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DDR2 SDRAM

Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory abbreviated as DDR2 SDRAM, is a double data rate synchronous dynamic random-access memory interface. It superseded the original DDR SDRAM specification, is superseded by DDR3 SDRAM. DDR2 DIMMs are neither forward compatible with DDR3 nor backward compatible with DDR. In addition to double pumping the data bus as in DDR SDRAM, DDR2 allows higher bus speed and requires lower power by running the internal clock at half the speed of the data bus; the two factors combine to produce a total of four data transfers per internal clock cycle. Since the DDR2 internal clock runs at half the DDR external clock rate, DDR2 memory operating at the same external data bus clock rate as DDR results in DDR2 being able to provide the same bandwidth but with better latency. Alternatively, DDR2 memory operating at twice the external data bus clock rate as DDR may provide twice the bandwidth with the same latency; the best-rated DDR2 memory modules are at least twice as fast.

The maximum capacity on commercially available DDR2 DIMMs is 4GB, but chipset support and availability for those DIMMs is sparse and more common 2GB per DIMM are used. DDR2 SDRAM was first produced by Samsung in 2001. In 2003, the JEDEC standards organization presented Samsung with its Technical Recognition Award for the company's efforts in developing and standardizing DDR2. DDR2 was introduced in the second quarter of 2003 at two initial clock rates: 200 MHz and 266 MHz. Both performed worse than the original DDR specification due to higher latency, which made total access times longer. However, the original DDR technology tops out at a clock rate around 200 MHz. Higher performance DDR chips exist; these chips are standard DDR chips that have been tested and rated to be capable of operation at higher clock rates by the manufacturer. Such chips draw more power than slower-clocked chips, but offered little or no improvement in real-world performance. DDR2 started to become competitive against the older DDR standard by the end of 2004, as modules with lower latencies became available.

The key difference between DDR2 and DDR SDRAM is the increase in prefetch length. In DDR SDRAM, the prefetch length was two bits for every bit in a word. During an access, four bits were written to or from a four-bit-deep prefetch queue; this queue received or transmitted its data over the data bus in two data bus clock cycles (each clock cycle transferred two bits of data. Increasing the prefetch length allowed DDR2 SDRAM to double the rate at which data could be transferred over the data bus without a corresponding doubling in the rate at which the DRAM array could be accessed. DDR2 SDRAM was designed with such a scheme to avoid an excessive increase in power consumption. DDR2's bus frequency is boosted by electrical interface improvements, on-die termination, prefetch buffers and off-chip drivers. However, latency is increased as a trade-off; the DDR2 prefetch buffer is four bits deep, whereas it is two bits deep for DDR. While DDR SDRAM has typical read latencies of between two and three bus cycles, DDR2 may have read latencies between three and nine cycles, although the typical range is between four and six.

Thus, DDR2 memory must be operated at twice the data rate to achieve the same latency. Another cost of the increased bandwidth is the requirement that the chips are packaged in a more expensive and difficult to assemble BGA package as compared to the TSSOP package of the previous memory generations such as DDR SDRAM and SDR SDRAM; this packaging change was necessary to maintain signal integrity at higher bus speeds. Power savings are achieved due to an improved manufacturing process through die shrinkage, resulting in a drop in operating voltage; the lower memory clock frequency may enable power reductions in applications that do not require the highest available data rates. According to JEDEC the maximum recommended voltage is 1.9 volts and should be considered the absolute maximum when memory stability is an issue. In addition, JEDEC states that memory modules must withstand up to 2.3 volts before incurring permanent damage. For use in computers, DDR2 SDRAM is supplied in DIMMs with a single locating notch.

Laptop DDR2 SO-DIMMs have 200 pins and come identified by an additional S in their designation. DIMMs are identified by their peak transfer capacity. * Some manufacturers label their DDR2 modules as PC2-4300, PC2-5400 or PC2-8600 instead of the respective names suggested by JEDEC. At least one manufacturer has reported this reflects successful testing at a higher-than-standard data rate whilst others round up for the name. Note: DDR2-xxx denotes data transfer rate, describes raw DDR chips, whereas PC2-xxxx denotes theoretical bandwidth, is used to describe assembled DIMMs. Bandwidth is calculated by multiplying by eight; this is because DDR2 memory modules transfer data on a bus, 64 data bits wide, since a byte comprises 8 bits, this equates to 8 bytes of data per transfer. In addition to bandwidth and capacity variants, modules can: Optionally implement ECC, an extra data byte lane used for correcting minor errors and detecting major errors for better reliability. Modules with ECC are identified by an additional ECC in their designati

Midnight Robber

Midnight Robber is a science fiction bildungsroman by Jamaican-Canadian writer Nalo Hopkinson. Warner Aspect published the novel in 2000; the novess takes the form of an eshu, a mental voice within the head that provides information upon request and operates as a sort of sixth sense. The use of Granny Nanny is so widespread; the story is revealed to be narrated by Granny Nanny, speaking to Tan-Tan’s child as he is being born. The book’s protagonist is Tan-Tan Habib, a seven-year-old girl living in Cockpit County on the Carib-colonized planet of Toussaint, with her fattlement, Junjuh Village, run harshly by One-Eye the sheriff and his deputy Claude through a system of punishment and death. Tan-Tan adjusts to life in New Half-Way Tree, growing familiar with the other locals of the town such as Michael and Gladys the local blacksmiths, Jher father’s new wifWay Tree; as Tan-Tan grows ttlement with the help of Chichibud, who takes her to live among the Douen in his village tree. The Douen, concerned about letting a human into their home tree and learning their secrets, reluctantly allow her to live with them.

Tan-Tan strke up for the guilt. She is found by Janisette who, with a car and rifle built by Michael and Gladys, has been looking for her and seeking vengeance for Antonio’s death. In the process of running away, she inadvertently leads Janisette and the other two to the Douen tree, forcing them to destroy it and move on to other trees. Tan-Tan and Abetifa are left behind to fend for themselves; the two take to wandering through the bush, looking for a town for Tan-Tan to live in, as she is still being hunted by Janisette. Tan-Tan visits the villages they pass in the night under the guise of the Robber Queen, seeking to do good for others; as the two travel on, she hears stories being told about her exploits, both imagined. After some traveling, she arrives in Sweet Pone, she runs into Melonhead, now the local tailor, the two strike up their friendship once again. Tan-Tan becomes torn between her desire to stay with Melonhead and her fears of Janisette, all the while still feeling guilt over her father’s death and disgust at her still-unborn child.

She stays for Sweet Pone’s carnival, dressing up in the Robber Queen costume Melonhead makes for her, until Janisette arrives in a tank, demanding Tan-Tan’s return to Junjuh village and her revenge. Tan-Tan confronts her face to face, accusing her of knowing that Antonio was raping her all those years and admitting to both herself and to Janisette that she killed Antonio out of self-defense. Janisette, leaves while Tan-Tan, relieved from her guilt and sensing the oncoming delivery, returns to the bush. There, accompanied by Melonhead and Abitefa, she gives birth, accepting her son as her own and na Midnight Robber incorporates a number of characters and stories from Caribbean and Yoruba culture, including Anansi, Dry Bone, Papa Bois, Obeah, J'Ouvert, Tamosi and Eshu; the planet on which Tan-Tan is born is called Toussaint, after the Haitian revolutionary hero Toussaint L'Ouverture. The municipality where Tan-Tan's father is mayor is called Cockpit County, after a region in Jamaica. There is a statue of Mami Wata in the middle of the town.

A local group of pedicab runners calls itself the Sou-Sou Collective, a reference to a West-African-specific form of credit union or collaborative. A nearby quarry is named Shak-Shak Bay; the company that landed the settlers on Toussaint is called the Marryshow Corporation, after T. A. Marryshow; the book references Jonkanoo Week celebrations. The planet to which the main characters are exiled is called New Half-Way Tree, a reference to the Half Way Tree neighbourhood of Kingston, Jamaica. Settlements include Sweet Pone, named after a sweet potato dessert, Chigger Bite. One of the native creatures has been named the "manicou rat" by settlers, a Caribbean term for an opossum. Tan-Tan befriends a douen. Chichibud's partner is named Benta. In the end, Tan-Tan names her child Tubman, after Harriet Tubman. Midnight Robber was nominated for a Hugo Award and shortlisted for the Nebula Award, the Tiptree Award, the Sunburst Award. Gary K. Wolfe praised Midnight Robber, characterizing it as "an inventive amalgam of rural folklore and advanced technology" and commending Hopkinson's distinctive narrative voice, which "reminds us that most of the world does not speak contemporary American middle-class vernacular... raises questions about the conventionalized way that SF has always treated language, mak us question the hegemony of American culture in SF worlds."Locus reviewer Faren Miller praised the novel, saying "Hopkinson take downbeat material and compel the reader's attention with vigorous narrative, vividly eloquent prose, forms of magic which may be SF."

Soyka, David. "Midnight Robber: A review". SF Site. Retrieved 9 August 2013

202nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment

The 202nd Air Defense Artillery is an antiaircraft regiment of the Illinois Army National Guard. On 19 March 1921, the 6th Illinois Infantry was converted to the 1st Artillery, Coast Artillery Corps. On 13 December 1921, redesignated as 202nd Artillery with six companies. Redesignated to the 202nd Artillery Regiment, Coast Artillery Corps and on 26 August 1924, again, to the 202nd Coast Artillery Regiment. Mustered into federal service on 16 September 1940 in Chicago. Arrived at Fort Bliss on September 20–21, 1940. 3rd Battalion Activated 15 June 1942 at Washington. On 10 September 1943, the 202nd Coast Artillery Regiment was broken up and re-designated as follows- HQ & HQ Battery became HHB, 202nd Antiaircraft Artillery Group 1st Battalion became 768th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion 2nd Battalion became 396th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion 3rd Battalion became the 242nd Antiaircraft Artillery Searchlight Battalion On 27 February 1958, the 768th, which had not undergone any re-designations, consolidated with the 698th, the name remained the 698th Missile Battalion.

This was the final consolidation, which brought all the colors and honors of the old 202nd Coast Artillery together under the command of the 202nd Antiaircraft Artillery Group in Chicago. The 396th AAA Automatic Weapons Battalion, became the 693rd AAA Automatic Weapons Battalion, in Chicago on 13 December 1946, Then on 12 May 1949, it was again re-designated; this time it became the 133rd AAA Automatic Weapons Battalion. On 28 February 1954, the 133rd and the 698th AAA Battalions were consolidated and re-designated the 698th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion. Four years the battalion was modernized and re-designated a missile battalion; the 242nd was disbanded in June 1944 at Camp Van Dorn Mississippi. Two years it was reorganized as the 698th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion. On 1 May 1951, it was ordered to active duty in Chicago to release Active Army units and to train the National Guard personnel for overseas duties during the Korean hostilities; the main portion of the battalion was assigned to the Air Defense of Detroit, Michigan until the 698th Battalion was released from active service on 31 January 1953 and reverted to Illinois State control.

In January 1957, HQ & HQ Btry, A, B, D Batteries, 698th Missile Battalion assumed an active role in the Air Defense of Chicago by taking over two Active Army gun sites on the north side of Chicago. C Battery joined the other three firing batteries, under the operational control of the 45th Artillery Brigade, two months later; the 248th Missile Battalion consolidated on 1 March 1959 with the 698th Missile Battalion and the consolidated unit was reorganized and redesignated as the 202d Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System, to consist of the 1st and 2d Missile Battalions. It consolidated on 1 April 1963 with Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 202d Artillery Group, the consolidated unit was designated as the 202d Artillery, it reorganized on 8 October 1963 to consist of the 1st Missile Battalion. Its Federal recognition was withdrawn on 30 September 1974. Reconstituted on 26 October 1994 in the Illinois Army National Guard and consolidated with the 202d Air Defense Artillery.

Batteries E and F, 1st Battalion, 202nd Air Defense Artillery, were assigned during the 1990s to the 45th Infantry Brigade and the 39th Infantry Brigade. Soldiers from the 1st Battalion, 202nd Air Defense Artillery, deployed to Iceland to take part in the 2001 Northern Viking exercise. DescriptionA Gold color metal and enamel device 1 1/4 inches in height overall consisting of a shield and crest blazoned: Azure, three piles in point Or, overall a winged projectile palewise wings displayed Gules, that portion on the field fimbriated of the second. Attached below the shield a scroll inscribed “ARTE ET ARMIS” in Blue letters. On a wreath Or and Azure, upon a grassy field the blockhouse of old Fort Dearborn of the first. SymbolismThe shield is blue to indicate the Infantry origin of the Regiment; the motto translates to “By Skill and Arms.” BackgroundThe distinctive unit insignia was approved for the 202d Coast Artillery on 31 October 1925. It was redesignated for the 768th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion on 31 July 1951.

It was redesignated for the 768th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion on 19 February 1957. The insignia was redesignated for the 202d Artillery Regiment on 6 January 1961, it was redesignated for the 202d Air Defense Artillery Regiment on 6 July 1972. The insignia was amended to revise the description and symbolism on 21 September 1989. Blazon Shield: Azure, three piles in point Or, overall a winged projectile palewise wings displayed Gules, that portion on the field fimbriated of the second. Crest: That for the regiments and separate battalions of the Illinois Army National Guard: On a wreath Or and Azure, upon a grassy field the blockhouse of old Fort Dearborn Proper. Motto ARTE ET ARMIS. Symbolism Shield: The shield is blue to indicate the Infantry origin of the Regiment.

Point Break (2015 film)

Point Break is a 2015 action thriller film directed and shot by Ericson Core and written by Kurt Wimmer which he co-produced with John Baldecchi, Broderick Johnson, Andrew A. Kosove, Christopher Taylor and David Valdes. An American-German-Chinese co-production, the film is a remake of the 1991 film of the same name; the film stars Édgar Ramírez, Luke Bracey, Teresa Palmer, Delroy Lindo and Ray Winstone, was released in China on December 4, 2015 by China Film Group and in the United States on December 25, 2015 by Warner Bros. in 3D and RealD 3D. The film received negative reviews from critics, grossed $133 million from a $105 million budget. Extreme sport athlete Johnny Utah, his friend Jeff, are traversing a steep ridgeline on motorbikes; the run ends with a jump onto a lone stone column, where Jeff overshoots the landing and falls to his death. Seven years Utah is an FBI agent candidate, he attends a briefing on a skyscraper heist, in which the criminals stole diamonds, escaping by parachute, in Mumbai.

A similar heist happens over Mexico where the criminals unload millions of dollars in bills disappear into the Cave of Swallows. Utah's research concludes that they were done by the same men, who are attempting to complete the Ozaki 8, a list of eight extreme ordeals to honor the forces of nature, they have completed three, Utah predicts they'll attempt the fourth on a rare sea wave phenomenon in France. After presenting his analysis, Utah is sent undercover to France under a field agent named Pappas, they reach Utah gets help from others to surf the tall tube wave. As he goes in, there is another surfer riding the wave, leaving Utah unstable. Utah gets sucked into the wave and faints, he wakes aboard a yacht with the surfer and his team Roach and Grommet. They leave him to enjoy the party and he gets acquainted with a girl, Samsara; the next day, Utah finds the men in an abandoned Paris train station after he overhears them talking about the location. Bodhi gives him an initiation fight and soon he is accepted into the circle.

They travel to the Alps for the next ordeal: wingsuit flying through the "The Life of Wind" cliffs. The four spend some time together with Samsara; the next day, they climb the snow peaks for the sixth ordeal, snowboarding down a steep mountain of snow. They reach their spot. Chowder slips and falls to his death, Utah becomes depressed about it. After a party, Samsara explains that she and Bodhi both knew Ono Ozaki when they were young, that her parents died in an avalanche accident and Ozaki gave her a home after, she explains further that Ozaki completed his third ordeal, despite what was believed. He did not die attempting the ordeal, but was killed by a whaling ship crashing into his boat while he was trying to save humpback whales. On his boat, a young boy, decided not to tell the truth of his story but to finish what Ozaki started. Next they travel to a gold mine where Bodhi detonates explosives Roach planted. After blowing his cover, Utah chases Bodhi, managing to trip his bike. Bodhi escapes.

The FBI freezes Bodhi's sponsors' assets. Utah and the police intercept the group; as the group flees, Utah chases and shoots one of them to death, revealed to be Samsara and not Bodhi. Utah finds the location of the next ordeal: free solo climbing with no safety beside Angel Falls in Venezuela, he finds Bodhi and Grommet and chases them on the climb. Utah catches up to Bodhi, but he falls backward down the waterfall, completing what would have been the last ordeal. Seventeen months Utah finds him in the Pacific facing another giant wave; as Utah tries to get Bodhi to come back with him and pay for his crimes, he lets Bodhi attempt to surf it, both knowing that he will not come back. The wave engulfs Bodhi, Utah continues his career in the FBI and begins going through his own eight ordeals. Édgar Ramírez as Bodhi, an ecoterrorist who plays a sort of Robin Hood role. Luke Bracey as Johnny Utah, a FBI agent and former extreme motocross star and a surfer turned into an "extreme athlete." Unlike the original film, Utah is not an ex-football player.

Judah Lewis as young Johnny Ray Winstone as Angelo Pappas, a FBI special agent based in London. Teresa Palmer as Samsara Dietz, a love interest of Johnny Utah and secondary antagonist affiliated with Bodhi. Matias Varela as Grommet Clemens Schick as Roach Tobias Santelmann as Chowder Max Thieriot as Jeff Delroy Lindo as FBI Instructor Hall Nikolai Kinski as Pascal Al Fariq Glynis Barber as FBI Special Agent Esposito Steve Toussaint as FBI Director Bowman Steve Aoki as HimselfBoJesse Christopher and James LeGros, who starred in the original Point Break, appear as FBI directors. Point Break is an American-German-Chinese co-production. Studio Babelsberg oversaw production services for the film. A script for the remake had been lying around for years, but it was not until Ericson Core pitched his idea to Warner Bros. that the film got off the ground. However, Core's idea for the film was different than the script, his concept was much more with scenes that defy the laws of physics. In 2011, it was announced that a remake of Point Break was being developed by Alcon Entertainme

Michel Ancel

Michel Ancel is a French video game designer. He is best known for creating the Rayman franchise, for which he was the lead designer for the first two games, Rayman Origins and its sequel Rayman Legends, he is known for the cult hit video game Beyond Good & Evil and for King Kong, based on Peter Jackson's film King Kong, critically acclaimed. He is working on Beyond Good and Evil 2. Ancel's first demo, Mechanic Warriors, was developed for software house Lankhor. Ancel joined Ubisoft as a graphic artist after meeting the game author Nicolas Choukroun in Montpellier at the age of 17, he made the graphics of Nicolas' games such as The Intruder, Pick'n Pile before doing his first game as both programmer and graphic artist Brain Blaster published by Ubi Soft in 1990. In 1992, he began to work on his directorial debut, it was released in 1995 for Atari Jaguar and Sega Saturn. Ancel was involved in the development of Rayman 2: The Great Escape, but had only an advisory role on Rayman 3: Hoodlum Havoc.

Although he praised its development team, he claims he would have "made the game differently". In 2003, he created Beyond Good & Evil, which garnered critical acclaim and a cult following, but was a commercial failure. However, film director Peter Jackson's admiration of the game — and his frustration with EA's handling of The Lord of the Rings license — led to Ancel being given direction of the King Kong video game adaptation. In spite of Ubisoft's reluctance to produce a sequel Beyond Good and Evil 2, Ancel has expressed a clear wish to produce one in the future. Which was announced at Ubidays 2008 event on May 28, 2008. On December 18, 2008, at the VGL event in Paris. On April 5, 2006, Ubisoft announced Ancel was leading the development of the fourth game in the ] series, Rayman Raving Rabbids, for Wii; the game began production in early 2005 and was released on November 15, 2006 for the launch of the Wii. However, Ancel was absent from the project after its E3 announcement, he has made no public appearances regarding the game after the development team switched focus from a free-roaming platformer to the final minigames format shortly after E3.

In the final game Ancel was credited with storyboarding and character design, while design credits were shared between other people. In 2010, Ubisoft announced Rayman Origins, first an episodic video game designed by Michel Ancel and developed by a small team of five people, but it was announced that it transformed into a full game; the title uses the UBIart Framework developed by Ubisoft Ancel. UBIart is a developer platform that allows artists and animators to create content and use it in an interactive environment; the engine is optimized for high-definition resolutions and is capable of running games at 60 frames per second in 1920x1080 resolution. UBIart tools were supposed to be released as open-source software in 2011 but this did not happen. In 2014, Ancel announced, he would continue to contribute to the development of projects at Ubisoft, including "an ambitious new title, close to his and the team's heart." Wild Sheep are developing an open world pre-historic survival game called WiLD.

On March 13, 2006, he, along with Shigeru Miyamoto and Frédérick Raynal, were knighted by the French Minister of Culture and Communication, Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, a knight of arts and literature. It was the first time. Ancel is recognized as one of the best game designers in IGN's Top 100 Game Creators, ranking 24th out of 100. Ancel aims for a high degree of freedom in his games, he is critical of games that claim to offer freedom, but present limits or invisible boundaries where players do not expect them. Brain Blasters – Programmer, graphic artist Pick'n Pile – Writer Rayman – Designer Tonic Trouble – Designer Rayman 2: The Great Escape – Designer, writer Rayman M – Character designer Beyond Good & Evil – Director, writer Peter Jackson's King Kong – Director, designer Rayman Raving Rabbids – Character designer Rayman Raving Rabbids 2 – Character designer Rayman Raving Rabbids: TV Party – Character designer Rayman Origins - Concept, direction Rayman Legends - Concept, direction Beyond Good and Evil 2 – Director, writer Wild – DesignerAncel worked on, but did not design, Tonic Trouble, which features limbless characters in the same mould as Rayman.

He shares credit on his Rayman games with Frédéric Houde, while Jacques Exertier contributed many of the cinematic and story elements of Beyond Good & Evil and Peter Jackson's King Kong. Michel Ancel on IMDb Michel Ancel profile at MobyGames

Xinjiang Museum

The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Museum, or Xinjiang Museum, is located in Urumqi, China. Its address is at Urumqi; the museum holds over 40,000 items of various cultural relics and specimens, including 381 national first-grade cultural relics. In May 2008, the Xinjiang Museum was included in the first batch of the National first-grade museums of China; the Xinjiang Museum was established in August 1959. The current museum building was built and opened for public on September 20, 2005; the museum has been set up to show the four major exhibits: "Recover the Western Region's Glory of Yesterday - the exhibit of the historical cultural relics in Xinjiang", "the exhibit of Xinjiang's ethnic customs", "The Mummies of the Immortal World - the exhibit of the ancient mummies of Xinjiang,", “The Historical Monuments – the exhibit of Xinjiang's revolutionary history”. List of museums in China Turpan Museum Hotan Cultural Museum