The Nara period of the history of Japan covers the years from AD710 to 794. Empress Genmei established the capital of Heijō-kyō, most of Japanese society during this period was agricultural in nature and centered on villages. Most of the villagers followed a religion based on the worship of natural and ancestral spirits called kami, the capital at Nara was modeled after Changan, the capital city of Tang China. In many other ways, the Japanese upper classes patterned themselves after the Chinese, including adopting Chinese written system, concentrated efforts by the imperial court to record and document its history produced the first works of Japanese literature during the Nara period. Works such as the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki were political in nature, used to record and therefore justify, with the spread of written language, the writing of Japanese poetry, known in Japanese as waka, began. Over time, personal collections were referenced to establish the first large collection of Japanese poetry known as Manyōshū sometime after 759, Chinese characters were used to express sounds of Japanese until kana were invented.
The Chinese characters used to express the sounds of Japanese are known as manyōgana, before the Taihō Code was established, the capital was customarily moved after the death of an emperor because of the ancient belief that a place of death was polluted. Reforms and bureaucratization of government led to the establishment of a permanent imperial capital at Heijō-kyō, or Nara, in AD710. It is to be noted that the capital was moved shortly to Kuni-kyō in 740–744, to Naniwa-kyō in 744–745, to Shigarakinomiya in 745, Nara was Japans first truly urban center. It soon had a population of 200,000 and some 10,000 people worked in government jobs and administrative activity increased during the Nara period. Roads linked Nara to provincial capitals, and taxes were collected more efficiently and routinely, coins were minted, if not widely used. Outside the Nara area, there was little commercial activity, by the mid-eighth century, shōen, one of the most important economic institutions in medieval Japan, began to rise as a result of the search for a more manageable form of landholding.
Some of these formerly public people were employed by large landholders. Factional fighting at the court continued throughout the Nara period. Imperial family members, leading families, such as the Fujiwara. Earlier this period, Prince Nagaya seized power at the court after the death of Fujiwara no Fuhito, Fuhito was succeeded by four sons, Umakai and Maro. They put Emperor Shōmu, the prince by Fuhitos daughter, on the throne, in 729, they arrested Nagaya and regained control. However, as the first outbreak of smallpox spread from Kyūshū in 735 and it is without doubt that the Emperor was heavily shocked about this disaster, and he moved the palace three times in only five years since 740, until he eventually returned to Nara
The Kansai region or the Kinki region lies in the southern-central region of Japans main island Honshū. The region includes the prefectures of Mie, Wakayama, Osaka, Hyōgo, while the use of the terms Kansai and Kinki have changed over history, in most modern contexts the use of the two terms is interchangeable. The urban region of Osaka and Kyoto is the second most populated in Japan after the Greater Tokyo Area, the Kansai region is the cultural and historical heart of Japan with 11% of its land area and 22,757,897 residents as of 2010. In the north the region is bordered by the Sea of Japan, to the south by the Kii Peninsula and Pacific Ocean, four of Japans national parks lie within its borders, in whole or in part. The area contains six of the seven top prefectures in terms of national treasures, other geographical features include Amanohashidate in Kyoto Prefecture and Awaji Island in Hyōgo. The Kansai region is compared with the Kantō region, which lies to its east and consists primarily of Tokyo.
This East-West rivalry has deep roots, particularly from the Edo period. With a samurai population of less than 1% the culture of the merchant city of Osaka stood in sharp contrast to that of Edo, many characteristic traits of Kansai people descend from Osaka merchant culture. Catherine Maxwell, an editor for the newsletter Omusubi, Kansai residents are seen as being pragmatic, down-to-earth and possessing a strong sense of humour. Kanto people on the hand are perceived as more sophisticated and formal, in keeping with Tokyo’s history and modern status as the nation’s capital. Kansai is known for its food, especially Osaka, as supported by the saying Kyotoites are ruined by overspending on clothing, popular Osakan dishes include takoyaki, kitsune udon and kushikatsu. Kyoto is considered a mecca of traditional Japanese cuisine like kaiseki, Kansai has many wagyu brands such as Kobe beef and Tajima cattle from Hyōgo, Matsusaka beef from Mie and Omi beef from Shiga. Sake is another specialty of the region, the areas of Nada-Gogō, as opposed to food from Eastern Japan, food in the Kansai area tends to be sweeter, and foods such as nattō tend to be less popular.
The dialects of the people from the Kansai region, commonly called Kansai-ben, have their own variations of pronunciation, Kansai-ben is the group of dialects spoken in the Kansai area, but is often treated as a dialect in its own right. Kansai is one of the most prosperous areas for baseball in Japan, two Nippon Professional Baseball teams, Hanshin Tigers and Orix Buffaloes, are based in Kansai. Koshien Stadium, the stadium of the Hanshin Tigers, is famous for the nationwide high school baseball tournaments. In association football, the Kansai Soccer League was founded in 1966, cerezo Osaka, Gamba Osaka, and Vissel Kobe belong to J. League Division 1 and Kyoto Sanga F. C. belongs to J. League Division 2, the top professional leagues in Japan. The terms Kansai and Kinai have a deep history
These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in use is known as the Bronze Age. In the ancient Near East this began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, with India and China starting to use bronze around the same time, everywhere it gradually spread across regions. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, the discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than previously possible. Bronze tools, weapons and building such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone. It was only that tin was used, becoming the major ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC. Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the process could be more easily controlled. Also, unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic, the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BCE in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik.
Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Africa and some ancient sites in China, ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not often found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artefacts are found, suggesting that bronze represented a store of value, in Europe, large hoards of bronze tools, typically socketed axes, are found, which mostly show no signs of wear. With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources and these were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, and used by the living for ritual offerings. Pure iron is soft, and the process of beating and folding sponge iron to wrought iron removes from the metal carbon. Careful control of the alloying and tempering eventually allowed for wrought iron with properties comparable to modern steel, Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, and has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day.
Among other advantages, it does not rust, the weaker wrought iron was found to be sufficiently strong for many uses. Archaeologists suspect that a disruption of the tin trade precipitated the transition. The population migrations around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean, limiting supplies, there are many different bronze alloys, but typically modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin
Mantises are an order of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 430 genera in 15 families. The largest family is the Mantidae, mantises are distributed worldwide in temperate and tropical habitats. They have triangular heads with bulging eyes supported on flexible necks, the closest relatives of mantises are the termites and cockroaches, which are all within the superorder Dictyoptera. Mantises are sometimes confused with insects, other elongated insects such as grasshoppers. Mantises are mostly predators, but a few ground-dwelling species are found actively pursuing their prey. They normally live for about a year, in cooler climates, the adults lay eggs in autumn die. The eggs are protected by their hard capsules and hatch in the spring, females sometimes practice sexual cannibalism, eating their mates after copulation. Mantises were considered to have supernatural powers by early civilizations, including Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt, a cultural trope popular in cartoons imagines the female mantis as a femme fatale.
Mantises are among the insects most commonly kept as pets, over 2,400 species of mantis in about 430 genera are recognized. They are predominantly found in regions, but some live in temperate areas. The systematics of mantises have long been disputed, along with stick insects, were once placed in the order Orthoptera with the cockroaches and rock crawlers. Kristensen combined the Mantodea with the cockroaches and termites into the order Dictyoptera, the name mantodea is formed from the Ancient Greek words μάντις meaning prophet, and εἶδος meaning form or type. It was coined in 1838 by the German entomologist Hermann Burmeister, the order is occasionally called the mantes, using a Latinized plural of Greek mantis. The name mantid properly refers only to members of the family Mantidae, which was, the only family in the order. The other common name, praying mantis, applied to any species in the order, the vernacular plural mantises was confined largely to the USA, with mantids predominantly used as the plural in the UK and elsewhere in 1996.
The classification most commonly adopted is that proposed by Beier in 1968 and he divided the order into eight families. Klass, in 1997, studied the external genitalia and postulated that the families Chaeteessidae and Metallyticidae diverged from the other families at an early date. However, the Mantidae and Thespidae are both polyphyletic, so the Mantodea will have to be revised, the earliest mantis fossils are about 135 million years old, from Siberia
Mochi is Japanese rice cake made of mochigome, a short-grain japonica glutinous rice. The rice is pounded into paste and molded into the desired shape, in Japan it is traditionally made in a ceremony called mochitsuki. While eaten year-round, mochi is a food for the Japanese New Year and is commonly sold. Mochi is a multicomponent food consisting of polysaccharides, protein, Mochi has a heterogeneous structure of amylopectin gel, starch grains, and air bubbles. This rice is characterized by its lack of amylose in the starch and is derived from short or medium japonica rices, the protein concentration of the rice is a bit higher than normal short-grain rice and the two differ in amylose content. In mochi rice, the content is negligible, which results in the soft gel consistency. The exact origin of Mochi has yet to be confirmed, the first mochitsuki ceremony occurred after the Kami are said to have descended to Earth, which was following the birth of rice cultivation in Yamato during the Yayoi period.
Red rice was the variation used in the production of mochi. At this time, mochi was eaten exclusively by the Emperor, during the Japanese Heian period, mochi was used as a ‘Food for the Gods’ and religious offerings in Shinto rituals performed by aristocrats. In addition to good fortune, mochi was known as a talisman for happy marriages, the first recorded accounts of mochi being used as a part of the New Year’s festivities was from the Japanese Heian period. The nobles of the Imperial Court believed that long strands of freshly made mochi symbolized a long life and good well-being, while dried mochi acted to make one’s teeth tough and more durable. Accounts of mochi have read in the oldest Japanese novel, “The Tale of Genji. ”Mochi continues to be one of the traditional foods eaten around Japanese New Year, as it is sold. A special type of mochi, called kagami mochi is placed on family altars on December 28 each year, Kagami mochi is composed of two spheres of mochi stacked on top of one another, topped with an orange.
Kagami mochi is a New Year decoration, which is broken and eaten in a ritual called Kagami biraki. Zōni is a soup containing rice cakes, zoni is eaten on New Years Day. In addition to mochi, zoni contains vegetables like taro, carrot and red, kinako mochi is a mochi dish that is traditionally made on New Years Day for luck. This style of preparation includes roasting the mochi over a fire or stove, dipping it into water, finally coating with sugar. The cherry blossom, is a symbol of Japan and signifies the onset of full-fledged Spring, sakuramochi is a pink-coloured mochi surrounding sweet anko and wrapped in an edible salted cherry leaf that is usually made during the Spring season
Kyoto is a city located in the central part of the island of Honshu, Japan. It has a close to 1.5 million. Kyoto is known as the thousand-year capital, in Japanese, the city has been called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, after the Chinese word for capital city, after the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, and the seat of the Emperor was transferred there, Kyoto was known for a short time as Saikyō. Obsolete spellings for the name include Kioto and Meaco. Another term commonly used to refer to the city in the period was Keishi. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Changan, became the seat of Japans imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. The city suffered destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, and came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well, nobles mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, and numerous buildings burned.
The city has not seen such widespread destruction since, Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city, throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo. The Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city, the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1,1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 is one taken to revive the city. The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki. The city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex.
Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1,1956, in 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference that resulted in the protocol on greenhouse gas emissions that bears the citys name. Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields. Reaping is the cutting of grain or pulse for harvest, typically using a scythe, sickle, on smaller farms with minimal mechanization, harvesting is the most labor-intensive activity of the growing season. On large mechanized farms, harvesting utilizes the most expensive and sophisticated farm machinery, the term harvesting in general usage may include immediate postharvest handling, including cleaning, sorting and cooling. Harvest, a noun, came from the Old English word hærfest, meaning autumn, harvest-time, the harvest came to mean the activity of reaping and storing grain and other grown products during the autumn, and the grain and other grown products themselves. Harvest was verbified, To harvest means to reap, people who harvest and equipment that harvests are harvesters, while they do it, they are harvesting. In history, crop failures and subsequent famines have triggered human migration, rural exodus, over years, unsustainable farming of land degrades soil fertility and diminishes crop yield.
With a steadily growing population and local overpopulation, even slightly diminishing yields are already the equivalent to a partial harvest failure. Fortunately, fertilizers obviate the need for regeneration in the first place. Harvesting commonly refers to grain and produce, but has other uses, the term harvest is used in reference to harvesting grapes for wine. Within the context of irrigation, water harvesting refers to the collection, instead of harvest, the term exploit is used, as in exploiting fisheries or water resources. Energy harvesting is the process of capturing and storing energy that would otherwise go unexploited, body harvesting, or cadaver harvesting, is the process of collecting and preparing cadavers for anatomical study. In a similar sense, organ harvesting is the removal of tissues or organs from a donor for purposes of transplanting. Harvesting or Domestic Harvesting in Canada refers to hunting and plant gathering by First Nations, Métis, for example, in the Gwichin Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement, Harvesting means gathering, trapping or fishing.
Similarly, in the Tlicho Land Claim and Self Government Agreement, Harvesting means, in relation to wildlife, trapping or fishing and, in relation to plants or trees, combine Harvester Harvest Harvest festival Overharvesting Threshing Winnowing
A saw is a tool consisting of a tough blade, wire, or chain with a hard toothed edge. It is used to cut material, very often wood. The cut is made by placing the edge against the material and moving it forcefully forth. This force may be applied by hand, or powered by steam, water, an abrasive saw has a powered circular blade designed to cut through metal. Abrasive saw, A saw that cuts with a disc or band. Back, the edge opposite the toothed edge, The angle of the faces of the teeth relative to a line perpendicular to the face of the saw. Gullet, The valley between the points of the teeth, The end closest to the handle. For example, a blade can cause excessive wobble, creating a wider-than-expected kerf. The kerf created by a blade can be changed by adjusting the set of its teeth with a tool called a saw tooth setter. Points per inch, The most common measurement of the frequency of teeth on a saw blade. It is taken by setting the tip of one tooth at the point on a ruler. There is always one point per inch than there are teeth per inch.
Some saws do not have the number of teeth per inch throughout their entire length. Those with more teeth per inch at the toe are described as having incremental teeth, The angle of the front face of the tooth relative to a line perpendicular to the length of the saw. In most modern serrated saws, the teeth are set, so that the kerf will be wider than the blade itself and this allows the blade to move through the cut easily without binding. The set may be different depending on the kind of cut the saw is intended to make, for example, a rip saw has a tooth set that is similar to the angle used on a chisel, so that it rips or tears the material apart. A flush-cutting saw has no set on one side, so that the saw can be flat on a surface. The set of the teeth can be adjusted with a tool called a saw set
In metalworking, casting means a process, in which liquid metal is poured into a mold, that contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and is allowed to cool and solidify. The solidified part is known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods, Casting processes have been known for thousands of years, and widely used for sculpture, especially in bronze, jewellery in precious metals, and weapons and tools. Traditional techniques include casting, plaster mold casting and sand casting. The modern casting process is subdivided into two categories and non-expendable casting. It is further broken down by the material, such as sand or metal. Expendable mold casting is a classification that includes sand, shell, plaster. This method of mold casting involves the use of temporary, non-reusable molds, sand casting is one of the most popular and simplest types of casting, and has been used for centuries.
Sand casting allows for smaller batches than permanent mold casting and at a reasonable cost. Not only does this method allow manufacturers to create products at a low cost, from castings that fit in the palm of your hand to train beds, it can all be done with sand casting. Sand casting allows most metals to be cast depending on the type of sand used for the molds, sand casting requires a lead time of days, or even weeks sometimes, for production at high output rates and is unsurpassed for large-part production. Green sand has almost no weight limit, whereas dry sand has a practical part mass limit of 2. Minimum part weight ranges from 0. 075–0.1 kg, the sand is bonded together using clays, chemical binders, or polymerized oils. Sand can be recycled many times in most operations and requires little maintenance, plaster casting is similar to sand casting except that plaster of paris is substituted for sand as a mold material. Plaster casting is an alternative to other molding processes for complex parts due to the low cost of the plaster.
The biggest disadvantage is that it can only be used with low melting point non-ferrous materials, such as aluminium, copper and zinc. Shell molding is similar to casting, but the molding cavity is formed by a hardened shell of sand instead of a flask filled with sand. The sand used is finer than sand casting sand and is mixed with a resin so that it can be heated by the pattern, because of the resin and finer sand, it gives a much finer surface finish
A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera. Adult dragonflies are characterized by large multifaceted eyes, two pairs of transparent wings, sometimes with coloured patches and an elongated body. Dragonflies are agile fliers, while damselflies have a weaker, fluttery flight, many dragonflies have brilliant iridescent or metallic colours produced by structural coloration, making them conspicuous in flight. An adult dragonfly’s compound eye has nearly 24,000 ommatidia, fossils of very large dragonfly ancestors in the Protodonata are found from 325 million years ago in Upper Carboniferous rocks, these had wingspans up to about 750 mm. About 3000 species of Anisoptera are in the world today, most are tropical, with fewer species in temperate regions. Dragonflies are predators, both in their larval stage, when they are known as nymphs or naiads. Several years of their lives are spent as nymphs living in fresh water and they are fast, agile fliers, sometimes migrating across oceans, and are often found near water.
They have a uniquely complex mode of reproduction involving indirect insemination, delayed fertilization, loss of wetland habitat threatens dragonfly populations around the world. Dragonflies are represented in human culture on artifacts such as pottery, rock paintings and they are used in traditional medicine in Japan and China, and caught for food in Indonesia. They are symbols of courage and happiness in Japan and their bright colours and agile flight are admired in the poetry of Alfred, Lord Tennyson and the prose of H. E. Bates. Dragonflies and their relatives are an ancient group, the forerunners of modern Odonata are included in a clade called the Panodonata, which include the basal Zygoptera and the Anisoptera Today there are some 3000 species extant around the world. On the cladogram, dashed lines indicate unresolved relationships, English names are given, About 3012 species of dragonflies were known in 2010, the distribution of diversity within the biogeographical regions are summarised below.
Dragonflies are found on every continent except Antarctica, in contrast to the damselflies, which tend to have restricted distributions, some genera and species are found across continents. The globe skimmer Pantala flavescens is probably the most widespread species in the world, it is cosmopolitan. Most Anisoptera species are tropical, with far fewer species in temperate regions, Dragonflies can be found from sea level up to the mountains, decreasing in species diversity with altitude. Their altitudinal limit is about 3700 m, represented by a species of Aeshna in the Pamirs, Dragonflies become scarce at higher latitudes. They are not native to Iceland, but individuals are occasionally swept in by strong winds, including a Hemianax ephippiger native to North Africa, the treeline emerald is found in northern Alaska, within the Arctic Circle, making it the most northerly of all dragonflies. Dragonflies are heavy-bodied, strong-flying insects that hold their wings horizontally both in flight and at rest
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. Nature can refer to the phenomena of the world. The study of nature is a part of science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. The word nature is derived from the Latin word natura, or essential qualities, innate disposition, and in ancient times, literally meant birth. Natura is a Latin translation of the Greek word physis, which related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals. This usage continued during the advent of scientific method in the last several centuries. Within the various uses of the word today, nature often refers to geology, for example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, human nature or the whole of nature. Depending on the context, the term natural might be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural.
Earth is the planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the solar system, it is third closest to the sun, it is the largest terrestrial planet and its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region. Precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre,71 percent of the Earths surface is covered by salt-water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the land in the Northern Hemisphere. Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions, the outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a layer of plastic mantle. This iron core is composed of a solid phase. Convective motion in the core generates electric currents through dynamo action, the atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms, which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions.
Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth, the geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations