The North Atlantic Treaty Organization called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on 4 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's Headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium. Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29; the most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017. NATO recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members. An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs; the combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.
Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP by 2024. On 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II. In 1948, this alliance was expanded to include the Benelux countries, in the form of the Western Union referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization, established by the Treaty of Brussels. Talks for a new military alliance which could include North America resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union plus the United States, Portugal, Norway and Iceland; the North Atlantic Treaty was dormant until the Korean War initiated the establishment of NATO to implement it, by means of an integrated military structure: This included the formation of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in 1951, which adopted the Western Union's military structures and plans.
In 1952 the post of Secretary General of NATO was established as the organization's chief civilian. That year saw the first major NATO maritime exercises, Exercise Mainbrace and the accession of Greece and Turkey to the organization. Following the London and Paris Conferences, West Germany was permitted to rearm militarily, as they joined NATO in May 1955, in turn a major factor in the creation of the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact, delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War. Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defense against a prospective Soviet invasion – doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of France from NATO's military structure in 1966. In 1982 the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance; the collapse of the Warsaw Pact in 1989–1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO and caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature and focus on the continent of Europe.
This shift started with the 1990 signing in Paris of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe between NATO and the Soviet Union, which mandated specific military reductions across the continent that continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. At that time, European countries accounted for 34 percent of NATO's military spending. NATO began a gradual expansion to include newly autonomous Central and Eastern European nations, extended its activities into political and humanitarian situations that had not been NATO concerns. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989, the organization conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and Yugoslavia in 1999 during the breakup of Yugoslavia. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, most of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the September 11 attacks, after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF.
The organization has operated a range of additional roles since including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations and in 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973. The less potent Article 4, which invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times following incidents in the Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, annexation of Crimea; the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with German reunification on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. As part of post-Cold War restructuring, NATO's military structure was cut back and reorganized, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established; the changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, signed in 1999. The policies of French President Nicolas Sarkozy resulted in a major reform of France's military position, culminating with the return to full membership on 4 April 2009, which included France rejoining the NATO Military Command Structure, while maintaining an independent nuclear deterrent.
Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional co
Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm was a German aerospace manufacturer formed as the result of several mergers in the late 1960s. Among its best-known products was the MBB Bo 105 light twin-engine helicopter; the company was bought by DASA in 1989, now part of Airbus. On 6 June 1968, Messerschmitt AG merged with the small civil engineering and civil aviation firm Bölkow, becoming Messerschmitt-Bölkow; the following May, the firm acquired Hamburger Flugzeugbau, which had originated as a branch of Blohm+Voss. The company changed its name to Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm. 51% of MBB was owned by the Blohm family, Willy Messerschmitt and Ludwig Bölkow. 22.07% was owned by the German State of Hamburg, 17.05% by the state of Bavaria, 7.16% by Thyssen AG, 7.16% by Siemens AG, 7.13% by Allianz Versicherungs-AG, 7.13% by Robert Bosch GmbH and 6.15% by Friedrich Krupp GmbH. In 1981, MBB acquired the Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werke, which itself had been formed by merging Focke-Wulf, Focke-Achgelis, Weserflug. In the following year, MBB acquired the astronautics company Entwicklungsring Nord and became MBB-ERNO.
In 1989 MBB was taken over by Deutsche Aerospace AG, renamed "Daimler-Benz Aerospace" in 1995. With the 1998 merger of Daimler Benz and Chrysler Corporation, the aerospace division was renamed DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG on 7 November 1998. European defense consolidation led to DASA's being merged with Aerospatiale-Matra of France and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA of Spain to form the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company in 2000; the former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace now operates as "EADS Germany". MBB-Liftsystems AG, which produces lifting systems for trucks and vans MBB-Sondertechnik, developed wind rotors in the 1980s and 1990s, lifting systems for military use. MBB Gelma GmbH, produces timekeeping units and machine control units MBB Group AG MBB Lampyridae MBB Bo 102 MBB Bo 103 MBB Bo 105 MBB Bo 106 MBB Bo 108 - became the Eurocopter EC 135 MBB Bo 115 MBB Bo 209 MBB/Kawasaki BK 117 MBB 223 Flamingo MBB/Hamburger Flugzeugbau HFB-320 Hansa Jet MBB F-104G/CCV Airbus A300 Airbus A310 Airbus A320 family Eurofighter Typhoon Panavia Tornado Rockwell-MBB X-31 Transall C-160 MPC 75 AS.34 Kormoran Cobra HOT MILAN Roland Helios Symphonie Spacelab Saenger MBTA BTC-3 and CTC-3 Gunston, Bill.
World Encyclopedia of Aircraft Manufacturers, 2nd Edition. Phoenix Mill, England, UK: Sutton Publishing Limited. P. 164. ISBN 0-7509-3981-8. Airbus Group MBB Industries AG MBB Group AG MBB Projects GmbH MBB and Eurocopter history MBB Palfinger GmbH About Daimler-Benz Aerospace MBB KOMET, the first high-speed maglev Airbus Group: Aerospace pioneer Ludwig Bölkow
Stelia Aerospace is a company that designs and manufactures aerostructures, pilot seats and premium class passenger seats for aircraft and airlines. Stelia Aerospace was created on 1 January 2015 by the merger of two Airbus business units: Aerolia and Sogerma; the company is owned by Airbus, is headquartered in Toulouse, France. SOGERMA was a French company founded in 1924 with its origins in the early days of aviation; until a restructure in 2006, the company undertook MRO activities. AEROLIA SA was founded on 1 January 2009, as a spin-off of Airbus France's aerostructures activities; this involved the Méaulte and Saint-Nazaire industrial plants, with a part of Toulouse design office. This outsourcing operation was part of Airbus global strategy to focus its activities on its core business, involving several other Airbus spin-offs. Stelia Aerospace was created on 1 January 2015 by the merger of Sogerma. Stelia Aerospace has 3 main business segments: Aerostructures Premium class airline seats Pilot seatsStelia Aerospace manufacturers aircraft interiors.
Stelia Aerospace designs and manufactures equipped aircraft fuselage sections from the nose to the rear and special Work Packages such as main landing gear bay, A400M ramp door, helicopter tail boom. On top of it, the company designs and manufactures aerostructures complex detailed parts, in composite and metallic, including an important tubes & pipes activity. STELIA Aerospace claims to be one of the few companies able to provide a equipped section, developing the “plug and fly” concept.- ATR wings equipped and tested up to the final test benches. - Central section of the Bombardier large business jet Global 7000/8000 central section. - Beluga XL nose section and cargo door equipped with its systems, More STELIA Aerospace has been selected at Paris Airshow 2015 by Airbus, to design and build the nose section, the cargo door as well. This new contract is a new equipped section example for the French company. Stelia Aerospace manufactures a large range of first and business class seats. Stelia Aerospace manufactures all Airbus family aircraft crew seats.
It equips Airbus Helicopters and several business jets. Stelia Aerospace is a global business with 11 worldwide industrial facilities, with supporting offices. Stelia Aerospace official website Stelia North-America official website
Boeing E-3 Sentry
The Boeing E-3 Sentry known as AWACS, is an American airborne early warning and control aircraft developed by Boeing. Derived from the Boeing 707, it provides all-weather surveillance, command and communications, is used by the United States Air Force, NATO, Royal Air Force, French Air Force, Royal Saudi Air Force; the E-3 is distinguished by the distinctive rotating radar dome above the fuselage. Production ended in 1992. In the mid-1960s, the US Air Force was seeking an aircraft to replace its piston-engined Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star, in service for over a decade. After issuing preliminary development contracts to three companies, the USAF picked Boeing to construct two airframes to test Westinghouse Electric and Hughes's competing radars. Both radars used pulse-Doppler technology, with Westinghouse's design emerging as the contract winner. Testing on the first production E-3 began in October 1975; the first USAF E-3 was delivered in March 1977, during the next seven years, a total of 34 aircraft were manufactured.
NATO, as a single identity had 18 aircraft manufactured, basing them in Germany. The E-3 was sold to the United Kingdom and France and Saudi Arabia. In 1991, when the last aircraft had been delivered, E-3s participated in Operation Desert Storm, playing a crucial role of directing coalition aircraft against the enemy. Throughout the aircraft's service life, numerous upgrades were performed to enhance its capabilities. In 1996, Westinghouse Electric's Defense & Electronic Systems division was acquired by Northrop Corporation, before being renamed Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, which supports the E-3's radar. In 1963, the USAF asked for proposals for an Airborne Warning and Control System to replace its EC-121 Warning Stars, which had served in the airborne early warning role for over a decade; the new aircraft would take advantage of improvements in radar technology and in computer aided radar data analysis and data reduction. These developments allowed airborne radars to "look down", detect the movement of low-flying aircraft, discriminate over land, target aircraft's movements—previously this had been impossible, due to the inability to discriminate an aircraft's track from ground clutter.
Contracts were issued to Boeing and Lockheed, the latter being eliminated in July 1966. In 1967, a parallel program was put into place to develop the radar, with Westinghouse Electric and Hughes Aircraft being asked to compete in producing the radar system. In 1968, it was referred to as Overland Radar Technology during development tests on the modified EC-121Q; the Westinghouse radar antenna was going to be used by whichever company won the radar competition, since Westinghouse had pioneered in the design of high-power RF phase-shifters. Boeing proposed a purpose-built aircraft, but tests indicated it would not outperform the already-operational 707, so the latter was chosen instead. To increase endurance, this design was to be powered by eight General Electric TF34s, it would carry its radar in a rotating dome mounted at the top of a forward-swept tail, above the fuselage. Boeing was selected ahead of McDonnell Douglas's DC-8-based proposal in July 1970. Initial orders were placed for two aircraft, designated EC-137D as test beds to evaluate the two competing radars.
As the test-beds did not need the same 14-hour endurance demanded of the production aircraft, the EC-137s retained the Pratt & Whitney JT3D commercial engines, a reduction in endurance requirement led to retaining the normal engines in production. The first EC-137 made its maiden flight on 9 February 1972, with the fly-off between the two radars taking place during March–July that year. Favorable test results led to the selection of Westinghouse's radar for the production aircraft. Hughes's radar was thought to be a certain winner because much of its design was going into the new F-15 Eagle's radar program; the Westinghouse radar used a pipelined fast fourier transform to digitally resolve 128 Doppler frequencies, while Hughes's radars used analog filters based on the design for the F-15 fighter. Westinghouse's engineering team won this competition by using a programmable 18-bit computer whose software could be modified before each mission; this computer was the AN/AYK-8 design from the B-57G program, designated AYK-8-EP1 for its much expanded memory.
This radar multiplexed a beyond-the-horizon pulse mode that could complement the pulse-Doppler radar mode. This proved to be beneficial when the BTH mode is used to detect ships at sea when the radar beam is directed below the horizon. Approval was given on 26 January 1973 for full-scale development of the AWACS system. To allow further development of the aircraft's systems, orders were placed for three preproduction aircraft, the first of which performed its maiden flight in February 1975. To save costs, the endurance requirements were relaxed, allowing the new aircraft to retain the four JT3D engines. IBM and Hazeltine were selected to develop the mission display system; the IBM computer was designated 4PI, the software is written in JOVIAL. A Semi-Automatic Ground Environment or back-up interceptor control operator would be at home with the track displays and tabular displays, but differences in symbology would create compatibility problems in tactical ground radar systems in Iceland, mainland Europe, South Korea over Link-11.
Modifications to the Boeing 707 for the E-3 Sentry included a rotating radar dome, uprated hydraulics to drive th
Aérospatiale, sometimes styled Aerospatiale, was a French state-owned aerospace manufacturer that built both civilian and military aircraft and satellites. It was known as Société nationale industrielle aérospatiale, its head office was in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. The name was changed to Aerospatiale during 1970. During the 1990s, Aérospatiale underwent several significant mergers, its helicopter division was, along with Germany's DaimlerBenz Aerospace AG, combined together to form the Eurocopter Group. In 1999, the majority of Aérospatiale, except for the satellites activities, merged with French conglomerate Matra's defense wing, Matra Haute Technologie, to form Aérospatiale-Matra; that same year, the satellite manufacturing division merged with Alcatel to become Alcatel Space, now Thales Alenia Space. In 2001, Aérospatiale-Matra merged with Spanish aviation company Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA and German defense firm DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG to form the multinational European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company.
The majority of the former assets of the company are part of the multinational Airbus consortium. During 1970, Aérospatiale was created under the name SNIAS as a result of the merger of several French state-owned companies - Sud Aviation, Nord Aviation and Société d'études et de réalisation d'engins balistiques; the newly formed entity was the largest aerospace company in France. From the onset, the French government owned a controlling stake in Aérospatiale. In 1971, Aérospatiale was directed by the French industrialist Henri Ziegler. Many of Aérospatiale's initial programmes were hangovers from its predecessors those of Sud Aviation; the most iconic and high-profile of the company's programmes was Concorde, a joint French-British attempt to develop and market a supersonic commercial airliner. Initial work on the project had commenced at Sud Aviation and the Bristol Aeroplane Company, its British counterpart; the engines for Concorde were developed as an Anglo-French joint effort between French engine firm SNECMA and Bristol Siddeley.
However, the programme was politicised and encountered considerable cost overruns and delays. Negatively affected by bad political decision and an oil crisis in the 1970s, only two airlines purchased Concorde. Aérospatiale's senior management were keen not to repeat the mistakes of the programme to produce Concorde, their next major effort was would be an international collaborative effort between British Aerospace and West German's aircraft company Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm. The consortium, known as called Airbus Industrie, was established with the purpose of building a twin-engined widebody airliner, known as the A300. While at first, it was difficult to achieve the outlook for the A300 looked negative. However, Aérospatiale continued to manufacture the jetliner without orders for some aircraft as it could not reasonably cut back production as French law required that laid-off employees were to receive 90 percent of their pay for a year as well as to retain their health benefits throughout.
Sales of the A300 picked up and the type became a major commercial success for those involved driving both the American Lockheed L-1011 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 from the market due to its cheaper operating model. On the back of this success, further airliners would be produced under the Airbus brand and the company would become a world leader in the field of large commercial aircraft during the 1990s. Aérospatiale played a leadership in the development of the European space sector. During the 1960s, Sud Aviation had been involved in a multinational European programme to produce the Europa space launch vehicle, being a three-stage rocket with separate stages manufactured in Britain and Germany respectively. However, all of the flight tests conducted were failures; when Aérospatiale stepped in during 1973, it was determined not to repeat the mistakes of Europa. The company proposed to build a new heavy launch vehicle, which would be called the Ariane, to take the place of Europea. While other European nations were invited to participate, it would be French officials that would be responsible and make the most important decisions.
This approach was agreed upon with several other nations. With this, the French went on to gain a strong advantage over the United States, which had centred its efforts on the Space Shuttle. However, the in-flight explosion of one of the shuttles in the Challenger disaster during 1986 showed that it was too complex for routine use as a satellite launch platform. Aérospatiale went on to develop more capable versions of the Ariane, which took much of the business of space launches away from the Americans during the 1990s. In 1992, German defense company DaimlerBenz Aerospace AG and Aérospatiale combined their respective helicopter divisions together to form the Eurocopter Group. During the late 1990s, Frenc
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well