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Düsseldorf

Düsseldorf is the capital and second-largest city of the most populous German state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, the seventh-largest city in Germany, with a population of 617,280. At the confluence of the Rhine and its tributary Düssel, the city lies in the centre of both the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhineland Metropolitan Regions with the Cologne Bonn Region to its south and the Ruhr to its north. Most of the city lies on the right bank of the Rhine; the city is the largest in the German Low Franconian dialect area. "Dorf" meaning "village" in German, the "-dorf" suffix is unusual in the German-speaking area for a settlement of Düsseldorf's size. Mercer's 2012 Quality of Living survey ranked Düsseldorf the sixth most livable city in the world. Düsseldorf Airport is Germany's third-busiest airport after those of Frankfurt and Munich, serving as the most important international airport for the inhabitants of the densely populated Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs, is headquarters to one Fortune Global 500 and two DAX companies.

Messe Düsseldorf organises nearly one fifth of premier trade shows. As second largest city of the Rhineland, Düsseldorf holds Rhenish Carnival celebrations every year in February/March, the Düsseldorf carnival celebrations being the third most popular in Germany after those held in Cologne and Mainz. There are 22 institutions of higher education in the city including the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, the university of applied sciences, the academy of arts, the university of music; the city is known for its pioneering influence on electronic/experimental music and its Japanese community. When the Roman Empire was strengthening its position throughout Europe, a few Germanic tribes clung on in marshy territory off the eastern banks of the Rhine. In the 7th and 8th centuries, the odd farming or fishing settlement could be found at the point where the small river Düssel flows into the Rhine, it was from such settlements. The first written mention of Düsseldorf dates back to 1135. Under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa the small town of Kaiserswerth to the north of Düsseldorf became a well-fortified outpost, where soldiers kept a watchful eye on every movement on the Rhine.

Kaiserswerth became a suburb of Düsseldorf in 1929. In 1186, Düsseldorf came under the rule of the Counts of Berg. 14 August 1288 is one of the most important dates in the history of Düsseldorf. On this day the sovereign Count Adolf VIII of Berg granted the village on the banks of the Düssel town privileges. Before this, a bloody struggle for power had taken place between the Archbishop of Cologne and the count of Berg, culminating in the Battle of Worringen; the Archbishop of Cologne's forces were wiped out by the forces of the count of Berg who were supported by citizens and farmers of Cologne and Düsseldorf, paving the way for Düsseldorf's elevation to city status, commemorated today by a monument on the Burgplatz. The custom of turning cartwheels is credited to the children of Düsseldorf. There are variations of the origin of the cartwheeling children. Today the symbol represents the story and every year the Düsseldorfers celebrate by having a cartwheeling contest. After this battle the relationship between the four cities deteriorated, because they were commercial rivals.

Today, it finds its expression in a humorous form and in sports. A market square sprang up on the banks of the Rhine and the square was protected by city walls on all four sides. In 1380, the dukes of Berg moved their seat to the town and Düsseldorf was made regional capital of the Duchy of Berg. During the following centuries several famous landmarks were built, including the Collegiate Church of St Lambertus. In 1609, the ducal line of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died out, after a virulent struggle over succession, Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Counts of Palatinate-Neuburg, who made Düsseldorf their main domicile after they inherited the Electorate of the Palatinate, in 1685, becoming now Prince-electors as Electors Palatine. Under the art-loving Johann Wilhelm II, a vast art gallery with a huge selection of paintings and sculptures, were housed in the Stadtschloss. After his death, the city fell on hard times again after Elector Charles Theodore inherited Bavaria and moved the electoral court to Munich.

With him he took the art collection. Destruction and poverty struck Düsseldorf after the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon made Düsseldorf its capital. Johann Devaranne, a leader of Solingen's resistance to Napoleon's conscription decrees, was executed here in 1813. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole Rhineland including Berg was given to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815; the Rhine Province's parliament was established in Düsseldorf. By the mid-19th century, Düsseldorf enjoyed a revival thanks to the Industrial Revolution as the city boasted 100,000 inhabitants by 1882.

Mount Foch

Mount Foch is a 3,194-metre mountain summit located on the border of Alberta and British Columbia on the Continental Divide. It was named in 1918 after Marshall Ferdinand Foch; the first ascent of the mountain was made in 1930 by Walter Feuz. The duo made the first ascents of nearby Mount Sarrail and Mount Lyautey that same year. Mount Foch is composed of sedimentary rock laid down during the Precambrian to Jurassic periods. Formed in shallow seas, this sedimentary rock was pushed east and over the top of younger rock during the Laramide orogeny. Based on the Köppen climate classification, Mount Foch is located in a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, mild summers. Temperatures can drop below −20 C with wind chill factors below −30 C. In terms of favorable weather, June through September are the best months to climb Mount Foch. List of peaks on the British Columbia-Alberta border Mountains of Alberta Mountains of British Columbia Mount Foch weather: Mountain Forecast

Viriditas

Viriditas is a word meaning vitality, lushness, verdure, or growth. It is associated with abbess Hildegard von Bingen, who used it to refer to or symbolize spiritual and physical health as a reflection of the divine word or as an aspect of the divine nature. "Viriditas" appears several times in Gregory the Great's Moralia in Job, to refer to the spiritual health to which Job aspires. Augustine uses the term once in City of God, to describe mutability. In a collection of over a hundred 12th-century love letters, said to be those between Héloïse and Abelard, the woman uses "viriditas" three times but the man does not use it. Abelard did use "viriditas" in at least one sermon, however. Viriditas is one of Hildegard von Bingen's guiding images, used in all of her works, it has been suggested that the lushness of the imagery is due to the lushness of her surroundings at Disibodenberg. Her extensive use of the term can be frustrating in its diversity of uses. In a study of Hildegard by historian of medicine Dr. Victoria Sweet, a physician, Dr. Sweet pointed out how Hildegard used the word viriditas in the broader sense of the power of plants to put forth leaves and fruit, as well as in the sense of an analogous intrinsic power of human beings to grow and to heal.

Inspired by Hildegard, Dr. Sweet began to ask herself as she was treating her own patients whether anything was interfering with the viriditas or the intrinsic power to heal-- to relate to healing like being a gardener who removes impediments and nourishes, in a sanctuary-like setting. In Scivias, Hildegard focused foremost on viriditas as an attribute of the divine nature. In her works the word viriditas has been translated in various ways, such as freshness, fertility, fruitfulness, verdure, or growth. In Hildegard's understanding, viriditas is a metaphor for spiritual and physical health, visible in the divine word. "Homeostasis" could be considered as a more common replacement, but without the theological and spiritual connotations that viriditas has. The science fiction author Kim Stanley Robinson used it nontheologically to mean "the green force of life, expanding into the Universe." "Look at the pattern this seashell makes. The dappled whorl, curving inward to infinity. That's the shape of the universe itself.

There's a constant pressure. A tendency in matter to evolve into more complex forms. It's a kind of pattern gravity, a holy greening power we call viriditas, it is the driving force in the cosmos. Life, you see." "A Theological Interpretation of Viriditas in Hildegard of Bingen and Gregory the Great". Jeannette D. Jones, Boston University, January 2012. Retrieved February 13, 2015. "Viriditas: The fifth movement of Shattering Suns". Stephen Taylor. Retrieved March 29, 2013. Barbara Newman. Voice of the Living Light: Hildegard of Bingen and Her World. Berkeley: University of California Press. Anne H. King-Lenzmeier. Hildegard of Bingen: An Integrated Vision. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press. Sweet, Victoria. Rooted in the Earth, Rooted in the Sky: Hildegard of Bingen and Premodern Medicine, Routledge