Counterculture of the 1960s
The counterculture of the 1960s was an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom and the United States before spreading throughout much of the Western world between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity. The aggregate movement gained momentum as the Civil Rights Movement continued to grow, would become revolutionary with the expansion of the US government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam; as the 1960s progressed, widespread social tensions developed concerning other issues, tended to flow along generational lines regarding human sexuality, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychoactive drugs, differing interpretations of the American Dream. Many key movements related to these issues were born or advanced within the counterculture of the 1960s; as the era unfolded, new cultural forms and a dynamic subculture which celebrated experimentation, modern incarnations of Bohemianism, the rise of the hippie and other alternative lifestyles, emerged.
This embracing of creativity is notable in the works of British Invasion bands such as the Beatles, filmmakers whose works became far less restricted by censorship. In addition to the trendsetting Beatles, many other creative artists and thinkers, within and across many disciplines, helped define the counterculture movement. Several factors distinguished the counterculture of the 1960s from the anti-authoritarian movements of previous eras; the post-World War II "baby boom" generated an unprecedented number of disaffected young people as prospective participants in a rethinking of the direction of the United States and other democratic societies. Post-war affluence allowed many of the counterculture generation to move beyond a focus on the provision of the material necessities of life that had preoccupied their Depression-era parents; the era was notable in that a significant portion of the array of behaviors and "causes" within the larger movement were assimilated within mainstream society in the US though counterculture participants numbered in the clear minority within their respective national populations.
The counterculture era commenced in earnest with the assassination of John F. Kennedy in November 1963, it became absorbed into the popular culture with the termination of US combat military involvement in Southeast Asia and the end of the draft in 1973, with the resignation of President Richard Nixon in August 1974. The Cold War between communist states and capitalist states involved espionage and preparation for war between powerful nations, along with political and military interference by powerful states in the internal affairs of less powerful nations. Poor outcomes from some of these activities set the stage for disillusionment with, distrust of, post-war governments. Examples included harsh Soviet Union responses to popular anti-communist uprisings, such as the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968, the botched US Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961. In the US, President Dwight D. Eisenhower's initial deception over the nature of the 1960 U-2 incident resulted in the government being caught in a blatant lie at the highest levels, contributed to a backdrop of growing distrust of authority among many who came of age during the period.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty divided the establishment within the US along political and military lines. Internal political disagreements concerning treaty obligations in Southeast Asia in Vietnam, debate as to how other communist insurgencies should be challenged created a rift of dissent within the establishment. In the UK, the Profumo Affair involved establishment leaders being caught in deception, leading to disillusionment and serving as a catalyst for liberal activism; the Cuban Missile Crisis, which brought the world to the brink of nuclear war in October 1962, was fomented by duplicitous speech and actions on the part of the Soviet Union. The assassination of US President John F. Kennedy in November 1963, the attendant theories concerning the event, led to further diminished trust in government, including among younger people. Many social issues fueled the growth of the larger counterculture movement. One was a nonviolent movement in the United States seeking to resolve constitutional civil rights illegalities regarding general racial segregation, longstanding disfranchisement of blacks in the South by white-dominated state government, ongoing racial discrimination in jobs and access to public places in both the North and the South.
On college and university campuses, student activists fought for the right to exercise their basic constitutional rights freedom of speech and freedom of assembly. Many counterculture activists became aware of the plight of the poor, community organizers fought for the funding of anti-poverty programs in the South and within inner city areas in the United States. Environmentalism grew from a greater understanding of the ongoing damage caused by industrialization, resultant pollution, the misguided use of chemicals such as pesticides in well-meaning efforts to improve the quality of life for the growing population. Authors such as Rachel Carson played key roles in developing a new awareness among the global population of the fragility of our planet, despite resistance from elements of the establishment in many countries; the need to address minority rights of women, gay people, the handicapped, many other neglected constituencies within the larger population came to the forefront as an increasing number
Evanston is a city in Cook County, United States, 12 miles north of downtown Chicago, bordered by Chicago to the south, Skokie to the west, Wilmette to the north. It had a population of 74,486 as of 2010, it is one of the North Shore communities that adjoin Lake Michigan and is the home of Northwestern University. The boundaries of the city of Evanston are coterminous with those of the former Evanston Township, dissolved in 2014 by voters with its functions being absorbed by the city of Evanston. Prior to the 1830s, the area now occupied by Evanston was uninhabited, consisting of wetlands and swampy forest. However, Potawatomi Indians used trails along higher lying ridges that ran in a general north-south direction through the area, had at least some semi-permanent settlements along the trails. French explorers referred to the general area as "Grosse Pointe" after a point of land jutting into Lake Michigan about 13 miles north of the mouth of the Chicago River. After the first non-Native Americans settled in the area in 1836, the names "Grosse Point Territory" and "Gross Point voting district" were used through the 1830s and 1840s, although the territory had no defined boundaries.
The area remained only sparsely settled, supporting some farming and lumber activity on some of the higher ground, as well as a number of taverns or "hotels" along the ridge roads. Grosse Pointe itself eroded into the lake during this period. In 1850, a township called Ridgeville was organized, extending from Graceland Cemetery in Chicago to the southern edge of the Ouilmette Reservation, along what is now Central Street, from Lake Michigan to Western Avenue in Chicago; the 1850 census shows a few hundred settlers in this township, a post office with the name of Ridgeville was established at one of the taverns. However, no municipality yet existed. In 1851, a group of Methodist business leaders founded Northwestern University and Garrett Biblical Institute, they chose a bluffed and wooded site along the lake as Northwestern's home, purchasing several hundred acres of land from Dr. John Foster, a Chicago farm owner. In 1854, the founders of Northwestern submitted to the county judge their plans for a city to be named Evanston after John Evans, one of their leaders.
In 1857, the request was granted. The township of Evanston was split off from Ridgeville Township; the nine founders, including John Evans, Orrington Lunt, Andrew Brown, hoped their university would attain high standards of intellectual excellence. Today these hopes have been fulfilled, as Northwestern ranks with the best of the nation's universities. Evanston was formally incorporated as a town on December 29, 1863, but declined in 1869 to become a city despite the Illinois legislature passing a bill for that purpose. Evanston expanded after the Civil War with the annexation of the village of North Evanston. In early 1892, following the annexation of the village of South Evanston, voters elected to organize as a city; the 1892 boundaries are those that exist today. During the 1960s, Northwestern University changed the city's shoreline by adding a 74-acre lakefill. In 1939, Evanston hosted the first NCAA basketball championship final at Northwestern University's Patten Gymnasium. In August 1954, Evanston hosted the second assembly of the World Council of Churches, still the only WCC assembly to have been held in the United States.
President Dwight Eisenhower welcomed the delegates, Dag Hammarskjöld, secretary-general of the United Nations, delivered an important address entitled "An instrument of faith". Evanston first received power in April 1893. Many people lined the streets on Emerson St. where the first appearance of street lights were lined and turned on. Today, the city is home to Northwestern University, Music Institute of Chicago, other educational institutions, as well as headquarters of Alpha Phi International women's fraternity, Rotary International, the National Merit Scholarship Corporation, the National Lekotek Center, the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, the Sigma Chi Fraternity and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Evanston is the birthplace of Tinkertoys, is the one of the locations having originated the ice cream sundae. Evanston was Company, which for many years supplied the most jobs. Evanston was a dry community from 1858 until 1972, when the City Council voted to allow restaurants and hotels to serve liquor on their premises.
In 1984, the Council voted to allow retail liquor outlets within the city limits. According to the 2010 census, Evanston has a total area of 7.802 square miles, of which 7.78 square miles is land and 0.022 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 74,486 people, 30,047 households, 15,621 families residing in the city; the population density was 9,574.0 people per square mile. There were 33,181 housing units at an average density of 4,264.9 per square mile. The 2010 census showed that Evanston is ethnically mixed with the following breakdown in population: 65.6% White, 18.1% Black or African American, 0.2% American Indian or Alaska Native, 8.6% Asian, 0.02% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 3.6% some other race, 3.8% from two or more races. 9.0 % were Latino of any race. There were 30,047 households, out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.8% were headed by married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.0% were non-families.
37.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 10
Jerry Lee Lewis
Jerry Lee Lewis is an American singer-songwriter and pianist known by his nickname, The Killer. He has been described as "rock & roll's first great wild man."A pioneer of rock and roll and rockabilly music, Lewis made his first recordings in 1956 at Sun Records in Memphis. "Crazy Arms" sold 300,000 copies in the South, but it was his 1957 hit "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On" that shot Lewis to fame worldwide. He followed this with "Great Balls of Fire", "Breathless" and "High School Confidential". However, Lewis's rock and roll career faltered in the wake of his marriage to Myra Gale Brown, his 13-year-old cousin, he had minimal success in the charts following the scandal, his popularity eroded. Sun Records, through its label Phillips International, released "In the Mood" credited to The Hawk in an attempt to have the record-buyers think it was someone other than Lewis, they didn't buy it. His live performance fees plummeted from $10,000 per night to $250. In the meantime he was determined to gain back some of his popularity.
In the early 1960s, he did not have much chart success, with few exceptions, such as a cover of Ray Charles's "What'd I Say". His live performances at this time were wild and energetic, his 1964 live album Live at the Star Club, Hamburg is regarded by music journalists and fans as one of the wildest and greatest live rock albums ever. In 1968, Lewis made a transition into country music and had hits with songs such as "Another Place, Another Time"; this reignited his career, throughout the late 1960s and 1970s he topped the country-western charts. His No. 1 country hits included "To Make Love Sweeter for You", "There Must Be More to Love Than This", "Would You Take Another Chance on Me", "Me and Bobby McGee". Lewis's successes continued throughout the decade and he embraced his rock and roll past with songs such as a cover of the Big Bopper's "Chantilly Lace" and Mack Vickery's "Rockin' My Life Away". In the 21st century Lewis still releases new albums, his album Last Man Standing is his best selling to date, with over a million copies sold worldwide.
This was followed by Mean Old Man. Lewis has a dozen gold records in both country, he won several Grammy awards, including a Lifetime Achievement Award. Lewis was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986, his pioneering contribution to the genre has been recognized by the Rockabilly Hall of Fame, he was a member of the inaugural class inducted into the Memphis Music Hall of Fame. In 1989, his life was chronicled in the movie Great Balls of Fire, starring Dennis Quaid. In 2003, Rolling Stone listed his box set All Killer, No Filler: The Anthology number 242 on their list of "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". In 2004, they ranked him number 24 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Lewis is the last surviving member of Sun Records' Million Dollar Quartet and the Class of'55 album, which included Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison and Elvis Presley. Music critic Robert Christgau has said of Lewis: "His drive, his timing, his offhand vocal power, his unmistakable boogie-plus piano, his absolute confidence in the face of the void make Jerry Lee the quintessential rock and roller."
Lewis was born in 1935 to the poor farming family of Elmo and Mamie Lewis in Ferriday, Concordia Parish, in eastern Louisiana. In his youth, he began playing piano with two of Mickey Gilley and Jimmy Swaggart, his parents mortgaged their farm to buy him a piano. Lewis was influenced by a piano-playing older cousin, Carl McVoy, the radio, the sounds from Haney's Big House, a black juke joint across the tracks. On the live album By Request, More of the Greatest Live Show on Earth, Lewis is heard naming Moon Mullican as an artist who inspired him, he was influenced by the Great American Songbook and popular country singers like Jimmie Rodgers and Hank Williams. Williams in particular struck a chord with Lewis, who told biographer Rick Bragg in 2014, "I felt something when I listened to that man. I felt something different."His mother enrolled him in the Southwest Bible Institute, in Waxahachie, Texas, so that he would be singing evangelical songs exclusively. But Lewis daringly played a boogie-woogie rendition of "My God Is Real" at a church assembly, which ended his association with the school the same night.
Pearry Green president of the student body, related how during a talent show Lewis played some "worldly" music. The next morning, the dean of the school called Green into his office to expel them. Lewis said that Green should not be expelled because "he didn't know what I was going to do."After that incident, he went home and started playing at clubs in and around Ferriday and Natchez, becoming part of the burgeoning new rock and roll sound and cutting his first demo recording in 1954. Around 1955, he traveled to Nashville, where he played in clubs and attempted to build interest, but he was turned down by the Grand Ole Opry, as he had been at the Louisiana Hayride country stage and radio show in Shreveport. Recording executives in Nashville suggested. In November 1956, Lewis traveled to Tennessee, to audition for Sun Records. Label owner Sam Phillips was in Florida, but producer and engineer Jack Clement recorded Lewis's rendition of Ray Price's "Crazy Arms" and his own composition "End of the Road".
In December 1956, Lewis began recording prolifically, as a solo a
Woodstock was a music festival held on a dairy farm in the Catskill Mountains, northwest of New York City, between August 15–18, 1969, which attracted an audience of more than 400,000. Billed as "An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music", it was held at Max Yasgur's 600-acre dairy farm near White Lake in Bethel, New York, 43 miles southwest of Woodstock. Over the sometimes rainy weekend, 32 acts performed outdoors, it is regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history, as well as the definitive nexus for the larger counterculture generation. Rolling Stone listed it as number 19 of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Roll; the event was captured in the Academy Award-winning 1970 documentary movie Woodstock, an accompanying soundtrack album, Joni Mitchell's song "Woodstock", which commemorated the event and became a major hit for both Crosby, Nash & Young and Matthews Southern Comfort. Joni Mitchell said, "Woodstock was a spark of beauty" where half-a-million kids "saw that they were part of a greater organism".
In 2017, the festival site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Woodstock was initiated through the efforts of Michael Lang, Artie Kornfeld, Joel Rosenman, John P. Roberts. Roberts and Rosenman financed the project. Lang had some experience as a promoter, having co-organized a festival on the East Coast the prior year, the Miami Pop Festival, where an estimated 25,000 people attended the two-day event. Early in 1969, Roberts and Rosenman were New York City entrepreneurs, in the process of building Media Sound, a large audio recording studio complex in Manhattan. Lang and Kornfeld's lawyer, Miles Lourie, who had done legal work on the Media Sound project, suggested that they contact Roberts and Rosenman about financing a similar, but much smaller, studio Kornfeld and Lang hoped to build in Woodstock, New York. Unpersuaded by this Studio-in-the-Woods proposal and Rosenman counter-proposed a concert featuring the kind of artists known to frequent the Woodstock area. Kornfeld and Lang agreed to the new plan, Woodstock Ventures was formed in January 1969.
The company offices were located in an oddly decorated floor of 47 West 57th Street in Manhattan. Burt Cohen, his design group, Curtain Call Productions, oversaw the psychedelic transformation of the office. From the start, there were differences in approach among the four: Roberts was disciplined and knew what was needed for the venture to succeed, while the laid-back Lang saw Woodstock as a new, "relaxed" way of bringing entrepreneurs together; when Lang was unable to find a site for the concert and Rosenman, growing concerned, took to the road and came up with a venue. Similar differences about financial discipline made Roberts and Rosenman wonder whether to pull the plug or to continue pumping money into the project. In April 1969, Creedence Clearwater Revival became the first act to sign a contract for the event, agreeing to play for $10,000; the promoters had experienced difficulty landing big-name groups prior to Creedence committing to play. Creedence drummer Doug Clifford commented, "Once Creedence signed, everyone else jumped in line and all the other big acts came on."
Given their 3 a.m. start time and omission from the Woodstock film, Creedence members have expressed bitterness over their experiences regarding the festival. Woodstock was designed as a profit-making venture, it famously became a "free concert" only after the event drew hundreds of thousands more people than the organizers had prepared for. Tickets for the three-day event cost $18 in $24 at the gate. Ticket sales were limited to record stores in the greater New York City area, or by mail via a post office box at the Radio City Station Post Office located in Midtown Manhattan. Around 186,000 advance tickets were sold, the organizers anticipated 200,000 festival-goers would turn up; the original venue plan was for the festival to take place in Wallkill, New York near the proposed recording studio site owned by Alexander Tapooz. After local residents shot down that idea and Kornfeld thought they had found another possible location in Saugerties, New York, but they had misunderstood, as the landowner's attorney made clear, in a brief meeting with Roberts and Rosenman.
Growing alarmed at the lack of progress and Rosenman took over the search for a venue, discovered the 300-acre Mills Industrial Park in the town of Wallkill, New York, which Woodstock Ventures leased for $10,000 in the Spring of 1969. Town officials were assured. Town residents opposed the project. In early July, the Town Board passed a law requiring a permit for any gathering over 5,000 people. On July 15, 1969, the Wallkill Zoning Board of Appeals banned the concert on the basis that the planned portable toilets would not meet town code. Reports of the ban, turned out to be a publicity bonanza for the festival. In his 2007 book Taking Woodstock, Elliot Tiber relates that he offered to host the event on his 15-acre motel grounds, had a permit for such an event, he claims to have introduced the promoters to dairy farmer Max Yasgur. Lang, disputes Tiber's account and says that Tiber introduced him to a realtor, who drove him to Yasgur's farm without Tiber. Sam Yasgur, Max's son, agrees with Lang's account.
Yasgur's land formed a natural bowl sloping down to Filippini Pond on the land's north side. The stage would be set up at the bottom of the
John Winston Ono Lennon was an English singer and peace activist who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music. He and fellow member Paul McCartney formed a much-celebrated songwriting partnership. Along with George Harrison and Ringo Starr, the group achieved worldwide fame during the 1960s. In 1969, Lennon started the Plastic Ono Band with his second wife, Yoko Ono, he continued to pursue a solo career following the the Beatles' break-up in April 1970, he was born as John Winston Lennon in Liverpool, where he became involved in the skiffle craze as a teenager. In 1957, he formed his first band, the Quarrymen, which evolved into the Beatles in 1960. Further to his Plastic Ono Band singles such as "Give Peace a Chance" and "Instant Karma!", Lennon subsequently produced albums that included John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band and Imagine, songs such as "Working Class Hero", "Imagine" and "Happy Xmas". After moving to New York City in 1971, he never returned to England for the remainder of his life.
In 1975, he disengaged himself from the music business to raise his infant son Sean, but re-emerged with Ono in 1980 with the album Double Fantasy. He was shot and killed in the archway of his Manhattan apartment building three weeks after the album's release. Lennon revealed a rebellious nature and acerbic wit in his music, drawings, on film and in interviews, he was controversial through his political and peace activism. From 1971 onwards, his criticism of the Vietnam War resulted in a three-year attempt by the Nixon administration to deport him; some of his songs were adopted as anthems by the larger counterculture. By 2012, Lennon's solo album sales in the United States had exceeded 14 million units, he had 25 number-one singles on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart as a co-writer or performer. In 2002, Lennon was voted eighth in a BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons and in 2008, Rolling Stone ranked him the fifth-greatest singer of all time. In 1987, he was posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame.
Lennon was twice posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: first in 1988 as a member of the Beatles and again in 1994 as a solo artist. Lennon was born on 9 October 1940 at Liverpool Maternity Hospital, to Alfred Lennon. Alfred was a merchant seaman of Irish descent, away at the time of his son's birth, his parents named him John Winston Lennon after his paternal grandfather, John "Jack" Lennon, Prime Minister Winston Churchill. His father was away from home but sent regular pay cheques to 9 Newcastle Road, where Lennon lived with his mother; when he came home six months he offered to look after the family, but Julia, by pregnant with another man's child, rejected the idea. After her sister Mimi complained to Liverpool's Social Services twice, Julia gave her custody of Lennon. In July 1946, Lennon's father visited her and took his son to Blackpool, secretly intending to emigrate to New Zealand with him. Julia followed them – with her partner at the time, Bobby Dykins – and after a heated argument, his father forced the five-year-old to choose between them.
In one account of this incident, Lennon twice chose his father, but as his mother walked away, he began to cry and followed her. According to author Mark Lewisohn, Lennon's parents agreed that Julia should take him and give him a home. A witness, there that day, Billy Hall, has said that the dramatic portrayal of a young John Lennon being forced to make a decision between his parents is inaccurate. Lennon had no further contact with Alf for close to 20 years. Throughout the rest of his childhood and adolescence, Lennon lived at Mendips, 251 Menlove Avenue, with Mimi and her husband George Toogood Smith, who had no children of their own, his aunt purchased volumes of short stories for him, his uncle, a dairyman at his family's farm, bought him a mouth organ and engaged him in solving crossword puzzles. Julia visited Mendips on a regular basis, when John was 11 years old, he visited her at 1 Blomfield Road, where she played him Elvis Presley records, taught him the banjo, showed him how to play "Ain't That a Shame" by Fats Domino.
In September 1980, Lennon commented about his family and his rebellious nature: Part of me would like to be accepted by all facets of society and not be this loudmouthed lunatic poet/musician. But I cannot be what I am not... I was the one who all the other boys' parents – including Paul's father – would say, "Keep away from him"... The parents instinctively recognised I was a troublemaker, meaning I did not conform and I would influence their children, which I did. I did my best to disrupt every friend's home... Out of envy that I didn't have this so-called home... but I did... There were five women. Five strong, beautiful women, five sisters. One happened to be my mother. Just couldn't deal with life, she was the youngest and she had a husband who ran away to sea and the war was on and she couldn't cope with me, I ended up living with her elder sister. Now those women were fantastic... And, my first feminist education... I would infiltrate the other boys' minds. I could say, "Parents are not gods because I don't live with mine and, therefore, I know."
He visited his cousin, Stanley Parkes, who lived in Fleetwood and took him on trips to local cinemas. During the school holidays, Parkes visited Lennon with Leila Harvey, another cousin, the threesome travelled to Blackpool two or three times a week to watch shows, they would
Dont Look Back
Dont Look Back is a 1967 American documentary film by D. A. Pennebaker that covers Bob Dylan's 1965 concert tour in England. In 1998 the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant." In a 2014 Sight & Sound poll, film critics voted Dont Look Back the joint ninth best documentary film of all time. The opening scene of the film served as a kind of music video for Dylan's song "Subterranean Homesick Blues", in which the singer displays and discards a series of cue cards bearing selected words and phrases from the lyrics. Allen Ginsberg makes a cameo appearance during this episode; the film features Joan Baez and Alan Price, Dylan's manager Albert Grossman and his road manager Bob Neuwirth. Marianne Faithfull, John Mayall, Ginger Baker, Allen Ginsberg may be glimpsed in the background; the film shows a young Dylan: confident if not arrogant and contrary, but charismatic and charming.
Notable scenes include: Dylan's extended taunting of Time Magazine's London arts and science correspondent Horace Freeland Judson, subjected to what he believes to be a contrived tirade of abuse from Dylan. Dylan's interrupting Alan Price's backstage performance of "Little Things" to ask Price why he left the Animals. Dylan and Baez singing Hank Williams songs in a hotel room, as well as Baez singing the first few verses of "Percy's Song" and "Love Is Just a Four-Letter Word". Dylan's pre-concert philosophical jousting with a "science student". Grossman negotiating with former Bebop Dance band leader and music agent Tito Burns. Dylan singing "Only a Pawn in Their Game" on July 6, 1963, at a Voters' Registration Rally in Greenwood, Mississippi. A selection of songs from Dylan's Royal Albert Hall performance. Dylan regaling the room with "It's All Over Now, Baby Blue" after proclaiming "Hey, that's a good song, man!" during Donovan's performance of "To Sing for You". Dylan's romance with Baez had pretty much run its course by the time of the tour, the film candidly captures what amounts to their breakup.
Bob Dylan Albert Grossman Bob Neuwirth Joan Baez Alan Price Tito Burns Donovan Derroll Adams Howard Alk Jones Alk Chris Ellis Terry Ellis Marianne Faithfull Allen Ginsberg John Mayall Brian Pendleton Tom Wilson The original title of this film is Dont Look Back, without an apostrophe in the first word. D. A. Pennebaker, the film's writer director, decided to punctuate the title this way because "It was my attempt to simplify the language". Many sources, have assumed this to be a typographical error and have "corrected" the title to Don't Look Back. In the commentary track to the DVD release, Pennebaker said that the title came from the Satchel Paige quote, "Don't look back. Something might be gaining on you," and that Dylan shared this view; the title appears as a line in Dylan's song "She Belongs to Me" from the 1965 album Bringing It All Back Home. Pennebaker has said that he was not aware, when deciding on the film title, that it had appeared in one of Dylan's songs, that he knew Dylan did not want a song lyric to be the title.
Pennebaker has stated that the famous "Subterranean Homesick Blues" music video, shown at the beginning of the film was shot at the end of filming. Pennebaker decided during editing to place it at the beginning of the film as a "stage" for Dylan to begin the film; the film was first shown publicly May 17, 1967, at the Presidio Theater in San Francisco, opened that September at the 34th Street East Theater in New York. A transcript of the film, with photographs, was published in 1968 by Ballantine Books; the film has been well received by critics. It has a rating of 100% on Rotten Tomatoes based on reviews; the film received a 5 star review from allmovie. In August 1967, a Newsweek reviewer wrote:Dont Look Back is about fame and how it menaces art, about the press and how it categorizes, sterilizes, universalizes or conventionalizes an original like Dylan into something it can dimly understand. Dont Look Back has been available on DVD for several years, it was digitally remastered and re-released on DVD February 27, 2007.
The two-disc edition contained the remastered film, five additional audio tracks, commentary by filmmaker D. A. Pennebaker and Tour Road Manager Bob Neuwirth, an alternative version on the video for "Subterranean Homesick Blues", the original companion book edited by D. A. Pennebaker to coincide with the film's release in 1968, a flip-book for a section of the "Subterranean Homesick Blues" video, a brand new documentary by D. A. Pennebaker and edited by Walker Lamond called 65 Revisited; the DVD packaging was given new artwork. On November 24, 2015, The Criterion Collection released a newly restored 4K transfer of the film on Blu-ray and DVD; the Criterion version contained new special features. The band Belle & Sebastian reference the movie in their 1996 album If You're Feeling Sinister during the song "Like Dylan in the Movies". Jill Sobule references the movie in her 2000 album Pink Pearl during the song "H
National Film Registry
The National Film Registry is the United States National Film Preservation Board's selection of films deserving of preservation. The NFPB, established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1988, was reauthorized by acts of Congress in 1992, 1996, 2005, again in October 2008; the NFPB's mission, to which the NFR contributes, is to ensure the survival and increased public availability of America's film heritage. The 1996 law created the non-profit National Film Preservation Foundation which, although affiliated with the NFPB, raises money from the private sector; the NFPB adds to the NFR up to 25 "culturally or aesthetically significant films" each year, showcasing the range and diversity of American film heritage to increase awareness for its preservation. A film becomes eligible for inclusion ten years after its original release. For the first selection in 1989, the public nominated 1,000 films for consideration. Members of the NFPB developed individual ballots of possible films for inclusion.
The ballots were tabulated into a list of 25 films, modified by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington and his staff at the Library for the final selection. Since 1997, members of the public have been able to nominate up to 50 films a year for the NFPB and Librarian to consider; the NFR includes films ranging from Hollywood classics to orphan films. A film is not required to be feature-length, nor is it required to have been theatrically released in the traditional sense. In addition, television programs and foreign films are not excluded from consideration, although American films are given preference; the Registry contains newsreels, silent films, student films, experimental films, short films, music videos, films out of copyright protection or in the public domain, film serials, home movies, documentaries and independent films. As of the 2018 listing, there are 750 films in the Registry; the earliest listed film is Newark Athlete, the most recent is Brokeback Mountain. Counting the 11 multi-year serials in the NFR once each by year of completion, the year with the most films selected is 1939, with 19 films from that year chosen.
The time between a film's debut and its selection varies greatly. The longest span is 121 years; the shortest span is the minimum 10 years. This table is through the 2018 induction list. For purposes of this list, multi-year serials are counted only once by year of completion. Category:United States National Film Registry films National Recording Registry These Amazing Shadows, a 2011 documentary film that tells the history and importance of the registry National Film Registry homepage Classic Movie Hub: National Film Registry List These Amazing Shadows site for Independent Lens on PBS