Bolu Province is a province in northwestern Turkey. It's an important midpoint between the capital and the largest city in the country, Istanbul, it covers an area of 7,410 km², the population is 271,208. This is an attractive forested mountain district centered on the city of Bolu, which has a long history. There is plenty of forest but little agricultural land. There is some garden produce and dairy production including good cheeses and cream, most of this is consumed or sold locally as Bolu has a large passing trade: Bolu Mountain is the major topographical obstacle on the Istanbul-Ankara highway, until 2007, when the Bolu Mountain Tunnel is being opened, most travelers stopped here for food and refreshment. Bolu has a long tradition of high quality cuisine. Annual cookery competitions are held in Mengen; the province is drained by the Koca River. The forests and mountains are rich in wildlife including three deer species and popular weekend and holiday retreats for walkers and climbers. Parts of the province are vulnerable to earthquakes.
It is not known when Bolu was first founded. There are some archaeological findings dating back about 100,000 years that suggest the region was inhabited then; the area now in Bolu Province was in eastern southwestern Paphlagonia. The town of Bithynium from which the area takes its name is the modern Bolu. By about 375 BCE, Bithynia had gained its independence from Persia, King Bas subsequently defeated Alexander's attempt to take it; the Bithynian region with parts of Paphlagonia remained its own kingdom until 88 BCE when it came under Mithridates VI and the Kingdom of Pontus. With Roman help the last Bithynian king, Nicomedes IV regained his throne, but on his death bequeathed the kingdom to Rome; this led to the Third Mithridatic War and the fall of Pontus, the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as a single province joining Paphlagonia with Bithynia. Under the folling Byzantine Empire the Bolu area was divided from western Bithynia at the Sakarya River, with western Bithynia keeping the name.
The Sakarya is still the western boundary of the province. The Byzantine Empire lost the Bolu area to the Seljuk Turks after the 1071 Battle of Manzikert, but recovered it under the Komnenian restoration. After the end of the Komnenos dynasty, the Turks took the Bolu area back. About 1240 the Seljuk Turks took the eastern part of the Bolu area from the Byzantine Empire and incorporated it into the Sultanate of Rum. Due to their assistance in taking it and Sinop, the Chobanids were given that territory and adjacent areas to the north and east to rule; the Chobanids were independent of the Sultan. That eastern area fell under the Isfendiyarids between 1292 and 1461. In 1461 it was incorporated into the rest of the Ottoman Empire. By 1265, the western part of the Bolu area was again acquired by the Seljuk Turks, but it fell to the arms of Orhan I and the Ottoman Empire in the early to mid-1300s; the two areas were reunited in 1461, under Mehmed II. In the 1864 Ottoman Empire administrative reorganization, Bolu was created as an independent sanjak, although it was geographically part of the Kastamonu Vilayet.
Bolu province is divided into nine districts, four sub-districts, thirteen municipalities and 491 villages. Bolu, with the city of Bolu the capital district Dörtdivan Gerede Göynük Kıbrıscık Mengen Mudurnu Seben Yeniçağa Lake Abant, an attractive mountain lake resort and hot springs. Yedigöller National Park; the name means "seven lakes" in Turkish. The Köroğlu Mountains, said to be the scene of the folk Epic of Köroğlu. There are mineral baths in the province. Kartalkaya, one of Turkey's most popular ski resorts. Sarıalan, a lake high in the mountains above Kartalkaya; the Aladağ mountains, including the trail and picnic area of Gölcük. Seben Çeltikler Göynük Akshemseddin MausoleumAttractive towns include: Mengen Mudurnu Gerede East Marmara Development Agency List of populated places in Bolu Province Official website Bolu municipality's official website Bolu weather forecast information
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Justice and Development Party (Turkey)
The Justice and Development Party, abbreviated AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey. Developed from the conservative tradition of Turkey's Ottoman past and its Islamic identity, the party is the largest in Turkey. Founded in 2001 by members of a number of existing conservative parties, the party has won pluralities in the six most recent legislative elections, those of 2002, 2007, 2011, June 2015, November 2015, 2018; the party held a majority of seats for 13 years, but lost it in June 2015, only to regain it in the snap election of November 2015 but lose it again in 2018. Its electoral success has been mirrored in the three local elections held since the party's establishment, coming first in 2004, 2009 and 2014 respectively; the current party leader is the incumbent President of Turkey. Shortly after formation, the AKP portrayed itself as a pro-Western and pro-American party in the Turkish political spectrum that advocated a liberal market economy including Turkish membership in the European Union.
The party had for a long time been supported by the Cemaat Movement of exiled Islamic cleric Fethullah Gülen, whose influence in the judiciary has helped to weaken the opposition against the AKP. The party was an observer in the center-right European People's Party between 2005 and 2013 and a member of the eurosceptic Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe from 2013 to 2018. Controversies over whether the party remains committed to secular principles enshrined in the Turkish constitution despite their Islamist origins have dominated Turkish politics since 2002 and has resulted in numerous unsuccessful closure cases. Nationwide protests broke out against the alleged authoritarianism of the AKP in 2013, with the party's heavy-handed response receiving international condemnation and stalling the party's once championed EU accession negotiations. Since the party has brought about tighter regulations on internet use and alcohol consumption, having temporarily blocked access to Twitter and YouTube in March 2014.
After the government corruption scandal involving several AKP ministers in 2013, the party has been accused of crony capitalism. The AKP favours a strong centralized leadership, having long advocated a presidential system of government and reduced the number of elected local government positions in 2013; the AKP was established by a wide range of politicians of various political parties and a number of new politicians. The core of the party was formed from the reformist faction of the Islamist Virtue Party, including people such as Abdullah Gül, Bülent Arınç. A second founding group consisted of members of the social conservative Motherland Party, close to Turgut Özal, such as Cemil Çiçek and Abdülkadir Aksu; some members of the True Path Party, such as Hüseyin Çelik and Köksal Toptan, joined the AKP. Some members, such as Kürşad Tüzmen had nationalist or Ertuğrul Günay, had center-left backgrounds while representatives of the nascent'Muslim left' current were excluded. In addition a large number of people joined a political party for the first time, such as Ali Babacan, Selma Aliye Kavaf, Egemen Bağış and Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu.
All of these people joined Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to found the new party. Although the party is described as an Islamist party in some media, party officials reject those claims. According to former minister Hüseyin Çelik, "In the Western press, when the AKP administration – the ruling party of the Turkish Republic – is being named most of the time'Islamic,"Islamist,"mildly Islamist,"Islamic-oriented,"Islamic-based' or'with an Islamic agenda,' and similar language is being used; these characterizations do not reflect the truth, they sadden us." Çelik added, "The AKP is a conservative democratic party. The AKP's conservatism is limited to moral and social issues." In a separate speech made in 2005, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan stated, "We are not an Islamic party, we refuse labels such as Muslim-democrat." Erdoğan went on to say that the AKP's agenda is limited to "conservative democracy". The party's foreign policy has been described as Neo-Ottomanist, an ideology that promotes renewed Turkish political engagement in the former territories of its predecessor state, the Ottoman Empire.
However, the party's leadership has rejected this label. In 2005, the party was granted observer membership in the European People's Party. In November 2013, the party left the EPP to join the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists instead; this move was attributed to the AKP's disappointment not to be granted full membership in the EPP, while it was admitted as a full member of the AECR. It drew criticism in both national and European discourses, as the driving force of Turkey's aspirations to become a member of the European Union decided to join a eurosceptic alliance, abandoning the more influential pro-European EPP, feeding suspicions that AKP wants to join a watered down, not a integrated EU; the Justice and Development Party has faced two closure cases in its history. Just 10 days before the national elections of 2002, Turkey's chief prosecutor, Sabih Kanadoğlu, asked the Turkish constitutional court to close the Justice and Development Party, leading in the polls at that time.
The chief prosecutor charged the Development Party with abusing the law and justice. He based his case on the fact that the party's leader had been banned from political life for reading an Islamist poem, thus the party had no standing in elections; the European Commission had criticised Turkey for banning the party's leader
Muğla Province is a province of Turkey, at the country's south-western corner, on the Aegean Sea. Its seat is Muğla, about 20 km inland, while some of Turkey's largest holiday resorts, such as Bodrum, Ölüdeniz and Fethiye, are on the coast in Muğla; the original name of Muğla is open for discussion. Various sources refer to the city as Mobella or Mobolia. At 1,100 km, Muğla's coastline is the longest among the Provinces of Turkey and longer than many countries' coastlines. Important is the Datça Peninsula; as well as the sea, Muğla has Lake Bafa in the district of Milas and Lake Köyceğiz. The landscape consists of pot-shaped small plains surrounded by mountains, formed by depressions in the Neogene; these include the plain of the city of Muğla itself, Yeşilyurt, Ula, Gülağzı, Akkaya, Çamköy and Yenice). Until the recent building of highways, transport from these plains to either the coast or inland was quite arduous, thus each locality remained an isolated culture of its own. Contact with the outside world was through one of the three difficult passes: northwest to Milas, north to the Menderes plain through Gökbel, or northeast to Tavas.
The economy of Muğla relies on tourism, agriculture and marble quarries inland. Agriculture in Muğla is rich and varied; the province is the second center of marble industry in Turkey after Afyonkarahisar in terms of quantity and quality. Other mineral exploitation includes chrome in Fethiye. Other industry in the province includes the SEKA paper mill in Dalaman and the power stations at Yatağan, Yeniköy and Kemerköy; however Muğla is by no means an industrialised province. The following are aspects about transportation in Muğla province: There are two airports in Dalaman and Milas-Bodrum, serving domestic and international flights and catering to the tourism industry. There are yacht marinas in Bodrum, Fethiye and Güllük. There are many run bus connections to İzmir, Ankara and other major cities in Turkey from Muğla and directly from the coastal resorts. In ancient times in Anatolia, the region between the Menderes and Dalaman rivers in the south was called Caria; the inhabitants were Leleges. In his Iliad, Homer describes the Carians as natives of Anatolia, defending their country against Greeks in joint campaigns in collaboration with the Trojans.
A major city of ancient Caria, Muğla is known to have been occupied by raiding parties of Egyptians and Scythians, until the area was settled by Ancient Greek colonists. The Greeks inhabited this coast for a long time building prominent cities, such as Knidos and Bodrum, as well as many smaller towns along the coast, on the Bodrum Peninsula and inland, including in the district of Fethiye the cities of Telmessos, Xanthos and Tlos; the coast was conquered by Persians who were in turn removed by Alexander the Great, bringing an end to the satrapy of Caria. In 1261, Menteshe Bey, founder of the Beylik that carried his name, with its capital in Milas and nearby Beçin, established his rule over the region of Muğla as well; the beys of Menteshe held the city until 1390 and this, the first Turkish state in the region, achieved a high level of cultural development, its buildings remaining to this day. The province became a significant naval power, trading with the Aegean Islands, Crete and as far as Venice and Egypt.
Turkish settlement during the Menteshe period took place through migrations along the Kütahya-Tavas axis. In 1390, Muğla was taken over by the Ottoman Empire. However, just twelve years Tamerlane and his forces defeated the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara, returned control of the region to its former rulers, the Menteshe Beys, as he did for other Anatolian beyliks. Muğla was brought back under Ottoman control by Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, in 1451. One of the most important events in the area during the Ottoman period was the well-recorded campaign of Süleyman the Magnificent against Rhodes, launched from Marmaris. With this long history Muğla is rich in ancient ruins, with over 100 excavated sites including the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Letoon, near Fethiye; the following are notable residents of Muğla province: Herodotus of Halicarnassos, historian Turgut Reis Seaman Basil Zaharoff, Arms dealer born in Muğla Osman Hamdi Bey Painter had his summer residence in Yatağan Şükrü Kaya, Minister of the Interior under Atatürk, born in İstanköy Mustafa Muğlalı, Turkish War of Independence general Yunus Nadi Abalıoğlu, Founder of Cumhuriyet newspaper and key supporter of Atatürk, from Fethiye Zihni Derin, Agriculturalist responsible for planting tea in the Eastern Black Sea region, from Muğla Necati Çiller, father of Prime Minister Tansu Çiller, governor of Istanbul in the 1950s, from Milas Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı, writer of The "Fisherman of Halicarnasoss" and his student Şadan Gökovalı Nail Çakırhan, architect of the Akyaka Çakırhan houses and winner of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture Janet Akyüz Mattei Amateur astronomer and president of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, of Bodrum.
Zeki Müren and fixture of the Bodrum nightclub scene for many years Poet Can Yücel is buried in Datça, his home in his final years Former President Kenan Evren lived in Marmaris after he retired until his death. The Republican People's Party, Turkey's principal center-left party
Aydın Province is a province of southwestern Turkey, located in the Aegean Region. The provincial capital is the city of Aydın. 150,000. Other towns in the province include the summer seaside resorts of Didim and Kuşadası. Aydın was once known as Tralles; the area is an earthquake zone and the city was built and rebuilt by a succession of Spartans, Ionians, Lydians and Ancient Romans. In 1186 the Seljuk Turks took control of the area, followed by the Anatolian beylik of the Aydinids. During this period the town was named Aydın Güzelhisar, was brought into the Ottoman Empire in 1426. Neighboring provinces are Manisa to the north east, İzmir to the north, Denizli to the east, Muğla to the south; the central and western parts of the province are fertile plains watered by the largest river in the Aegean region the Büyük Menderes River, with the Aydın Mountains to the north and the Menteşe Mountains to the south. The western end of the province is the Aegean coast with Lake Bafa a major feature of the Menderes delta area.
The climate is typical of the Aegean region hot in summer. The Germencik region contains a number of hot springs. Aydın province is divided into 17 districts: Much of the countryside is a mix of fig and citrus trees figs; the major sources of income are tourism. The coastal towns of Didim and Kuşadası in particular are tourist resorts. Kuşadası is near to the Dilek Peninsula - Büyük Menderes Delta National Park, while Didim has a temple of Apollo and the ancient ruins of Miletos nearby; the province contains archeological sites, including the ancient Carian cities of Alinda and Alabanda. Aydın is Turkey's leading producer of figs and exports dried figs worldwide; the name by which the fruit was called in the world markets was "Smyrna figs" until due to the preponderance of figs exported from İzmir over other species of the genus. But İzmir got the name by being the center for the wholesale trade and exports, while in fact the fruit was traditionally cultivated in Aydın; the term used within Turkey is "Aydın figs".
Turkey's yearly production of 50,000 tons of dried figs, is all from Aydın, Within Aydın province, the best figs are reputed to be grown in Germencik. Aydın produces olives from the varieties of Memecik and Gemlik, as well as chestnuts, citrus fruits, water melons and other fruits. Aydın has some light industry Adnan Menderes University was built in the city of Aydın in 1990s and has branches throughout the province; the city of Aydın has a number of Ottoman period mosques. The province's countryside and scenery include a stretch of the Aegean coast and a number of historic sites including: Didim coastal resort wıth large temple of Apollo and nearby Miletus ruins of an Ancient Greek city Ilyas Bey Complex, a cultural heritage of Turkey built in 1403 Kuşadası coastal resort, near to the Dilek Peninsula - Büyük Menderes Delta National Park Kirazli - a traditional Turkish village with old stone houses Alinda - ancient ruins Alabanda - ancient ruins Magnesia ad Maeandrum - ancient ruins, on the Ortaklar-Söke road in Germencik Nysa - another ruined Carian city, in Sultanhisar Aphrodisias - more ancient ruins, including tombs and sculpture, in Karacasu Priene - another ruin, near Söke Mycale Mountains Aydın is the home of the Zeybek folk art.
This involves a special type of war dance, performed in a ring to resemble birds. The Zeybek is performed to sounds of other Turkish folk instruments; the folk songs of Aydın are famously short, indeed a popular saying in the Aegean region to get someone to stop talking, is Keep it short, make it an Aydın tune. The cuisine features the typical Turkish pastries, kebab. Izmir to Aydın motorway is the city's main thoroughfare. Anthemius of Tralles - architect of Haghia Sophia in Istanbul Atçalı Kel Mehmet Efe, folk hero, leader of a public revolt during the decline of the Ottoman Empire Yörük Ali Efe, hero of the Turkish War of Independence Mahmut Esat Bozkurt, architect of the legal system of the Turkish Republic, close friend of Atatürk, born in Kuşadası Adnan Menderes, Turkish Prime Minister Necati Çelim, MP for Aydın, founding Chairman of Aydın Tekstil Fabrikası, born in Köşk İlhan Selçuk, editor of the Cumhuriyet newspaper İsmet Sezgin, former minister Atilla Koç, MP for Aydın, former minister of culture and tourism, born in Köşk Güven Önüt, former Beşiktaş footballer Rıdvan Dilmen, retired footballer, team manager and sports commentator List of populated places in Aydın Province Aydın governor's official website Aydın municipality's official website Aydın weather forecast information Local information Aydın figs information Aydın otelleri
Osman I or Osman Gazi, sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. He and the dynasty bearing his name established and ruled the nascent Ottoman Empire; the state, while only a small principality during Osman's lifetime, transformed into a world empire in the centuries after his death. It existed until shortly after the end of World War I. Historians mark the end date at the abolition of the sultanate in 1922, the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, or the abolition of the caliphate in 1924. Due to the scarcity of historical sources dating from his lifetime little factual information is known about him. Not a single written source survives from Osman's reign; the Ottomans did not record the history of Osman's life until the fifteenth century, more than a hundred years after his death. Because of this, it is challenging for historians to differentiate between fact and myth in the many stories told about him.
One historian has gone so far as to declare it impossible, describing the period of Osman's life as a "black hole."According to Ottoman tradition, Osman's ancestors were descendants of the Kayı tribe of Oghuz Turks. The Ottoman principality was just one of many Anatolian beyliks that emerged in the second half of the thirteenth century. Situated in the region of Bithynia, Osman's principality was well-placed to launch attacks on the vulnerable Byzantine Empire, which his descendants would go on to conquer; some scholars have argued that Osman's original name was Turkish Atman or Ataman, was only changed to ʿOsmān, of Arabic origin. The earliest Byzantine sources, including Osman's contemporary George Pachymeres, spell his name as Ατουμάν or Ατμάν, whereas Greek sources render both the Arabic form ʿUthmān and the Turkish version ʿOsmān with θ, τθ, or τσ. An early Arabic source mentioning him writes ط rather than ث in one instance. Osman may thus have adopted the more prestigious Muslim name in his life.
The exact date of Osman's birth is unknown, little is known about his early life and origins due to the scarcity of sources and the many myths and legends which came to be told about him by the Ottomans in centuries. He was most born around the middle of the thirteenth century in 1254/5, the date given by the sixteenth-century Ottoman historian Kemalpaşazade. According to Ottoman tradition, Osman's father Ertuğrul led the Turkic Kayı tribe west from Central Asia into Anatolia, fleeing the Mongol onslaught, he pledged allegiance to the Sultan of the Anatolian Seljuks, who granted him dominion over the town of Söğüt on the Byzantine frontier. This connection between Ertuğrul and the Seljuks, was invented by court chroniclers a century and the true origins of the Ottomans thus remain obscure. Osman became chief, or bey, upon his father’s death in c. 1280. Nothing is known for certain about Osman's early activities, except that he controlled the region around the town of Söğüt and from there launched raids against the neighboring Byzantine Empire.
The first datable event in Osman's life is the Battle of Bapheus in 1301 or 1302, in which he defeated a Byzantine force sent to counter him. Osman appears to have followed the strategy of increasing his territories at the expense of the Byzantines while avoiding conflict with his more powerful Turkish neighbors, his first advances were through the passes which lead from the barren areas of northern Phrygia near modern Eskişehir into the more fertile plains of Bithynia. These legends have been romanticized by the poetical pens which recorded them in years; the Ottoman writers attached great importance to this legendary, dreamlike conception of the founder of their empire. Osman I had a close relationship with a local religious leader of dervishes named Sheikh Edebali, whose daughter he married. A story emerged among Ottoman writers to explain the relationship between the two men, in which Osman had a dream while staying in the Sheikh's house; the story appears in the late fifteenth-century chronicle of Aşıkpaşazade as follows: He saw that a moon arose from the holy man's breast and came to sink in his own breast.
A tree sprouted from his navel and its shade compassed the world. Beneath this shade there were mountains, streams flowed forth from the foot of each mountain; some people drank from these running waters, others watered gardens, while yet others caused fountains to flow. When Osman awoke he told the story to the holy man, who said'Osman, my son, for God has given the imperial office to you and your descendants and my daughter Malhun shall be your wife; the dream became an important foundational myth for the empire, imbuing the House of Osman with God-given authority over the earth and providing its fifteenth-century audience with an explanation for Ottoman success. The dream story may have served as a form of compact: just as God promised to provide Osman and his descendants with sovereignty, it was implicit that it was the duty of Osman to provide his subjects with prosperity. According to Shaw, Osman's first real conquests followed the collapse of Seljuk authority when he was able to occupy the fortresses of
Balıkesir Province is a province in northwestern Turkey with coastlines on both the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean. Its adjacent provinces are Çanakkale to the west, İzmir to the southwest, Manisa to the south, Kütahya to the southeast, Bursa to the east; the provincial capital is Balıkesir City. Most of the province lies in the Marmara Region except the southern parts of Bigadiç Edremit, Kepsut, İvrindi, Savaştepe and Sındırgı districts and ones of Ayvalık, Dursunbey, Gömeç and Havran, that bound the Aegean Region. Kaz Dağı, known as Mount Ida, is located in this province. Balıkesir province is famous for its olives, thermal spas, clean beaches, making it an important tourist destination; the province hosts immense deposits of kaolinite and borax, with some open-pit mines. The Kaz mountains are threatened with the expansion of gold mining using cyanide which puts the villagers' lives, the agricultural economy, tourism at risk. Balıkesir is home to a number including Kuş Cenneti National Park. Among the cultural attractions of Balıkesir are the ruins of Cyzicus and Saraylar on the Sea of Marmara and Antandrus.
There are a city museum and a fine arts centre in Balıkesir. There are a number of camping facilities in Erdek, Altınoluk, Akçay, Güre, Ören. Balıkesir Kuvayi Milliye Museum Bandırma Archaeological Museum Edremit Ayşe Sıdıka Erke Ethnography Museum Balıkesir National Photography Museum Edremit Tahtakuşlar Ethnography Museum Gönen Mosaic Museum Balıkesir Municipality's Devrim Erbil Modern Arts Museum Bigadiç Museum House Marmara District Palaces Open Air Museum Altınoluk Antardos Open Air Museum Erdek Belkıs Ruins Open Air Museum Daskyleon ruins Prokonnessos ruins Adyramytteon ruins Yortan ruins Erdek Kapıdağ region Kaz Dağı national park Kuş Cenneti national park Alaçam mountains Ayvalık Islands natural park Madra mountains Celebrating its 18th anniversary in 2010, the young Balıkesir University has been increasing its supports to the higher education of the province from the past to the future, it has been determined to meet the new age, the Age of Information, with 5 Faculties, 4 Applied Schools, 11 Vocational Schools giving vocational training for 2 years, 2 Graduate Schools, 2 Research Institutes and 9 Research Centers presenting modern academic services with dynamic, productive academic and administrative staff appropriate to the age.
BAU has aimed to be an educational institution of the 21st century and has taken special care to direct its experience from the past towards this objective. Other guiding objectives of BAU are to bring up democratic, independent, young citizens, loyal to Atatürk’s principles and revolutions and the basic principles of the Republic, respectful not only to their country and culture but to universal values as well. BAU forms an environment to produce information and knowledge to be benefited by the country and the world, to share it with both the society and the science world for the wealth and well-being of humanity. BAU is well aware of its responsibilities for both Turkish Higher science world, it fulfills the requirements of a modern institution of education with 25 000 students, 650 members of academic staff. BAU is aware that it is not only enough for a modern university to provide education of high quality but to produce science and technology; the students are encouraged to participate in social and sports activities.
The administration and academic personnel of the university support and direct a variety of extracurricular activities. BAU aims at meeting academic and research needs of students and administrative staff and of the society to enhance scientific productivity with modern libraries, increasing the number and quality of undergraduate programs and scientific studies. Çağış Campus The units listed below are all located on the main Çağış Campus, which lies on the outskirts of the city. Buses and minibuses provide regular services to Çağış Campus from the city center between the hours 07:00 and 23:00. Rectorate building, with administrative departments Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Faculty of Sciences and Arts School of Tourism and Hotel Management Balıkesir Vocational School Central Library Main Sports Hall Graduate School of Science Graduate School of Social Sciences NEF Campus NEF Campus, located in the center of the town, was the original site of the university; the units listed below are all located on this campus: Faculty of Education, School of Physical Education and Sports Teaching.
NEF Conference Hall, Halil İnalcık Conference Hall Sports Hall University Fitness Center Outdoor sports facilities Continuing Education Center Balıkesir is accessible on Turkey's most travelled road, linking the metropolises of İstanbul and İzmir. Hande Erçel-Actress and Model from Bandırma city. Hülya Avşar - Actress, producer from Ayvalık Fikret Hakan - Actor from Balıkesir Imam Birgivi - Muslim scholar from Balıkesir Zağanos Pasha - Ottoman military commander from Balıkesir Ömer Seyfettin - Renowned writer from Gönen Mehmet Çoban - Olympian Greco-Roman wrestler from Balıkesir Kurtdereli Mehmet Pehlivan - World