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Double Data Rate 4 Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory abbreviated as DDR4 SDRAM, is a type of synchronous dynamic random-access memory with a high bandwidth interface. Released to the market in 2014, it is one of the latest variants of dynamic random-access memory, of which some have been in use since the early 1970s, a higher-speed successor to the DDR2 and DDR3 technologies. DDR4 is not compatible with any earlier type of random-access memory due to different signaling voltage and physical interface, besides other factors. DDR4 SDRAM was released to the public market in Q2 2014, focusing on ECC memory, while the non-ECC DDR4 modules became available in Q3 2014, accompanying the launch of Haswell-E processors that require DDR4 memory; the primary advantages of DDR4 over its predecessor, DDR3, include higher module density and lower voltage requirements, coupled with higher data rate transfer speeds. The DDR4 standard allows for DIMMs of up to 64 GiB in capacity, compared to DDR3's maximum of 16 GiB per DIMM.

Unlike previous generations of DDR memory, prefetch has not been increased above the 8n used in DDR3. To allow this, the standard divides the DRAM banks into two or four selectable bank groups, where transfers to different bank groups may be done more rapidly; because power consumption increases with speed, the reduced voltage allows higher speed operation without unreasonable power and cooling requirements. DDR4 operates at a voltage 1.2 V with a frequency between 800 and 1600 MHz, compared to frequencies between 400 and 1067 MHz and voltage requirements of 1.5 V of DDR3. Due to the nature of DDR, speeds are advertised as doubles of these numbers. Unlike DDR3's 1.35 V low voltage standard DDR3L, there is no DDR4L low voltage version of DDR4. 2005: standards body JEDEC began working on a successor to DDR3 around 2005, about 2 years before the launch of DDR3 in 2007. The high-level architecture of DDR4 was planned for completion in 2008. 2007: some advance information was published in 2007, a guest speaker from Qimonda provided further public details in a presentation at the August 2008 San Francisco Intel Developer Forum.

DDR4 was described as involving a 30 nm process at 1.2 volts, with bus frequencies of 2133 MT/s "regular" speed and 3200 MT/s "enthusiast" speed, reaching market in 2012, before transitioning to 1 volt in 2013. 2009: in February, Samsung validated 40 nm DRAM chips, considered a "significant step" towards DDR4 development since in 2009, DRAM chips were only beginning to migrate to a 50 nm process. 2010: subsequently, further details were revealed at MemCon 2010, Tokyo, at which a presentation by a JEDEC director titled "Time to rethink DDR4" with a slide titled "New roadmap: More realistic roadmap is 2015" led some websites to report that the introduction of DDR4 was or delayed until 2015. However, DDR4 test samples were announced in line with the original schedule in early 2011 at which time manufacturers began to advise that large scale commercial production and release to market was scheduled for 2012. 2011: in January, Samsung announced the completion and release for testing of a 2 GiB DDR4 DRAM module based on a process between 30 and 39 nm.

It has a maximum data transfer rate of 2133 MT/s at 1.2 V, uses pseudo open drain technology and draws 40% less power than an equivalent DDR3 module. In April, Hynix announced the production of 2 GiB DDR4 modules at 2400 MT/s running at 1.2 V on a process between 30 and 39 nm, adding that it anticipated commencing high volume production in the second half of 2012. Semiconductor processes for DDR4 are expected to transition to sub-30 nm at some point between late 2012 and 2014. 2012: in May, Micron announced it is aiming at starting production in late 2012 of 30 nm modules. In July, Samsung announced that it would begin sampling the industry's first 16 GiB registered dual inline memory modules using DDR4 SDRAM for enterprise server systems. In September, JEDEC released the final specification of DDR4. 2013: DDR4 was expected to represent 5% of the DRAM market in 2013, to reach mass market adoption and 50% market penetration around 2015. The transition from DDR3 to DDR4 is thus taking longer than the five years taken for DDR3 to achieve mass market transition over DDR2.

In part, this is because changes required to other components would affect all other parts of computer systems, which would need to be updated to work with DDR4. 2014: in April, Hynix announced that it had developed the world's first highest-density 128 GiB module based on 8 Gib DDR4 using 20 nm technology. The module works at 2133 MHz, with a 64-bit I/O, processes up to 17 GB of data per second. 2016: in April, Samsung announced that they had begun to mass-produce DRAM on a "10 nm-class" process, by which they mean the 1x nm node regime of 16 nm to 19 nm, which supports a 30% faster data transfer rate of 3,200 megabits per second. A size of 20 nm was used. In April 2013, a news writer at International Data Group – an American technology research business part of IDC – produced an analysis of their perceptions related to DDR4 SDRAM; the conclusions were that the increasing popularity of mobile computing and other devices using slower but low-powered memory, the slowing of growth in the traditional desktop computing se

Southern rockhopper penguin

The southern rockhopper penguin group, are two subspecies of rockhopper penguin, that together are sometimes considered distinct from the northern rockhopper penguin. It occurs in subantarctic waters of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, as well as around the southern coasts of South America; this is black-and-white penguin in the genus Eudyptes. It reaches a length of 45–58 cm and weighs 2–3.4 kg, although there are records of exceptionally large rockhoppers weighing 4.5 kg. It has slate-grey upper parts and has straight, bright yellow eyebrows ending in long yellowish plumes projecting sideways behind a red eye; the rockhopper penguin complex is confusing. Many taxonomists consider all three rockhopper penguin forms subspecies; some split the northern subspecies from the southern forms. Still others consider all three distinct; the subspecies recognized for the southern rockhopper penguin complex are: Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome, the western rockhopper penguin or American southern rockhopper penguin - breeds around the southern tip of South America Eudyptes chrysocome filholi, the eastern rockhopper penguin or Indopacific southern rockhopper penguin - breeds on subantarctic islands of the Indian and western Pacific oceans.

The northern rockhopper penguin lives in a different water mass than the western and eastern rockhopper penguin, separated by the Subtropical Front, they are genetically different. Therefore, northern birds are sometimes separated as E. moseleyi. The rockhopper penguins are related to the macaroni penguin and the royal penguin, which may just be a colour morph of the macaroni penguin. Interbreeding with the macaroni penguin has been reported at Heard and Marion Islands, with three hybrids recorded there by a 1987-88 Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition; the southern rockhopper penguin group has a global population of 1 million pairs. About two-thirds of the global population belongs to E. c. chrysocome which breeds on the Falkland Islands and on islands off Patagonia. These include most Isla de los Estados, the Ildefonso Islands, the Diego Ramírez Islands and Isla Noir. E. c. filholi breeds on the Prince Edward Islands, the Crozet Islands, the Kerguelen Islands, Heard Island, Macquarie Island, Campbell Island, the Auckland Islands and the Antipodes Islands.

Outside the breeding season, the birds can be found roaming the waters offshore their colonies. These penguins feed on krill, octopus, lantern fish, plankton and crustaceans. A rockhopper penguin, named Rocky, in Bergen Aquarium in Norway, lived to 29 years 4 months, it died in October 2003. This stands as the age record for rockhopper penguins, it was the oldest penguin known, their common name refers to the fact that, unlike many other penguins which get around obstacles by sliding on their bellies or by awkward climbing using their flipper-like wings as aid, rockhoppers will try to jump over boulders and across cracks. This behaviour is by no means unique to this species however - at least the other "crested" penguins of the genus Eudyptes hop around rocks too, but the rockhopper's congeners occur on remote islands in the New Zealand region, whereas the rockhopper penguins are found in places that were visited by explorers and whalers since the Early Modern era. Hence, it is this particular species.

Their breeding colonies are located from sea-level to cliff-tops and sometimes inland. Their breeding season ends in November. Two eggs are laid but only one is incubated. Incubation lasts their chicks are brooded for 26 days. Foraging behavior in penguins varies across ecological conditions. Rockhopper penguins are present at a variety of locations. Due to the species plasticity they are able to express different strategies and foraging behaviors depending on the climate and environment. A main factor that has influenced the species' behavior is. Subtropical penguins dive in shallow areas, they have bottom time as the climate and food have shaped the dives. Penguins in the warmer waters stay near the colony when foraging, but have to travel longer distances when diving. Penguins in subarctic waters dive forage less due the temperatures and food supply; the subantarctic penguins must much deeper in search of food. These drastic differences highlight the importance of behavioral flexibility and advocates that it is a fundamental trait for penguins in such different environments.

The variation in foraging behavior and strategies are linked to the species' surroundings. If food was abundant in shallow water the penguins only needed to dive that deep, in contrast if food was located in the deep waters the penguins were able to adapt due to their plasticity. Thus, it can be concluded that foraging behavior is dependent and influenced by the environment the penguin lives in. Geography has shaped the way penguins carry out their dives and foraging but these penguins are able to survive and be shaped due to their variation, ability to adapt over time, plasticity; as the climate changes and predators have to adapt to survive. This poses a problem for southern rockhopper penguins. Depending on how Crustaceans and other prey adapt to survive, penguins will have to adapt or disperse as well. E. chrysocome's foraging behavior is dependent and shaped by th

Voiced labiodental fricative

The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨v⟩, the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is v; the sound is similar to voiced alveolar fricative /z/ in that it is familiar to most European speakers, but cross-linguistically it is a uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as. Moreover, Most languages that have /z/ have /v/ and to /z/, the overwhelming majority of languages with are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia, although the similar labiodental approximant /ʋ/ is common in India; the presence of and absence of, is a distinctive areal feature of European languages and those of adjacent areas of Siberia and Central Asia. Speakers of East Asian languages that lack this sound may pronounce it as, or /, thus be unable to distinguish between a number of English minimal pairs. In certain languages, such as Danish, Icelandic or Norwegian the voiced labiodental fricative is in a free variation with the labiodental approximant.

Features of the voiced labiodental fricative: Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. Its place of articulation is labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth, its phonation is voiced. It is an oral consonant; because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds. Index of phonetics articles List of languages with on PHOIBLE

Aart Klein

Aart Klein was a Dutch photographer born in Amsterdam. His photos consisted of black and white landscapes with a graphic style, but transitioned into portraiture. Klein said that his photographs were a white on black, not black on white because “if you don’t do anything you get a back image. Things only happen. Klein began working at the Netherlands' premier photo press agency, Polygoon in the 1930s, without having any formal training in photography. During his time at Polygoon, he started as an administrative assistant and continued to work there for nine years. During World War II, he held a multitude of other jobs, ranging from press photographer to wedding photographer. Klein was forced to work for the Nazis during the 1940s, however, he resisted by taking underground pictures and sending them to Allied forces in England and joining Particam, or Partisan Cameras, a group of Dutch resistance photographers. After the War ended and members of the Partisan Cameras photographed the aftermath of the war in Germany in a collection of photos called Zoo leeft Duitschland op de puinhopen van het derde rijk.

Some members of this group went on to form a new photo agency of the same name, Particam changing it Particam Pictures. Klein's technique was unusual in; this allowed for darkened rooms such as theaters to be photographed inconspicuously. Developing this technique aided in Particam Pictures ability to corner the stage market in theatre, opera and circus shows; the North Sea flood of 1953, the worst storm in Dutch history, flooded the southern part of the country. 1,835 people were killed, forty seven thousand homes were destroyed and three hundred and six pounds of dikes and embankments were damaged. Klein, along with other photographers and photojournalists, depicted the aftermath of this storm and its effect on the country. Klein spent hours in dark rooms creating the effect that he had in his mind. One of his many talents was the ability to photograph birds; this talent led to one of his assistants saying. However, this talent was due to Klein’s ability to wait until the right moment where the outcome matched his vision.

He would spend his time in the dark rooms to create his contrasting colors. His work entitled Zebra shows this practice because of the sharp etching across the picture that creates an hypnotizing pattern. In 1956 Klein decided to leave venture into his own studio. In this studio he created what are considered his most famous images of the Delta engineering project; the theme of the book seemed to be a continuation of his photography during the flood, the human struggle against the force of water. He focused on the natural landscape of the Netherlands; these works shared with his previous work the emphasis on stylized patterns of darkness and light. He depicted the progress of his country in a personal, yet optimistic way. After this photo series ended Klein worked for the newspaper Algemeen Handelsblad and other photography companies. Toward the end of his life, around the 1980s, he traveled with aid from grants and the government, but his activity as a photographer began to dwindle. Klein died in 2001, at the age of 92.

1982 Klein received the Capi-Lux Alblas Prize 1986, an exhibition was mounted in the Netherlands 1996 Klein received a fund for the VAD and Architecture prize

Council on Affordable Housing

The Council on Affordable Housing is a defunct agency of the Government of New Jersey within the New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, responsible for ensuring that all 566 New Jersey municipalities provided their fair share of low and moderate income housing. The COAH was created by the New Jersey Legislature in response to the Fair Housing Act of 1985 and a series of New Jersey Supreme Court rulings that are known as the Mount Laurel doctrine; the council is made up of 12 members appointed by the Governor of New Jersey and approved by the New Jersey Senate. COAH defines housing regions, estimates the needs for low/moderate income housing, allocates fair share numbers by municipality and reviews plans to fulfill these obligations; as of January 2006, 287 of New Jersey's 566 municipalities are part of the COAH process, another 78 are or were under the court's jurisdiction. There are at least two COAH municipalities in each of the state's 21 counties. Bergen County has 42 of its 70 municipalities involved, the highest number in the state, with Morris County's 29 municipalities ranking second.

Municipalities were allowed to enter into a Regional Contribution Agreement, which allows them to pay a fee to another municipality that agrees to provide affordable housing units to fulfill up to half of the sending municipality's COAH obligations. The sending municipality must pay a negotiated fee for each unit transferred. For example, Marlboro Township signed an agreement in June 2008 that will have Trenton build or rehabilitate 332 housing units, with Marlboro paying $25,000 per unit, a total of $8.3 million to Trenton for taking on the responsibility for these units. RCAs were suppressed by the latest amendment to the state's housing laws on July 17, 2008. On March 10, 2015, the New Jersey Supreme Court divested COAH of jurisdiction of municipal housing plans. Towns must now petition the lower court for approval of their housing plans. Builders and other interested parties may intervene in such proceedings, which are known as declaratory judgment actions. On February 9, 2010, Governor Chris Christie had suspended COAH and appointed a committee in preparation to dismantle it.

The Supreme Court ruled that it was not within his power "“to abolish independent agencies that were created by legislative action”. It ordered COAH to come up with new regulations regarding the development of affordable housing. COAH passed new guidelines on May 1, 2014, which increase the number of units developers are permitted to build in exchange for one affordable housing unit from four to nine; when asked, the agency refused to provide the contract for the Rutgers University professor who prepared the plan and claimed that the documents used to calculate the new guidelines had been lost, leading an affordable housing group to offer a $1,000 reward. In July 2014, a superior judge ruled that the contract must be released and search conducting for the missing documents. In October 2014 the COAH Board failed to meet the deadline by the Supreme Court for establishing new Third Round guidelines, when the board voted, 3–3, to adopt the proposal. In the absence of action by the state, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled in March 2015, that determination of affordable housing obligations would be administered by the court.

End Christie's defiance of the Supreme Court: Editorial Courts' procedures coming into focus as New Jersey's affordable housing saga continues Proposed rules April 30, 2014 "COAH Substantive Rules of the New Jersey Council on Affordable Housing for the Period Beginning on Proposed New Rules: N. J. A. C. 5:99 Proposed Repeal: N. J. A. C. 5:97". New Jersey. NEW JERSEY REGISTER. June 2, 2014

Stapleford Cross

Grid Reference SK 48903 37350 Stapleford Cross is an Anglo-Saxon high cross dating from the eleventh century, now located in the churchyard of St. Helen's Church, Stapleford, in Nottinghamshire, England, it is Grade I listed, a scheduled ancient monument. The cross was said by Pevsner to be "by far the most important pre-Conquest monument in Notts". According to its Historic England list entry: The cross... though not in its original location, is an fine example. The remains of the cross today consist of a 2.5m high square stone shaft, tapering from 0.5m square at the base to 0.25m at the top. The lower portion has rounded edges, whilst the top part is more square section, which makes this cross one of the Mercian round-shaft family; the shaft is decorated with various forms of interlace, divided into four sections. The third section displays a winged figure, armed with a spear and presumed to be an archangel, or Luke the Evangelist. According to Kendrick, this dense interlacing is distinctly Mercian in character.

It shows similarities to the densely carved Wolverhampton Pillar, the fine interlacing to be seen on the Brunswick Casket and the Witham Pins. On the other hand, Hill sees a stylistic connection with the Bewcastle Cross in Cumbria, Byzantine influences; the cross is now mounted on a nineteenth-century plinth, is topped by cap and modern ball in place of the original cross-head, lost in the eighteenth century. The date of the cross in unclear. English Heritage describe it as eleventh-century in one of two listings, but in its other listing they suggest that high crosses of this type are to be eighth, ninth or tenth century. Rev. A. D. Hill suggested a date between 680 and 780 AD, from the ornamentation style and circumstances of the times; this is the date range quoted on the information panel displayed at the site. Pevsner says that the date may be as late as c.1050. The original position of the cross in unknown, but it is to have been nearby; the first records of the monument date from the eighteenth century.

Before 1760, the cross was lying on its side in the churchyard, around which time the cross-head was removed. With the head, the cross would have been around 3.5m high. In 1760, the cross was re-erected at the junction of Church Street and Church Lane south east of the churchyard. In 1820, it was installed on a new base at the same location, topped with a stone cap and ball. In 1916, the top ball was damaged in a storm. In 1928, the cross together with the 1820 plinth and cap was moved from the street location to the churchyard, where it now stands. In 2000, a new stone ball replaced the one damaged in 1916; the cross may be the origin of the name'Stapleford'. Historic England. "Monument No. 315499". PastScape. Article on Welcome to Stapleford website, incorporating historical published descriptions Photo of information board at the site Detail of carved figure