Claret was the code name given to operations conducted from about July 1964 until July 1966 from East Malaysia across the border in Indonesian Kalimantan during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation. They were instigated by the Director of Borneo Operations Major General Walter Walker with the agreement of the British and Malaysian governments, their purpose was to seize the initiative and put the Indonesians on the defensive instead of allowing Indonesian forces to be safely based in Kalimantan and attack when and where they chose. However, it was important not to cause the Indonesians to lose face and escalate the conflict, or to enable Indonesia to present evidence of'imperialist aggression', so Claret operations were classified and never publicised, although it seems that some British journalists were aware of what transpired. British casualties on Claret operations were publicly reported as being in East Malaysia; these operations involved both special forces and infantry. Special forces were reconnaissance patrols crossing the border from the Malaysian state of Sarawak or Sabah into Indonesian Kalimantan in order to find and monitor Indonesian forces who might attack Sarawak or Sabah.
Conventional forces were tasked to act on this information and that from other sources to ambush or otherwise attack the Indonesians under a policy of'aggressive defence'. Such operations were to be'deniable' as they may have represented a violation of state sovereignty, however they were justified at the time as an instance of hot pursuit. Operation Claret was successful in gaining the initiative for the British Commonwealth forces, inflicting significant casualties on the Indonesians and keeping them on the defensive, before being suspended late in the war; the border between East Malaysia and Kalimantan was not well defined and 22 Special Air Service reconnaissance patrols seem to have liberally interpreted its inexactitude from late 1963 or early 1964. From early 1964 Indonesian cross-border raids increased and the mixed attacks by ill-trained'volunteers"advised' by Indonesian troops were replaced by an increasing numbers of raids comprising only Indonesian armed forces; this caused increasing concern to DOBOPS.
However, in July 1964 the new Labour government in London approved cross-border offensive operations to a depth of 5,000 yards by both special forces and infantry under the code-name Claret. DOBOPS added additional conditions, seven'Golden Rules': authorisation by DOBOPS for every operation, only trained and tested troops to be used, penetration depth to be limited, attacks only to thwart enemy offensive action, never retribution of casualties, civilian casualties never to be risked, no air support, except in extreme emergency, operations to be planned and rehearsed for at least two weeks, every operation to be planned and executed with maximum security, cover plans made, code names for each operation, soldiers sworn to secrecy no details to be discussed over radio or telephone, no id disks to be worn and no identifiable material to be left in Kalimantan, no soldiers to be captured alive or dead. Claret operations were only publicly disclosed by Britain in 1974, whilst the Australian government did not acknowledge its involvement until 1996.
The number of Claret operations and their objectives is unclear. Weekly operational reports by brigade, higher headquarters and some units are available in UK National Archives, they do not identify any actions as Claret. They outline'contacts' in a way that implies they took place in East Malaysia but provide a grid reference, from which those south of the border can be identified with the aid of a 1:50,000 scale map. However, the border is some 1,000 miles long; the operations varied in size from 4 man special forces reconnaissance patrols to infantry fighting patrols in company strength, sometimes coordinated in a battalion operation. They included at least one'permanent' Claret task, an artillery position astride the border ridge with authority to fire at any identifiable Indonesian forces inside Indonesia. Infantry tasks included fighting patrols inside Indonesia looking for opportunity'contacts', attacks on Indonesian positions and ambushing tracks and rivers. Apart from special forces, only Gurkha infantry were used in company strength, a battalion could only have one operation at a time.
As experience and the situation developed these changed, the Golden Rules on preparation and rehearsal, the definition of thwarting offensive action relaxed. So too was the need for'sworn secrecy', if it existed, an early ban on internal discussion of operations. In 1965 penetration limits were increased to 10,000 yards in the wake of the Indonesian assault at the Battle of Plaman Mapu, 20,000 yards. Small amphibious raids on the flanks by Special Boat Service were authorised. Infantry operations were if not always, within artillery range, their depth was affected by the threat of interception while withdrawing, greater when the Indonesian troop density was higher as it was in the areas south of Kuching. Another constraint was the limited range of man-pack VHF radios A41 & 42, mountainous terrain in some areas. However, A510, an Australian made small HF radio using continuous wave was used in some areas and new A13 HF radios appeared in early 1966. Intelligence for these operations came from several sources.
These included SAS patrols, Border Scouts, information from locals gathered by Border Scouts, Military Intelligence Officers and Field Intelligence NCOs, police Special Branch and others. SIGINT collection is unknown. Infantry operat
Proclamation of Indonesian Independence
The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence was read at 10:00 a.m. on Friday, 17 August 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands and pro-Dutch civilians, until the latter acknowledged Indonesia's independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlands declared that they had decided to accept de facto 17 August 1945 as Indonesia's independence date. On September 14, 2011 a Dutch court ruled in the Rawagede massacre case that the Dutch state was responsible because it has the duty to defend its inhabitants, which indicated that the area was part of the Dutch East Indies in contradiction of the Indonesian claim of 17 August 1945 as its date of independence. In a 2013 interview the Indonesian historian Sukotjo, amongst others, asked the Dutch government to formally acknowledge the date of independence as 17 August 1945; the United Nations recognizes the date of December 27, 1949. The document was signed by Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who were appointed president and vice-president the following day.
The draft was prepared only a few hours earlier, on the night of 16 August, by Sukarno and Soebardjo, at the house of Rear-Admiral Tadashi Maeda, Miyako-Doori 1, Jakarta. Aside from the three Indonesian leaders and Admiral Maeda, three Japanese agents were present at the drafting: Tomegoro Yoshizumi, Shigetada Nishijima, Miyoshi; the original Indonesian Declaration of Independence was typed by Sayuti Melik. Maeda himself was sleeping in his room upstairs, he was agreeable to the idea of Indonesia's independence, had lent his house for the drafting of the declaration. Marshal Terauchi, the highest-ranking Japanese leader in South East Asia and son of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was however against Indonesia's independence, scheduled for 24 August. While the formal preparation of the declaration, the official independence itself for that matter, had been planned a few months earlier, the actual declaration date was brought forward inadvertently as a consequence of the Japanese unconditional surrender to the Allies on 15 August following the Nagasaki atomic bombing.
The historic event was triggered by a plot, led by a few more radical youth activists such as Adam Malik and Chairul Saleh, that put pressure on Sukarno and Hatta to proclaim independence immediately. The declaration was to be signed by the 27 members of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence symbolically representing the new nation's diversity; the particular act was inspired by a similar spirit of the United States Declaration of Independence. However, the idea was turned down by the radical activists mentioned earlier, arguing that the committee was too associated with soon to be defunct Japanese occupation rule, thus creating a potential credibility issue. Instead, the radical activists demanded that the signatures of six of them were to be put on the document. All parties involved in the historical moment agreed on a compromise solution which only included Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta as the co-signers'in the name of the nation of Indonesia'. Sukarno had wanted the declaration to be read at Ikada Plain, the large open field in the centre of Jakarta, but due to unfounded widespread apprehension over the possibility of Japanese sabotage, the venue was changed to Sukarno's house at Pegangsaan Timur 56.
There was no concrete evidence for the growing suspicions, as the Japanese had surrendered to the Allies, The declaration of independence passed without a hitch. The proclamation at 56, Jalan Pegangsaan Timur, was heard throughout the country because the text was secretly broadcast by Indonesian radio personnel using the transmitters of the JAKARTA Hoso Kyoku radio station. An English translation of the proclamation was broadcast overseas. Proklamasi Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Hal2 jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l. Diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempoh jang sesingkat-singkatnja Djakarta, 17-8-'05 Wakil2 Bangsa Indonesia Three amendments were made to the draft, as follows: "tempoh": changed to "tempo", both meaning "time period". "17-8-45": changed to "hari 17, boelan 8, tahoen 05". P R O K L A M A S I Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l. Diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja.
Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen 05 Atas nama bangsa Indonesia, Soekarno/Hatta. An English translation published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as of October 1948 included the entire speech as read by Sukarno, it incorporated remarks made prior to and after the actual proclamation. George McTurnan Kahin, a historian on Indonesia, believed that they were omitted from publication in Indonesia either due to Japanese control of media outlets or fear of provoking a harsh Japanese response. PROCLAMATION WE THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA HEREBY DECLARE THE INDEPENDENCE OF INDONESIA. MATTERS WHICH CONCERN THE TRANSFER OF POWER AND OTHER THINGS WILL BE EXECUTED BY CAREFUL MEANS AND IN THE SHORTEST POSSIBLE TIME. DJAKARTA, 17 AUGUST 1945 IN THE NAME OF THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA SOE
Suharto was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years, from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998. He was regarded by foreign commentators as a dictator. However, his legacy is still debated at home and abroad. Suharto was born in a small village, Kemusuk, in the Godean area near the city of Yogyakarta, during the Dutch colonial era, he grew up in humble circumstances. His Javanese Muslim parents divorced not long after his birth, he lived with foster parents for much of his childhood. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, Suharto served in Japanese-organised Indonesian security forces. Indonesia's independence struggle saw his joining the newly formed Indonesian Army. Suharto rose to the rank of major general following Indonesian independence. An attempted coup on 30 September 1965 backed by the Communist Party of Indonesia was countered by Suharto-led troops; the army subsequently led an anti-communist purge, which the U.
S. Central Intelligence Agency described as "one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century" and Suharto wrested power from Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, he was appointed acting president in 1967, elected President the following year. He mounted a social campaign known as De-Sukarnoization to reduce the former President's influence. Support for Suharto's presidency was strong throughout the 1980s. By the 1990s, the New Order's authoritarianism and widespread corruption were a source of discontent and, following the Asian financial crisis in 1997-98 which led to widespread unrest, he resigned in May 1998. Suharto was given a state funeral; the legacy of Suharto's 31-year rule is debated both in Indonesia and abroad. Under his "New Order" administration, Suharto constructed a strong and military-dominated government. An ability to maintain stability over a sprawling and diverse Indonesia and an avowedly anti-Communist stance won him the economic and diplomatic support of the West during the Cold War.
For most of his presidency, Indonesia experienced significant economic growth and industrialisation improving health and living standards. Plans to award National Hero status to Suharto are being considered by the Indonesian government and have been debated vigorously in Indonesia. According to Transparency International, Suharto is the most corrupt leader in modern history, having embezzled an alleged $15–35 billion during his rule. Suharto was born on 8 June 1921 during the Dutch East Indies era, in a plaited-bamboo-walled house in the hamlet of Kemusuk, a part of the larger village of Godean; the village is 15 kilometres west of Yogyakarta, the cultural heartland of the Javanese. Born to ethnic Javanese parents, he was the only child of his father's second marriage, his father, had two children from his previous marriage, was a village irrigation official. His mother, Sukirah, a local woman, was distantly related to Hamengkubuwana V by his first concubine. Five weeks after Suharto's birth, his mother suffered a nervous breakdown and he was placed in the care of his paternal great-aunt, Kromodirjo.
Kertosudiro and Sukirah divorced early in Suharto's life and both remarried. At the age of three, Suharto was returned to his mother, who had married a local farmer whom Suharto helped in the rice paddies. In 1929, Suharto's father took him to live with his sister, married to an agricultural supervisor, Prawirowihardjo, in the town of Wuryantoro in a poor and low-yielding farming area near Wonogiri. Over the following two years, he was taken back to his mother in Kemusuk by his stepfather and back again to Wuryantoro by his father. Prawirowihardjo took to raising the boy as his own, which provided Suharto a father-figure and a stable home in Wuryantoro. In 1931, he moved to the town of Wonogiri to attend the primary school, living first with Prawirohardjo's son Sulardi, with his father's relative Hardjowijono. While living with Hardjowijono, Suharto became acquinted with Darjatmo, a dukun of Javanese mystical arts and faith healing; the experience affected him and as president, Suharto surrounded himself with powerful symbolic language.
Difficulties in paying the fees for his education in Wonogiri resulted in another move back to his father in Kemusuk, where he continued studying at a lower-fee Muhammadiyah middle school in the city of Yogyakarta until 1939. Like many Javanese, Suharto had only one name. In religious contexts in recent years he has sometimes been called "Haji" or "el-Haj Mohammed Suharto" but these names were not part of his formal name or used; the spelling "Suharto" reflects modern Indonesian spelling, although the general approach in Indonesia is to rely on the spelling preferred by the person concerned. At the time of his birth, the standard transcription was "Soeharto" but he preferred the original spelling; the international English-language press uses the spelling'Suharto' while the Indonesian government and media use'Soeharto'. Suharto's upbringing contrasts with that of leading Indonesian nationalists such as Sukarno in that he is believed to have had little interest in anti-colonialism, or political concerns beyond his immediate surroundings.
Unlike Sukarno and his circle, Suharto had no contact with European colonizers. He did not learn to speak Dutch or other European languages in his youth, he learned to speak Dutch after his induction into the Dutch military in 1940. Suharto took a clerical job at a bank in Wuryantaro, he was forced to resign. Following a s
The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto is an 1848 political pamphlet by the German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and published in London just as the Revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents, it presents an analytical approach to the class struggle and the conflicts of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. The Communist Manifesto summarises Marx and Engels' theories concerning the nature of society and politics, namely that in their own words "he history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles", it briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would be replaced by socialism. Near the end of the Manifesto, the authors call for a "forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions", which served as the justification for all communist revolutions around the world.
In 2013, The Communist Manifesto was registered to UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme along with Marx's Capital, Volume I. The Communist Manifesto is divided into a preamble and four sections, the last of these a short conclusion; the introduction begins by proclaiming: "A spectre is haunting Europe—the spectre of communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre". Pointing out that parties everywhere—including those in government and those in the opposition—have flung the "branding reproach of communism" at each other, the authors infer from this that the powers-that-be acknowledge communism to be a power in itself. Subsequently, the introduction exhorts Communists to publish their views and aims, to "meet this nursery tale of the spectre of communism with a manifesto of the party itself"; the first section of the Manifesto, "Bourgeois and Proletarians", elucidates the materialist conception of history, that "the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles".
Societies have always taken the form of an oppressed majority exploited under the yoke of an oppressive minority. In capitalism, the industrial working class, or proletariat, engage in class struggle against the owners of the means of production, the bourgeoisie; as before, this struggle will end in a revolution that restructures society, or the "common ruin of the contending classes". The bourgeoisie, through the "constant revolutionising of production uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions" have emerged as the supreme class in society, displacing all the old powers of feudalism; the bourgeoisie exploits the proletariat for its labour power, creating profit for themselves and accumulating capital. However, in doing so the bourgeoisie serves as "its own grave-diggers". "Proletarians and Communists", the second section, starts by stating the relationship of conscious communists to the rest of the working class. The communists' party will not oppose other working-class parties, but unlike them, it will express the general will and defend the common interests of the world's proletariat as a whole, independent of all nationalities.
The section goes on to defend communism from various objections, including claims that it advocates communal prostitution or disincentivises people from working. The section ends by outlining a set of short-term demands—among them a progressive income tax; the third section, "Socialist and Communist Literature", distinguishes communism from other socialist doctrines prevalent at the time—these being broadly categorised as Reactionary Socialism. While the degree of reproach toward rival perspectives varies, all are dismissed for advocating reformism and failing to recognise the pre-eminent revolutionary role of the working class. "Position of the Communists in Relation to the Various Opposition Parties", the concluding section of the Manifesto discusses the communist position on struggles in specific countries in the mid-nineteenth century such as France, Switzerland and Germany, this last being "on the eve of a bourgeois revolution" and predicts that a world revolution will soon follow. It ends by declaring an alliance with the democratic socialists, boldly supporting other communist revolutions and calling for united international proletarian action—"Working Men of All Countries, Unite!".
In spring 1847, Marx and Engels joined the League of the Just, who were convinced by the duo's ideas of "critical communism". At its First Congress in 2–9 June, the League tasked Engels with drafting a "profession of faith", but such a document was deemed inappropriate for an open, non-confrontational organisation. Engels wrote the "Draft of a Communist Confession of Faith", detailing the League's programme. A few months in October, Engels arrived at the League's Paris branch to find that Moses Hess had written an inadequate manifesto for the group, now called the League of Communists. In Hess's absence, Engels criticised this manifesto, convinced the rest of the League to entrust him with drafting a new one; this became the draft Prin
Belitung is an island on the east coast of Sumatra, Indonesia in the Java Sea. It covers 4,800.6 km2, had a population of 271,868 in 2014. Administratively, it forms part of the province of Bangka-Belitung Islands; the island is known for its tin. It was in the possession of the United Kingdom from 1812 until Britain ceded control of the island to the Netherlands in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, its main town is Tanjung Pandan. The population was 262,357 at the 2010 Census; the population is centred in several small towns. While ethnic Malays people make up the largest percentage along with Chinese people, Belitung has significant populations of Bugis and Javanese people who worked for the Dutch, mining tin. There is a small population of Madurese who were settled there in the Suharto era transmigration. Before the arrival of Dutch missionaries, the island's inhabitants and most of the Indonesian archipelago had converted from Hinduism and Animism to Islam due to the work of Chinese Muslim traders.
As a result, Christian churches were unable to gain considerable numbers of followers. Today, Belitung is a religiously diverse island. Sunni Islam is the most practised religion, with sizeable minorities of Buddhists and Confucianists. In Belitung island, the only Airport is in Belitung Regency; as Hanandjoedin International Airport serving plane to Pangkal Pinang Airport and plane to Soekarno-Hatta International airport and International flight to Changi International airport using Garuda Indonesia. Skyteam airline Garuda Indonesia have four direct flights from Singapore. Starting 29th October 2018, the Singapore - Tanjung Pandan direct flight will operate 4 times weekly - leaving at 5:20 pm on Mondays and Fridays, 5:30 pm on Sundays. Belitung island have four ports,three in Belitung Regency and one In East Belitung Regency, serving Cargo Ship and ferry ship. Online taxi such as Go-Jek and Grab are available, as well as regular taxicab such as Taxi Bandara and Street Taxi, it is a medium-sized island of about 1,840 square miles.
The highest one is Mount Tajam with a height of less than 500 metres. Belitung is bordered by the South China Sea and the Java Sea, its turquoise blue sea is moderately calm and shallow, making for great sailing and swimming. Belitung is popular for its abstract granite boulders and brilliant white sand beaches in Tanjung Tinggi, Tanjung Kelayang, Tanjung Binga and Lengkuas island. Belitung is a source of tin, iron ore and silica sands; the Dutch mining company NV Billiton Maatschappij derives its name from the island's name. Billiton merged with BHP in 2001 to form the largest diversified resources company, BHP Billiton; the island is a producer of fishery products, pepper and palm oil. People work as farmers and miners; the island is accessible with eight daily 1-hour flights from Jakarta and 2 daily flights, with duration of 30 minutes and 50 minutes each, from Pangkal Pinang. The white sand beaches and offshore islands are helping tourism to become a larger part of the economy; the main tourist destinations are offshore islands/islets.
The beaches are Tanjung Tinggi Beach and Tanjung Kelayang Beach, both of which have clear blue water and rocky beaches. The islands/islets are Batu Berlayar Island, granite, Pasir Island, a tidal island made of sand, Bird Islet (Pulau Burong, which one can access from Tanjung Binga beach by walking at low tide, Lengkuas Island, the home of a 129-year-old lighthouse and a good place for snorkeling, Babi Island and Kelayang Islet. on East Belitung Kelapa Kampit, you would find a new tourist attraction. A magnificent Kong Hu Chu temple called; this building shortly became a centre piece of its city. It cost USD 456,000 to build the whole temple and It is from a donation from its people; the temple is expected to attract more tourists to East Belitung area. Belitung shipwreck Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 Belitung travel guide from Wikivoyage
Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
Communist Party of Indonesia
The Communist Party of Indonesia was a communist party in Indonesia that existed throughout the mid-20th century. It was the largest non-ruling communist party in the world prior to being eradicated in 1965 and banned in the following year; the party counted 2 million members in the 1955 elections with 16 percent of the national vote and close to 30 percent of the votes in East Java. During most of the period following independence until the eradication of the PKI in 1965, the PKI was a legal party operating in Indonesia’s political system. An important early organization was founded by Dutch socialist Henk Sneevliet and another Indies socialist who form harbor labor in 1914, under the name Indies Social Democratic Association. ISDV was constituted by the 85 members of the two Dutch socialist parties, SDAP and Socialist Party of Netherlands who would become communist SDP, residing in the Dutch East Indies leadership; the Dutch members of the ISDV introduced Marxist ideas to educated Indonesians looking for ways to oppose colonial rule.
In October 1915, ISDV began a publication in Het Vrije Woord. The editor was Adolf Baars; the ISDV did not demand independence at the time of its formation. At this point ISDV had around 100 members, out of. However, it moved into a radical and anticapitalist direction; this however changed when Sneevliet moved ISDV's headquarters from Surabaya to Semarang and began attracting many natives from like-minded religious and other activist movements whom had been sprouting throughout the Dutch Indies since 1900. ISDV under Sneevliet became incompatible with the SDAP leadership in the Netherlands, who distanced themselves from the ISDV, beginning to label them as the "faking" Peoples Council. In 1917 the reformist section of ISDV broke away, formed their own Indies Social Democratic Party. In 1917 ISDV launched its own first publication in Soeara Merdeka. Sneevliet's ISDV saw the legacy of the October Revolution as the path to follow in Indonesia; the group made inroads amongst Dutch sailors and soldiers stationed in the colony.'Red Guards' were formed, within three months they numbered 3,000.
In late 1917 soldier and sailors revolted in the Surabaya naval base of the archipelago, formed the soviets. The colonial authorities suppressed the Surabaya soviets and the ISDV. Dutch leaders of ISDV were sent back including Sneevliet; the leaders of the soldiers uprising were given sentences of 40 years in prison. Meanwhile, the ISDV established a bloc within the anti-colonialist Sarekat Islam organization. Many SI members like from Surabaya and from Solo Darsono were attracted by Sneevliet's ideas; as a result of Sneevliet's "bloc within" strategy, many SI members were persuaded to establish the more revolutionary Marxist-dominated Sarekat Rakjat. ISDV continued working in a clandestine manner, it launched Soeara Rakyat. After the involuntary departure of several Dutch cadres, in combination with the work inside the Sarekat Islam, the membership had moved from Dutch majority to Indonesian majority. By 1919 it only had 25 Dutch members, out of a total of less than 400. At the congress of ISDV on 23 May 1920 in Semarang, it took the name Perserikatan Komunis di Hindia.
Semaun was the party chairman and Darsono vice-chairman. The secretary and three of the five committee members were Dutch. PKH was the first Asian communist party to become a section of the Communist International. Henk Sneevliet represented the party at the second congress of the Communist International 1921. In the period leading up to the Sarekat Islam's sixth congress in 1921, members became aware of Sneevliet's strategy and took moves to stop it. Agus Salim, the organisation's secretary, introduced a motion banning SI members from holding dual membership of other parties. Despite opposition from Tan Malaka and Semaun, the motion passed, forcing the communists to change tactics. At the same time, the Dutch colonial authorities introduced more restrictions on political activity, Sarekat Islam decided to focus more on religious matters, leaving the communists as the only active nationalist organisation. With Semaun away in Moscow attending a Far Eastern Labour Conference in early 1922, Tan Malaka tried to turn a strike of government pawnshop workers into a national strike to include all Indonesian labour unions.
This failed, Tan Malaka was given a choice between internal or external exile. He left for Russia. In May 1922, Semaun returned after seven months in Russia and began to organize all labour unions into one organization. On 22 September, the Union of Indonesian Labour Organizations was formed. At the fifth Comintern congress in 1924, it was emphasized that "the top priority of communist parties is to gain control of trades unions" as there could be no successful revolution without this; the PKH began concentrate on unions, decided discipline needed improving, demanded the establishment of a Soviet Republic of Indonesia. In 1924 the party name was changed once again, to Partai Komunis Indonesia. In May 1925, the Exec Committee of Comintern in a plenary session ordered communists in Indonesia to form a united anti-imperialist front with non-communist nationalist organizations, but extremist elements dominated by Alimin & Musso called for a revolution to overthrow the Dutch colonial government. At a conference in Prambanan, Central Java, communist-controlled