A tatami is a type of mat used as a flooring material in traditional Japanese-style rooms. Traditionally made using rice straw to form the core, the cores of contemporary tatami are sometimes composed of compressed wood chip boards or polystyrene foam. With a covering of woven soft rush straw, tatami are made in standard sizes, with the length twice the width, an aspect ratio of 2:1. On the long sides, they have edging of brocade or plain cloth, although some tatami have no edging. In martial arts the tatami is the floor of the training ground in a Dojo and the floor for competition within a martial arts tournament; the term tatami is derived from the verb tatamu, meaning to pile. This indicates that the early tatami were thin and could be folded up when not used or piled in layers. Tatami were a luxury item for the nobility. During the Heian period, when the shinden-zukuri architectural style of aristocratic residences was consummated, the flooring of shinden-zukuri palatial rooms were wooden, tatami were only used as seating for the highest aristocrats.
In the Kamakura period, there arose the shoin-zukuri architectural style of residence for the samurai and priests who had gained power. This architectural style reached its peak of development in the Muromachi period, when tatami came to be spread over whole rooms, beginning with small rooms. Rooms spread with tatami came to be known as zashiki, rules concerning seating and etiquette determined the arrangement of the tatami in the rooms, it is said that prior to the mid-16th century, the ruling nobility and samurai slept on tatami or woven mats called goza, while commoners used straw mats or loose straw for bedding. The lower classes had mat-covered earth floors. Tatami were popularized and reached the homes of commoners toward the end of the 17th century. Houses built in Japan today have few tatami-floored rooms, if any. Having just one is not uncommon; the rooms having tatami flooring and other such traditional architectural features are referred to as nihonma or washitsu, "Japanese-style rooms".
The size of tatami differs between different regions in Japan. Kyoto – within this area, tatami measure 0.955 m by 1.91 m. Tatami of this size are referred to as Kyōma tatami. Nagoya – In this region measure 0.91 m by 1.82 m, are referred to as Ainoma tatami. Tokyo – here tatami measure 0.88 m by 1.76 m. Tatami of this size are referred to as Kantōma tatami. In terms of thickness, 5.5 cm is average for a Kyōma tatami, while 6.0 cm is the norm for a Kantōma tatami. A half mat is called a hanjō, a mat of three-quarter length, used in tea-ceremony rooms, is called daimedatami. In terms of traditional Japanese length units, a tatami is 1 ken by 0.5 ken, or equivalently 6 shaku by 3 shaku – formally this is 1.81818 by 0.90909 metres, the size of Nagoya tatami. Note that a shaku is the same length as one foot in the traditional English-American measurement system. In Japan, the size of a room is measured by the number of tatami mats, about 1.653 square meters. Alternatively, in terms of traditional Japanese area units, room area is measured in terms of tsubo, where one tsubo is the area of two tatami mats.
Some common room sizes are: 4 1⁄2 mats = 9 shaku × 9 shaku ≈ 2.73 m × 2.73 m 6 mats = 9 shaku × 12 shaku ≈ 2.73 m × 3.64 m 8 mats = 12 shaku × 12 shaku ≈ 3.64 m × 3.64 mShops were traditionally designed to be 5 1⁄2 mats, tea rooms are 4 1⁄2 mats. There are rules concerning the layout of the tatami mats in a room. In the Edo period, "auspicious" tatami arrangements and "inauspicious" tatami arrangements were distinctly differentiated, the tatami accordingly would be rearranged depending on the occasion. In modern practice, the "auspicious" layout is ordinarily used. In this arrangement, the junctions of the tatami form a "T" shape. An auspicious tiling requires the use of 1⁄2 mats to tile a room. An inauspicious layout is said to bring bad fortune. Higashiyama Bunka in Muromachi period Media related to Tatami at Wikimedia Commons
A proverb is a simple, traditional saying that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience. Proverbs are metaphorical and use formulaic language. Collectively, they form a genre of folklore; some proverbs exist in more than one language because people borrow them from languages and cultures similar to theirs. In the West, the Bible and medieval Latin have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs. Not all Biblical proverbs, were distributed to the same extent: one scholar has gathered evidence to show that cultures in which the Bible is the "major spiritual book contain between three hundred and five hundred proverbs that stem from the Bible," whereas another shows that, of the 106 most common and widespread proverbs across Europe, eleven are from the Bible; however every culture has its own unique proverbs. What is a proverb? Lord John Russell observed poetically that a "proverb is the wit of one, the wisdom of many." But giving the word "proverb" the sort of definition theorists need has proven to be a difficult task, although scholars quote Archer Taylor's argument that formulating a scientific "definition of a proverb is too difficult to repay the undertaking...
An incommunicable quality tells us that one is not. Hence no definition will enable us to identify positively a sentence as proverbial," many students of proverbs have attempted to itemize its essential characteristics. More constructively, Mieder has proposed the following definition, "A proverb is a short known sentence of the folk which contains wisdom, truth and traditional views in a metaphorical and memorizable form and, handed down from generation to generation". Norrick created a table of distinctive features to distinguish proverbs from idioms, etc. Prahlad distinguishes proverbs from some other related types of sayings, "True proverbs must further be distinguished from other types of proverbial speech, e.g. proverbial phrases, maxims and proverbial comparisons." Based on Persian proverbs and Ameri propose the following definition: "A proverb is a short sentence, well-known and at times rhythmic, including advice, sage themes and ethnic experiences, comprising simile, metaphor or irony, well-known among people for its fluent wording, clarity of expression, simplicity and generality and is used either with or without change".
There are many sayings in English that are referred to as "proverbs", such as weather sayings. Alan Dundes, rejects including such sayings among proverbs: "Are weather proverbs proverbs? I would say emphatically'No!'" The definition of "proverb" has changed over the years. For example, the following was labeled "A Yorkshire proverb" in 1883, but would not be categorized as a proverb by most today, "as throng as Throp's wife when she hanged herself with a dish-cloth"; the changing of the definition of "proverb" is noted in Turkish. In other languages and cultures, the definition of "proverb" differs from English. In the Chumburung language of Ghana, "aŋase are literal proverbs and akpare are metaphoric ones". Among the Bini of Nigeria, there are three words that are used to translate "proverb": ere and itan; the first relates to historical events, the second relates to current events, the third was "linguistic ornamentation in formal discourse". Among the Balochi of Pakistan and Afghanistan, there is a word batal for ordinary proverbs and bassīttuks for "proverbs with background stories".
There are language communities that combine proverbs and riddles in some sayings, leading some scholars to create the label "proverb riddles". Haste makes waste. You can catch more flies with honey. You can lead a horse to water; those who live in glass houses should not throw stones. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. Fortune favours. A little learning is a dangerous thing, it ain't over till the fat lady sings It is better to be smarter than you appear than to appear smarter than you are. Good things come to those. A poor workman blames his tools. A dog is a man's best friend. An apple a day keeps the doctor away If the shoe fits, wear it! Honesty is the best policy Slow and steady wins the race Don't count your chickens before they hatch Practice makes perfect. Better the devil you know than the devil you don't know Proverbs come from a variety of sources; some are, the result of people pondering and crafting language, such as some by Confucius, Baltasar Gracián, etc. Others are taken from such diverse sources as poetry, songs, advertisements, literature, etc.
A number of the well known sayings of Jesus and others have become proverbs, though they were original at the time of their creation, many of these sayings were not seen as proverbs when they were first coined. Many proverbs are based on stories the end of a story. For example, the proverb "Who will bell the cat?" is from the end of a story about the mice planning how to be safe from the cat. Some authors have created proverbs in their writings, such a J. R. R. Tolkien, some of these proverbs have made their way into broader society, such as the bumper sticker pictured below. C. S. Lewis' created proverb about a lobster in a pot, from the Chronicles of Narnia, has gained currency. In cases like this, deliberately created proverbs for fictional societies have bec
Ezaki Glico Co. Ltd. is a Japanese food company headquartered in Nishiyodogawa-ku, Osaka. It does business across 30 countries, in North Asia-Pacific and Europe. Ezaki Glico's primary business is manufacturing confectionery products such as chocolate, chewing gums and ice cream, dairy products. Additionally, Glico manufactures processed foods such as curry stocks and retort takikomi gohan pouch, dietary supplement products. Glico's main competitors are Meiji Seika, Morinaga and Bourbon Company in confectionery business, House Foods, Meiji and S&B Foods in processed food business. Ezaki Glico's main financier was Sanwa Bank, merged into the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ. Ezaki Glico is a member of a group of companies whose main financier was Sanwa Bank. "Good Taste and Good Health" "A Wholesome Life in the Best of Taste" In 1919, Riichi Ezaki created a caramel candy product containing glycogen extracted from oyster. The caramel candy product was named "Glico," a shortening of the word glycogen.
The sales copy of this product was "300 Meters in a Single Piece," and a running man was painted on the package. On February 11, 1922 Riichi started selling Glico products at Mitsukoshi Osaka branch. In 1922, Riichi established a company, Ezaki Glico Co. Ltd, its Osaka Factory and Tokyo Factory were destroyed during World War II, they were reopened in 1951. In 1984, Glico Morinaga case, a series of criminal incidents targeting Japanese major food manufacturers, occurred. Ezaki Glico was one of the victims. Katsuhisa Ezaki, President and CEO, was escaped by himself. Ezaki Glico was blackmailed and its office was burned by the criminals. Ezaki Glico has been expanding its business overseas. At first, in 1932, Ezaki Glico established its factory in China. In 1970, Ezaki Glico started its business in Thailand. In 1982, Generale Biscuit Glico France S. A. was started sales of Mikado in France. Ezaki Glico established Ezaki Glico USA Co. Ltd. in 2003. Additionally, it established PT Glico-Wings in 2013 and PT Glico Indonesia in 2014, both of which are Indonesian companies.
Ezaki Glico manufactures a wide variety of products. Just major products are listed here. TCHO, California based artisanal chocolate manufacturer of various chocolate bars. Glico, caramel product. In addition to the standard flavor, there are caramel flavor and crushed almond flavor products. Pocky, chocolate-coated pretzel sticks; the total sales from 1966 exceeds 10 billion packages. In Europe, this product is sold with the "Mikado" brand. Pretz, pretzel sticks. Almond Chocolate, almonds coated by chocolate. Caplico, frosting-dipped waffle biscuits in the shape of ice cream cones that come in either chocolate or strawberry flavor. Bisco, wheat germ crackers with yogurt cream using special yeast. BREO, an oral care candy, developed for cleaning the tongue and breath. Pucchin Pudding, the world's best-selling pudding product, its characteristic is a special package with which consumers can efficiently move the contents on a plate. Giant Cone, ice cream in a large cone with crisp chocolate and nut toppings.
Panapp, vanilla ice cream in a handy long cup with fruit sauce fillings in the centre. Papico, sherbet that comes in tubes. Ice no Mi, bite-sized round ice candies. Ezaki Glico promoted this product by an realistic CG character, Aimi Eguchi, created using facial features from members of the pop girl group, AKB48. Calorie Control Ice Cream series, which uses lower-calorie sweetening agents maltitol and sucralose in place of sugar and starch syrup used in ice cream. Tofu is used to replace dairy products to lower the amount of calories. Ni-dan Juku Curry, cubed-type Japanese-style curry stock. Donburi-tei, instant donburi retort pouch product. ICREO Balance Milk, a powdered baby formula manufactured by Icreo Co. Ltd. Ezaki Glico's large LED sign located above Dōtonbori in Osaka has been a landmark of the city since its initial construction in 1935, it bears the Glico running man on a blue race track, as well as some of Osaka's other landmarks in the background. The giant neon sign has been revised on several occasions in order to celebrate events such as the World Cup and to bolster team spirit for Osaka's baseball team, the Hanshin Tigers.
As the sign is quite well known, it has long been a popular photo stop for tourists as well as locals. Ezaki Glico was the main sponsor of the anime series Tetsujin 28. Aimi Eguchi, CGI pop idol created by Glico Pocky & Pretz Day, November 11 each year Glico Morinaga case Dōtonbori "Annual Report 2016". Ezaki Glico Co. Ltd. 2016. Retrieved February 7, 2017. "Company brochure". Ezaki Glico Co. Ltd. 2017a. Retrieved February 7, 2017. "Overview". Ezaki Glico Co. Ltd. 2017b. Retrieved February 7, 2017. "Global Locations". Ezaki Glico Co. Ltd. 2017c. Retrieved February 7, 2017. "Products". Ezaki Glico Co. Ltd. 2017d. Retrieved February 7, 2017. "メンバー会社一覧". Midori Kai. 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2017. "History". Ezaki Glico Co. Ltd. 2017e. Retrieved February 7, 2017. "ガム・キャンディー". 江崎グリコ. 2017f. Retrieved February 7, 2017. "Like iconic sign, confectionery giant Glico sets sights on overseas markets". The Japan Times. August 9, 2015. Retrieved February 7, 2017. "Ｗ杯侍ジャパン、タイガース仕様…いろんな顔持つ５代目も"消灯"新たなシンボルに高まる期待". Sankei West. August 24, 2014.
Retrieved February 7, 2017. "石川尚のファニチャーワ−ルド的この店この逸品#03 鉄人28号（オマ
Kabuki is a classical Japanese dance-drama. Kabuki theatre is known for the stylization of its drama and for the elaborate make-up worn by some of its performers; the individual kanji, from left to right, mean sing and skill. Kabuki is therefore sometimes translated as "the art of singing and dancing"; these are, ateji characters which do not reflect actual etymology. The kanji of'skill' refers to a performer in kabuki theatre. Since the word kabuki is believed to derive from the verb kabuku, meaning "to lean" or "to be out of the ordinary", kabuki can be interpreted as "avant-garde" or "bizarre" theatre; the expression kabukimono referred to those who were bizarrely dressed. It is translated into English as "strange things" or "the crazy ones", referred to the style of dress worn by gangs of samurai. In 2005, the Kabuki theatre was proclaimed by UNESCO as an intangible heritage possessing outstanding universal value. In 2008, it was inscribed in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
The history of kabuki began in 1603 when Izumo no Okuni a miko of Izumo-taisha, began performing a new style of dance drama in the dry riverbeds of Kyoto. It originated in the 17th century. Japan was under the control of the Tokugawa shogunate, enforced by Tokugawa Ieyasu; the name of the Edo period derives from the relocation of the Tokugawa regime from its former home in Kyoto to the city of Edo, present-day Tokyo. Female performers played both women in comic playlets about ordinary life; the style was popular, Okuni was asked to perform before the Imperial Court. In the wake of such success, rival troupes formed, kabuki was born as ensemble dance and drama performed by women—a form different from its modern incarnation. Much of its appeal in this era was due to the suggestive themes featured by many troupes. For this reason, kabuki was called "遊女歌舞妓" during this period. Kabuki became a common form of entertainment in the ukiyo, or Yoshiwara, the registered red-light district in Edo. A diverse crowd gathered under something that happened nowhere else in the city.
Kabuki theaters were a place to see and be seen as they featured the latest fashion trends and current events. The stage provided good entertainment with exciting new music, patterns and famous actors. Performances went from morning until sunset; the teahouses surrounding or connected to the theater provided meals and good company. The area around the theatres was filled with shops selling kabuki souvenirs. Kabuki, in a sense, initiated pop culture in Japan; the shogunate was never partial to kabuki and all the mischief it brought the variety of the social classes which mixed at kabuki performances. Women’s kabuki, called onna-kabuki, was banned in 1629 for being too erotic. Following onna-kabuki, young boys performed in wakashū-kabuki, but since they too were eligible for prostitution, the shōgun government soon banned wakashū-kabuki as well. Kabuki switched to adult male actors, called yaro-kabuki, in the mid-1600s. Male actors played both male characters; the theatre remained popular, remained a focus of urban lifestyle until modern times.
Although kabuki was performed all over ukiyo and other portions for the country, the Nakamura-za, Ichimura-za and Kawarazaki-za theatres became the top theatres in ukiyo, where some of the most successful kabuki performances were and still are held. The modern all-male kabuki, known as yarō-kabuki, was established during these decades. After women were banned from performing, cross-dressed male actors, known as onnagata or oyama, took over. Young men were preferred for women's roles due to their less masculine appearance and the higher pitch of their voices compared to adult men. In addition, wakashū roles, played by young men selected for attractiveness, became common, were presented in an erotic context. Along with the change in the performer's gender came a change in the emphasis of the performance: increased stress was placed on drama rather than dance. Performances were ribald, the male actors too were available for prostitution. Audiences became rowdy, brawls broke out, sometimes over the favors of a handsome young actor, leading the shogunate to ban first onnagata and wakashū roles.
Both bans were rescinded by 1652. During the Genroku era, kabuki thrived; the structure of a kabuki play was formalized during this period. Conventional character types were established. Kabuki theater and ningyō jōruri, the elaborate form of puppet theater that came to be known as bunraku, became associated with each other, each has since influenced the other's development; the famous playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon, one of the first professional kabuki playwrights, produced several influential works, though the piece acknowledged as his most significant, Sonezaki Shinjū, was written for bunraku. Like many bunraku plays, it was adapted for kabuki, it spawned many imitators—in fact, it and similar plays caused so many real-life "copycat" suicides that the government banned shinju mono in 1723. Ichikawa Danjūrō I lived during this time. Male actors played both male characters. In the 1840s, fires started to affect E
A clown is a comic performer who employs slapstick or similar types of physical comedy in a mime style. Clowns have a varied tradition with significant variations in performance; the most recognisable modern clown character is the Auguste or "red clown" type, with outlandish costumes featuring distinctive makeup, colourful wigs, exaggerated footwear, colourful clothing. Their entertainment style is designed to entertain large audiences. Modern clowns are associated with the tradition of the circus clown, which developed out of earlier comedic roles in theatre or Varieté shows during the 19th to mid 20th centuries. Many circus clowns are a key circus act in their own right; the first mainstream clown role was portrayed by Joseph Grimaldi. In the early 1800s, he expanded the role of Clown in the harlequinade that formed part of British pantomimes, notably at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and the Sadler's Wells and Covent Garden theatres, he became so dominant on the London comic stage that harlequinade Clowns became known as "Joey", both the nickname and Grimaldi's whiteface make-up design were, still are, used by other types of clowns.
The comedy that clowns perform is in the role of a fool whose everyday actions and tasks become extraordinary—and for whom the ridiculous, for a short while, becomes ordinary. This style of comedy has a long history in many cultures across the world; some writers have argued that due to the widespread use of such comedy and its long history it is a need, part of the human condition. The "fear of clowns," circus clowns in particular as a psychiatric condition has become known by the term coulrophobia; the "clown" character developed out of the zanni "rustic fool" characters of the early modern commedia dell'arte, which were themselves directly based on the "rustic fool" characters of ancient Greek and Roman theatre. Rustic buffoon characters in Classical Greek theater were known as sklêro-paiktês or deikeliktas, besides other generic terms for "rustic" or "peasant". In Roman theater, a term for clown was fossor "digger; the English word clown was first recorded c. 1560 in the generic meaning "rustic, peasant".
The origin of the word is uncertain from a Scandinavian word cognate with clumsy. It is in this sense that "Clown" is used as the name of fool characters in Shakespeare's Othello and The Winter's Tale; the sense of clown as referring to a professional or habitual fool or jester developed soon after 1600, based on Elizabethan "rustic fool" characters such as Shakespeare's. The harlequinade developed in England in the 17th century, it was here. A foil for Harlequin's slyness and adroit nature, Clown was a buffoon or bumpkin fool who resembled less a jester than a comical idiot, he was a lower class character dressed in tattered servants' garb. The now-classical features of the clown character were developed in the early 1800s by Joseph Grimaldi, who played Clown in Charles Dibdin's 1800 pantomime Peter Wilkins: or Harlequin in the Flying World at Sadler's Wells Theatre, where Grimaldi built the character up into the central figure of the harlequinade; the circus clown developed in the 19th century.
The modern circus derives from Philip Astley's London riding school, which opened in 1768. Astley added a clown to his shows to amuse the spectators between equestrian sequences. American comedian George L. Fox became known for his clown role, directly inspired by Grimaldi, in the 1860s. Tom Belling senior developed the "red clown" or "Auguste" character c. 1870, acting as a foil for the more sophisticated "white clown". Belling worked for Circus Renz in Vienna. Belling's costume became the template for the modern stock character of circus or children's clown, based on a lower class or "hobo" character, with red nose, white makeup around the eyes and mouth, oversized clothes and shoes; the clown character as developed by the late 19th century is reflected in Ruggero Leoncavallo's 1892 opera Pagliacci. Belling's Auguste character was further popularized by Nicolai Poliakoff's Coco in the 1920s to 1930s; the English word clown was borrowed, along with the circus clown act, from many other languages, such as French clown, Russian кло́ун, Greek κλόουν, Danish/Norwegian klovn, Romanian clovn etc.
Italian retains Pagliaccio, a Commedia dell'arte zanni character, derivations of the Italian term are found in other Romance languages, such as French Paillasse, Spanish payaso, Catalan/Galician pallasso, Portuguese palhaço, Greek παλιάτσος, Turkish palyaço, German Pajass, Yiddish פּאַיאַץ, Russian пая́ц. In the early 20th century, with the disappearance of the rustic simpleton or village idiot character of everyday experience, North American circuses developed characters such as the tramp or hobo. Examples include Marceline Orbes, who performed at the Hippodrome Theater, Charlie Chaplin's The Tramp, Emmett Kelly's Weary Willie based on hobos of the Depression era. Another influential tramp character was played by Otto Griebling during the 1930s to 1950s. Red Skelton's Dodo the Clown in The Clown, depicts the circus clown as a tragicomic stock character, "a funny man with a drinking problem". In the United States, Bozo the Clown was an influential Auguste character since the late 1950s; the Bozo Show premiered in 1960 and appeared nationally on cable television in 1978.
McDonald's derived Ronald McDonald, from the Bozo character in the 1960s. Willard Scott, who h
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ