The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation; the corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Persians and Azeris constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Arabs constitute the largest ethnic group in the region by a clear margin. Indigenous minorities of the Middle East include Jews, Assyrians, Copts, Lurs, Samaritans, Shabaks and Zazas. European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines, Italo-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Chinese, Indians, Pakistanis, Pashtuns and sub-Saharan Africans; the history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including Judaism and Islam.
The Middle East has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia, most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent. Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports; the term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. However, it became more known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to "designate the area between Arabia and India". During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but of its center, the Persian Gulf, he labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, said that after Egypt's Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India.
Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar. Naval force has the quality of mobility; the British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden and the Persian Gulf. Mahan's article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India." After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. Until World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "Near East", while the "Far East" centered on China, the Middle East meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East.
In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term "Middle East" gained broader usage in Europe and the United States, with the Middle East Institute founded in Washington, D. C. in 1946, among other usage. The description Middle has led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Turkestan. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, not used by these disciplines.
The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including Libya on the west and Pakistan on the east and Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the Sudan and Ethiopia." In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, defined the region as including only Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar. The Associated Press Styleboo
Chennai International Airport
Chennai International Airport is an international airport serving the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu and its metropolitan area. It is located in 21 km from the city centre, it is the 4th busiest airport in India behind Delhi and Bengaluru in 2018. The airport handled over 20 million passengers in the fiscal year 2017-18, handling over 400 aircraft movements daily; the airport is served by the airport metro station of the Chennai Metro and the Tirusulam railway station of the Chennai Suburban Railway system. The domestic and the international terminals are named after former chief ministers of Tamil Nadu K. Kamaraj and C. N. Annadurai, respectively, it was the first airport in India to have international and domestic terminals located adjacent to each other. This airport serves as the regional headquarters of the Airports Authority of India for South India comprising the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Kerala and the union territories of Puducherry and Lakshadweep; the aviation history of the city began in 1910, when a city-based Corsican hotelier Giacomo D'Angelis built an aircraft and tested it.
Inspired by Louis Blériot, a Frenchman, the first to fly across the English Channel in July 1909, D'Angelis collaborated with Simpson's, a leading coach-builder in the city, to build a biplane. The biplane was built from D'Angelis's own designs, fitted with a small horse-power engine. Samuel John Green, a motor engineer at Simpson's, helped with the manufacture and assembly of the biplane. On 10 March 1910, D'Angelis tested the aircraft in the suburb of Pallavaram, making it the first flight in Asia. While demonstrating it to the public during the ticketed show, he took a person from the crowd on the aircraft as his passenger, he arranged a public viewing at the Island Grounds, charging entrance fees for the demonstration. One more test flight was conducted at the Island Grounds in 1914, when J. W. Madley, a water works engineer, tested an aircraft assembled by him, he flew it over the Red Hills reservoir to inspect works and shot a couple of aerial photographs of the reservoir from the aircraft.
This incident kindled an interest in flying among prominent residents of the city, resulting in the arrival of a set of aviators in 1911 to display the flying machines they had brought with them to India as a marketing initiative. The aviators included Jules Tyck. On 15 February 1911, Tyck flew in a Blériot aeroplane in front of the public; the aircraft was wheeled out by eight men with Tyck seated inside the craft wearing an oilskin coat and goggles. The men held the plane till its engine revved up and let go, the craft darted forward about 20 yards before rising into the air. In the air, the craft made a straight flight only for about three-quarters of the length of the ground and descended due to poor weather. Tyck flew again the next day, this time reaching a height of 2,400 feet, witnessed by the Governor of Madras Sir Arthur Lawley. Two days on 18 February, another demonstration was given by Baron de Caters, when he flew his aircraft in public; the history of civil aviation in India began in December 1912, with the opening of the first domestic air route between Karachi and Delhi by the Indian state Air services in collaboration with the Imperial Airways, United Kingdom.
However, it was just an extension of London–Karachi flight of the Imperial Airways. In 1915, the first Indian airline, Tata Sons Ltd, started a regular airmail service between Karachi and Madras without any patronage from the government, marking the beginning of air transportation in the southern part of India. In March 1930, a discussion initiated by pilot G. Vlasto led to the founding of Madras Flying Club, which became a pioneer in South India; the club had 71 founding members. Flt Lt H N Hawker became the club's first flight instructor; the club's first Indian chief pilot instructor, Mohammed Ismail Khan, trained several pilots, some of whom were trained professionally or others for fun. When the state council of Ceylon built an aerodrome at Ratnamala near Colombo in 1935, the first flight to land there was flown by chief flying instructor of the club Tyndale Biscoe. On 26 October 1936, Captain V. Sundaram, who got the first commercial pilot licence, flew a De Havilland Dove aircraft from Karachi to Madras.
On 15 October 1932, when J. R. D. Tata, founder of Tata Sons Ltd, flew a single-engined de Havilland carrying air mail from Karachi's Drigh Road Aerodrome to Bombay's Juhu Airstrip via Ahmedabad, the flight was continued to Madras via Bellary piloted by aviator Nevill Vintcent. Chennai was one of the first airports in India; the airport was built on land donated by the former governor of Madras Presidency, K Sriramulu Naidu. Although the first aircraft "de Havilland" landed in Chennai Airport in 1932, the usage was confined only to military operations during World War II. In 1952, the Civil Aviation Department took over its operations followed by the AAI in 1972. An air cargo complex was commissioned on 1 February 1978 for processing of import and transshipment cargo, in addition to unaccompanied luggage, the second gateway air cargo terminal in the country after the one at Kolkata airport; the first terminal was built at the north-east side of the airport in the suburb of Meenambakkam, thus being referred to as Meenambakkam Airport.
Another terminal was built at Tirusulam. The new domestic terminal was commissioned in 1985 and the international terminal was commissioned in 1989; the old terminal building became the Terminal 2 and is now used as a cargo termin
Etihad Airways is the second-largest airline in the United Arab Emirates. Its head office is in Abu Dhabi, near Abu Dhabi's International Airport. Etihad commenced operations in November 2003; the airline operates more than 1,000 flights per week to over 120 passenger and cargo destinations in the Middle East, Europe, Asia and the Americas, with a fleet of 117 Airbus and Boeing aircraft as of February 2018. In 2015, Etihad carried 14.8 million passengers, a 22.3% increase from the previous year, delivering revenues of US$9.02 billion and net profits of US$103 million. Its main base is Abu Dhabi International Airport. In addition to its core activity of passenger transportation, Etihad operates Etihad Holidays and Etihad Cargo. Etihad established its own airline alliance, Etihad Airways Partners, in October 2015, that includes Jet Airways, Air Serbia and Air Seychelles. Etihad Airways holds minority equity investments in the participating airlines. Booking for these airlines is consolidated under one network.
Etihad Airways was established as the second flag carrier of the United Arab Emirates in July 2003 by Royal Decree issued by Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, who wanted an airline for Abu Dhabi. Sheikh Ahmed bin Saif Al Nahyan established the airline, it started with an initial paid-up capital of AED500 million. Services were launched with a ceremonial flight to Al Ain on 5 November 2003. On 12 November 2003, Etihad commenced commercial operations with the launch of services to Beirut, Lebanon. Prior to the establishment of Etihad, Gulf Air was the airline, based at Abu Dhabi International Airport and was co-owned by Bahrain and the Sultanate of Oman. In June 2004, the airline placed an US$8-billion aircraft order for five Boeing 777-300ERs and 24 Airbus aircraft, including four Airbus A380s, its first A380 was delivered in December 2014. The airline announced what was the largest aircraft order in commercial aviation history at the Farnborough Airshow in 2008, for up to 205 aircraft—100 firm orders, 55 options and 50 purchase rights.
Etihad reported its first full-year net profit in 2011, of US$14 million, in line with the strategic plan announced by CEO James Hogan in 2006. In December 2011, Etihad announced it had taken a 29.21% stake in Air Berlin, Europe's sixth-largest airline, James Hogan was appointed Vice Chairman. It followed this up with minority stakes in other airlines—Air Seychelles, Aer Lingus, Virgin Australia. On 1 August 2013, the President of the company, James Hogan, signed a deal with Aleksandar Vučić, First Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia, in Belgrade, giving Etihad a 49% stake in the Serbian national carrier Jat Airways; the Serbian Government retained 51% of the shares, with the company being rebranded as Air Serbia. In September 2012, the Indian government announced that foreign airlines could take a stake of up to 49% in Indian carriers. On 24 April 2013, Jet Airways announced that it was ready to sell a 24% stake in the airline to Etihad for US$379 million; the deal was completed on 12 November 2013.
At the 2013 Dubai Airshow, Etihad announced that it was acquiring a 33.3% stake in the Swiss carrier Darwin Airline. Darwin was rebranded as Etihad Regional from March 2014. Etihad sold Darwin in 2017. On 1 August 2014, Etihad agreed to take a 49% stake in the Italian flag carrier Alitalia for an estimated €560 million; the deal was closed on 8 August 2014. On 1 January 2015, Alitalia-CAI formally passed its operations to Alitalia-SAI, a new entity owned 49% by Etihad and 51% by the Alitalia-CAI shareholders. In May 2016, the management structure was reshuffled, as James Hogan became CEO of the airline's parent company, Etihad Aviation Group. Peter Baumgartner the airline's Chief Commercial Officer, became Chief Executive Officer of the airline, reporting to Hogan. In May 2017, a week after Alitalia collapsed into administration, Etihad Aviation Group announced that CEO James Hogan and CFO James Rigney would leave the group on 1 July 2017; as an interim measure the board of directors appointed Ray Gammell as CEO while searching for a permanent replacement.
On January 9, 2018, Etihad Airways appointed Mark Powers as Group CFO, replacing interim Group CFO Ricky Thirion. On 2 July 2017, the United States Department of Homeland Security unbanned Etihad Airways and exempted Etihad Airways from the 2017 electronics ban after the airline enhanced its passenger screening processes. In February 2019, Etihad announced large order cancellations for both and Boeing aircraft; the airline terminated contracts for all 42 Airbus A350-900s, 2 A350-1000s and 19 of 24 ordered Boeing 777X. Etihad has its head office, in Abu Dhabi, near Abu Dhabi International Airport. Etihad spent 183.6 million UAE dirhams in 2007 to arrange to have its new head office and training center built. The new head office was scheduled to be finished by the end of 2007. Etihad is governed by a board of directors chaired by H. E. Mohamed Mubarak Al Mazrouei and operates in terms of its founding legislation and the Article of Association of the Company; the Board consists of seven independent non-executive members and has two sub-committees, being an Executive Committee and an Audit Committee, each with its own charter and chairman.
Other members of the board include: H. E. Ahmed Ali Al Sayegh, H. E. Mohamed Khalifa Al Mubarak, H. E. Mohamed Hareb Sultan Al Yousef, H. E. Hamad Abdulla Al Shamsi, H. E. Khalifa Sultan Al Suwaidi, H. E. Ahmed Ali Matar Al Romaithi; the airline was led by James Hogan (formerly CEO o
Blue Dart Aviation
Blue Dart Aviation is a cargo airline based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It operates with its main base as services 7 Indian metro cities. German courier company Deutsche Post owns a 70% stake in the airline through its subsidiary Blue Dart Express, it provides service in 220 plus countries and territories all over the world through their parent company DHL. Blue Dart Aviation flies to the following destinations within India, as of October 2017: As of August 2017, Blue Dart Aviation operates the following aircraft: The airline had operated the Boeing 737-200F until 2014
Atlas Air, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings, is a cargo airline, passenger charter airline, aircraft lessor based in Purchase in Harrison, New York. The airline was named after a Titan in Greek mythology, their symbol on the plane's tail is a golden man carrying a golden world. With a total combined fleet of 54 Boeing 747 aircraft, Atlas is the world's largest operator of this fleet type; the airline operates to 425 destinations in 119 countries. Atlas Air began operations in 1992; the airline's founder, Michael Chowdry, started by leasing aircraft to other airlines on an Aircraft, Crew and Insurance contract basis. The first customer, China Airlines, contracted one airplane to start ACMI service in 1993. By 1995, Atlas Air began trading publicly and in 1997, Atlas placed an order for 10 new Boeing 747-400 Freighters. Two additional 747-400 aircraft orders were placed in 1998. On January 30, 2004, Atlas Air Worldwide entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy. In July 2004, the parent company completed its restructuring plan and emerged from Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
In March 2010, Atlas Air was awarded a nine-year contract for the operation of the Boeing 747 Large Cargo Freighter'Dreamlifter' for transporting aircraft parts to Boeing from suppliers around the world. It commenced operation in September 2010 under a CMI contact. In 2011, Atlas Air took the first North American delivery of the Boeing 747-8 Freighter. In September 2012, Atlas Air renewed a training contract with the United States Air Force to continue to provide training for the pilots of Air Force One; the contract provides training for the Presidential Airlift Group for a five-year period. On April 7, 2016, Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings purchased Southern Air for $110 million in an all-cash deal; the transaction included Worldwide Air Logistics Group, Inc. and its two operating subsidiaries, Southern Air, Inc. and Florida West International Airways, Inc. On May 5, 2016, Amazon.com and Atlas Air announced a deal for Amazon.com to lease 20 Boeing 767s in order to fuel growth to their new Amazon air freight service, branded as Amazon Air.
The deal warrants Amazon the ability to buy up to 30% stake in the company over the next 7 years. Under the agreement, Atlas Air Inc. will provide aircraft, crew and insurance that will last for 7 years. This move comes after Amazon's similar deal with Air Transport International for 20 aircraft to be branded under Amazon Air. In March 2017, Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings shut down Florida West International Airways and cancelled the operating certificate. Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings is made up of Inc.. Polar Air Cargo. Southern Air Inc. and Titan Aviation Leasing. The airline headquarters is in Purchase, New York and it operates flights on an ACMI and Air Charter basis for some of the world's leading airlines, express operators, freight forwarders, charter brokers, global shippers and the U. S. Military, along with a dry-leasing freighter aircraft. Atlas Air has global operations established in Africa, the Pacific, the Middle East, North America and South America. Crew bases are located at Miami International Airport, New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport, Los Angeles International Airport, Chicago O'hare International Airport, Seattle Paine Field, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, Anchorage International Airport, Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Huntsville International Airport.
Atlas Air operates globally, with destinations throughout North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. Specific destinations vary due to changing seasonal trends. In May 2010, Atlas Air began operating a premium passenger private charter service for the U. S.-Africa Energy Association in conjunction with Sonair. The charter service consisted of two customized Boeing 747-400 aircraft provided by SonAir; the aircraft were consisted of a three class configuration. The charter service, which has become known as the "Houston Express", included three dedicated weekly non-stop flights between Houston and Luanda, Angola. Due to low global oil prices, demand diminished and the Houston Express ceased operations. Today, Atlas Air operates four Boeing 747 passenger aircraft and six Boeing 767 passenger aircraft for commercial and military passenger charters. Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings owns and operates Titan Aviation Holdings, an aircraft dry-leasing company. Through Titan Aviation, Atlas Air owns 17 planes for dry-leasing - six Boeing 777 freighters, one Boeing 757 freighter, eight Boeing 767 freighters, one Boeing 737-800 passenger aircraft, one Boeing 737-300 freighter.
Titan is the world's third largest freight aircraft. On January 24, 2005, a Boeing 747-200 freighter operating as Atlas Air Flight 8995 overran the runway while landing at Düsseldorf Airport; the aircraft was written off due to hull loss and the upcoming retirement of the Boeing 747-200s from the Atlas Air fleet. In early 2010, an Atlas Air aircraft was involved in a maintenance incident. In February, the cover of part of the flap assembly on a Boeing 747 detached from the aircraft, in the process of landing in Miami, Florida. On 17 May, a similar incident occurred. Due to alleged improper maintenance practices, the US Federal Aviation Administration on 5 May proposed a $500,000 fine against the airline; the airline is fighting the allegations. In March 2016, a
Panama the Republic of Panama, is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people. Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Spanish colonists arrived in the 16th century, it broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada and Venezuela. After Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada became the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the construction of the Panama Canal to be completed by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914; the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties led to the transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama on December 31, 1999. Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce and tourism are major and growing sectors.
It is regarded as a high-income country. In 2015 Panama ranked 60th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index. In 2018, Panama was ranked seventh-most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them found nowhere else on the planet. Panama is a founding member of the United Nations and other international organizations such as OAS, LAIA, G77, WHO and NAM; the definite origin of the name Panama is unknown. There are several theories. One postulates that the country was named after a found species of tree. Another that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, that the name means "many butterflies" in one or several of indigenous Amerindian languages that were spoken in the territory prior to Spanish colonization. Most scientifically corroborated theory, that by Panamanian linguists, states that the word is a hispanicization of Kuna language word "bannaba" which means "distant" or "far away".
A relayed legend in Panama is that there was a fishing village that bore the name "Panamá", which purportedly meant "an abundance of fish", when the Spanish colonizers first landed in the area. The exact location of the village is unspecified; the legend is corroborated by Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán's diary entries, who reports landing at an unnamed village while exploring the Pacific coast of Panama in 1515. In 1517, Don Gaspar de Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post in the same location Guzmán described. In 1519, Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Spanish Empire's Pacific port at the site; the new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crown's global plan after the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific began. The official definition and origin of the name as promoted by Panama's Ministry of Education is the "abundance of fish and butterflies"; this is the usual description given in social studies textbooks.
At the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the known inhabitants of Panama included the Cuevas and the Coclé tribes. These people have nearly disappeared; the Isthmus of Panama was formed about three million years ago when the land bridge between North and South America became complete, plants and animals crossed it in both directions. The existence of the isthmus affected the dispersal of people and technology throughout the American continent from the appearance of the first hunters and collectors to the era of villages and cities; the earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama include Paleo-Indian projectile points. Central Panama was home to some of the first pottery-making in the Americas, for example the cultures at Monagrillo, which date back to 2500–1700 BC; these evolved into significant populations best known through their spectacular burials at the Monagrillo archaeological site, their beautiful Gran Coclé style polychrome pottery. The monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles site are important traces of these ancient isthmian cultures.
Before Europeans arrived Panama was settled by Chibchan and Cueva peoples. The largest group were the Cueva; the size of the indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of European colonization is uncertain. Estimates range as high as two million people, but more recent studies place that number closer to 200,000. Archaeological finds and testimonials by early European explorers describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety and suggesting people developed by regular regional routes of commerce; when Panama was colonized, the indigenous peoples fled into nearby islands. Scholars believe that infectious disease was the primary cause of the population decline of American natives; the indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity to diseases, chronic in Eurasian populations for centuries. Rodrigo de Bastidas sailed westward from Venezuela in 1501 in search of gold, became the first European to explore the isthmus of Panama. A year Christopher Columbus visited the isthmus, established a short-lived settlement in the Darien.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa's tortuous
The Boeing 727 is an American midsized, narrow-body three-engined jet aircraft built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from the early 1960s to 1984. It can carry 149 to 189 passengers and models can fly up to 2,700 nautical miles nonstop. Intended for short and medium-length flights, the 727 can use short runways at smaller airports, it has three Pratt & Whitney JT8D engines below the T-tail, one on each side of the rear fuselage with a center engine that connects through an S-duct to an inlet at the base of the fin. The 727 is the only Boeing trijet, as a commercial design entering production; the 727 followed the 707, a quad-jet airliner, with which it shares its upper fuselage cross-section and cockpit design. The 727-100 first flew in February 1963 and entered service with Eastern Air Lines in February 1964; the 727 became a mainstay of airlines' domestic route networks and was used on short- and medium-range international routes. Passenger and convertible versions of the 727 were built; the highest production rate of the 727 was in the 1970s.
As of July 2018, a total of 44 Boeing 727s were in commercial service with 23 airlines, plus a few more in government and private use. Airport noise regulations have led to 727s being equipped with hush kits. Since 1964, there have been 118 fatal incidents involving the Boeing 727. Successor models include variants of the 737 and the 757-200; the last commercial passenger flight of the type was in January 2019. The Boeing 727 design was a compromise among United Airlines, American Airlines, Eastern Air Lines. United Airlines requested a four-engine aircraft for its flights to high-altitude airports its hub at Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado. American Airlines, operating the four-engined Boeing 707 and Boeing 720, requested a twin-engined aircraft for efficiency. Eastern Airlines wanted a third engine for its overwater flights to the Caribbean, since at that time twin-engine commercial flights were limited by regulations to routes with 60-minute maximum flying time to an airport.
The three airlines agreed on a trijet design for the new aircraft. In 1959, Lord Douglas, chairman of British European Airways, suggested that Boeing and de Havilland Aircraft Company work together on their trijet designs, the 727 and D. H.121 Trident, respectively. The two designs had a similar layout, the 727 being larger. At that time Boeing intended to use three Allison AR963 turbofan engines, license-built versions of the Rolls-Royce RB163 Spey used by the Trident. Boeing and de Havilland each sent engineers to the other company's locations to evaluate each other's designs, but Boeing decided against the joint venture. De Havilland had wanted Boeing to license-build the D. H.121, while Boeing felt that the aircraft needed to be designed for the American market, with six-abreast seating and the ability to use runways as short as 4,500 feet. In 1960, Pratt & Whitney was looking for a customer for its new JT8D turbofan design study, based on its J52 turbojet, while United and Eastern were interested in a Pratt & Whitney alternative to the RB163 Spey.
Once Pratt & Whitney agreed to go ahead with development of the JT8D, Eddie Rickenbacker, chairman of the board of Eastern, told Boeing that the airline preferred the JT8D for its 727s. Boeing had not offered the JT8D, as it was about 1,000 lb heavier than the RB163, though more powerful. Boeing reluctantly agreed to offer the JT8D as an option on the 727, it became the sole powerplant. With high-lift devices on its wing, the 727 could use shorter runways than most earlier jets. 727 models were stretched to carry more passengers and replaced earlier jet airliners such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, as well as aging propeller airliners such as the DC-4, DC-6, DC-7, the Lockheed Constellations on short- and medium-haul routes. For over a decade, more 727s were built per year than any other jet airliner; the airliner's middle engine at the rear of the fuselage gets air from an inlet ahead of the vertical fin through an S-shaped duct. This S-duct proved to be troublesome in that flow distortion in the duct induced a surge in the centerline engine on the take-off of the first flight of the 727-100.
This was fixed by the addition of several large vortex generators in the inside of the first bend of the duct. The 727 was designed for smaller airports, so independence from ground facilities was an important requirement; this led to one of the 727's most distinctive features: the built-in airstair that opens from the rear underbelly of the fuselage, which could be opened in flight. Hijacker D. B. Cooper used this hatch when he parachuted from the back of a 727, as it was flying over the Pacific Northwest. Boeing subsequently modified the design with the Cooper vane so that the airstair could not be lowered in flight. Another innovation was the auxiliary power unit, which allowed electrical and air-conditioning systems to run independently of a ground-based power supply, without having to start one of the main engines. An unusual design feature is that the APU is mounted in a hole in the keel beam web, in the main landing gear bay; the 727 is eq