human landscape of Dál Riata differs a great deal from that of the first millennium. Most people today live in settlements far larger than anything known in early times, while some areas, such as Kilmartin, many of the islands, such as Islay and Tiree, may well have had as many inhabitants as they do today. Many of the small settlements have now disappeared, so that the countryside is far emptier than was the case, many areas that were farmed are now abandoned; the physical landscape is not as it was: sea-levels have changed, the combination of erosion and silting will have altered the shape of the coast in some places, while the natural accumulation of peat and man-made changes from peat-cutting have altered inland landscapes. As was normal at the time, subsistence farming was the occupation of most people.

Oats and barley were the main cereal crops. Pastoralism was important, transhumance was the practice in many places; some areas, most notably Islay, were fertile, good grazing would have been available all year round, just as it was in Ireland. Tiree was famed in times for its oats and barley, while smaller, uninhabited islands were used to keep sheep; the area, until was notable for its inshore fisheries, for plentiful shellfish, therefore seafood is to have been an important part of the diet. The Senchus fer n-Alban lists three main kin groups in Dál Riata in Scotland, with a fourth being added later: The Cenél nGabráin, in Kintyre the descendants of Gabrán mac Domangairt; the Cenél nÓengusa, in Islay and Jura the descendants of Óengus Mór mac Eirc. The Cenél Loairn, in Lorne also Mull and Ar

Myjava District

Myjava District is a district in the Trenčín Region of western Slovakia. It is located in the area of the Myjava Hills. Myjava district belongs to the smaller districts in Slovakia and the population density is under the country average. In the north it borders with the Czech Republic. Myjava district was established in 1923 and in its present borders exists from 1996. Brestovec Brezová pod Bradlom Bukovec Hrašné Chvojnica Jablonka Kostolné Košariská Krajné Myjava Podkylava Polianka Poriadie Priepasné Rudník Stará Myjava Vrbovce Official site

I. Valerian

I. Valerian was journalist. Born in Ivești, Galați County, the son of Fotache, a worker and clerk active in Ivești and Tecuci, his wife Amalia, he spent his childhood in Tecuci. There he attended school at the primary and gymnasium levels before going to Vasile Alecsandri High School in Galați from 1907 to 1915. In 1917, during World War I, he graduated from the Military Reserve Officers' School in Bucharest, going on to participate in the Battle of Mărăști as part of the 2nd Army under Alexandru Averescu. Wounded on August 6, he was made a knight of the Order of the Crown. Between 1917 and 1921, he recuperated at Bârlad, working together with Alexandru Vlahuță and George Tutoveanu, becoming a member of Academia Bârlădeană and making his debut with verses in Florile Dalbe, he married professor Elena Ganea in 1922. Moving to Bucharest in 1925, he was active in the Sburătorul circle, publishing verses in its Revista literară magazine, he joined the Romanian Writers' Society in 1922, in 1925 graduated from the Literature and Philosophy Faculty of the University of Bucharest, magna cum laude.

His first published book, Caravanele tăcerii, appeared in 1923, it received a prize from the Romanian Academy the following year. In 1925, he was elected a member of the Royal Romanian Geographical Society. In February 1926, he began editing Viața Literară, which appeared continuously until June 1941 in 322 issues, promoting important figures in the country's cultural and literary life, as well as helping to launch the careers of younger writers. According to George Călinescu, through this magazine and Sentinela, showed a wide-ranging vision in a narrow-minded era, he received positive reviews for his novel Cara Su. He worked in the military teaching department of the Education Ministry from 1932 to 1937, headed the Office of Romanian Youth Education and belonged to the leadership of Straja Țării. During World War II, from 1941 to 1944, he headed a department in the press section of the Ministry of National Propaganda. In 1943, he remarried. Sent into retirement in 1945, he was active in the voluntary association for supporting national defense.

In 1967, he was readmitted into what the Communist regime had refashioned as the Writers' Union of Romania. He published Cu scriitorii în veac, a well-received volume based on 39 interviews with prominent Romanian writers. In 1969-1970, he released a revised version of Cara Su as well as the study Chipuri din Viața Literară, he died in 1980