DJ Kool Herc

Clive Campbell, better known by his stage name DJ Kool Herc, is a Jamaican–American DJ, credited with helping originate hip hop music in the Bronx, New York City, in the 1970s through his "Back to School Jam", hosted on August 11, 1973, at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue. After his younger sister, Cindy Campbell, became inspired to earn extra cash for back-to-school clothes, she decided to have her older brother 16 years old, play music for the neighborhood in their apartment building. Known as the "Founder of Hip-Hop" and "Father of Hip-Hop", Campbell began playing hard funk records of the sort typified by James Brown as an alternative both to the violent gang culture of the Bronx and to the nascent popularity of disco in the 1970s. Campbell began to isolate the instrumental portion of the record which emphasized the drum beat—the "break"—and switch from one break to another. Using the same two-turntable set-up of disco DJs, he used two copies of the same record to elongate the break; this breakbeat DJing, using funky drum solos, formed the basis of hip hop music.

Campbell's announcements and exhortations to dancers helped lead to the syncopated, rhythmically spoken accompaniment now known as rapping. He called the dancers "break-boys" and "break-girls", or b-boys and b-girls. Campbell's DJ style was taken up by figures such as Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster Flash. Unlike them, he never made the move into commercially recorded hip hop in its earliest years. Clive Campbell was the first of six children born to Nettie Campbell in Kingston, Jamaica. While growing up, he saw and heard the sound systems of neighborhood parties called dance halls, the accompanying speech of their DJs, known as toasting, he emigrated with his family at the age of 12 to The Bronx, New York City in November 1967, where they lived at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue. Campbell attended the Alfred E. Smith Career and Technical Education High School in the Bronx, where his height and demeanor on the basketball court prompted the other kids to nickname him "Hercules". After being involved in a physical altercation with school bullies, the Five Percenters came to Herc's aid, befriended him and as Herc put it, helped "Americanize" him with an education in New York City street culture.

He began running with a graffiti crew called the Ex-Vandals, taking the name Kool Herc. Herc recalls persuading his father to buy him a copy of "Sex Machine" by James Brown, a record that not a lot of his friends had, which they would come to him to hear, he and his sister, began hosting back-to-school parties in the recreation room of their building, 1520 Sedgwick Avenue. Herc's first sound system consisted of two turntables connected to two amplifiers and a Shure "Vocal Master" PA system with two speaker columns, on which he played records such as James Brown's "Give It Up or Turnit a Loose", Jimmy Castor's "It's Just Begun" and Booker T. & the M. G.'s' "Melting Pot". With Bronx clubs struggling with street gangs, uptown DJs catering to an older disco crowd with different aspirations, commercial radio catering to a demographic distinct from teenagers in the Bronx, Herc's parties had a ready-made audience. DJ Kool Herc developed the style, the blueprint for hip hop music. Herc used the record to focus on a short percussive part in it: the "break".

Since this part of the record was the one the dancers liked best, Herc isolated the break and prolonged it by changing between two record players. As one record reached the end of the break, he cued a second record back to the beginning of the break, which allowed him to extend a short section of music into "five-minute loop of fury"; this innovation had its roots in what Herc called "The Merry-Go-Round," a technique by which the deejay switched from break to break at the height of the party. This technique is called "The Merry-Go-Round" because according to Herc, it takes one "back and forth with no slack."Herc stated that he first introduced the Merry-Go-Round into his sets in 1972. The earliest known Merry-Go-Round involved playing James Brown's "Give It Up or Turnit a Loose" switching from that record's break into the break from a second record, "Bongo Rock" by The Incredible Bongo Band. From the "Bongo Rock"'s break, Herc used a third record to switch to the break on "The Mexican" by the English rock band Babe Ruth.

Kool Herc contributed to developing the rhyming style of hip hop by punctuating the recorded music with slang phrases, announcing: "Rock on, my mellow!" "B-boys, b-girls, are you ready? Keep on rock steady" "This is the joint! Herc beat on the point" "To the beat, y'all!" "You don't stop!" For his contributions, Herc is called a "founding father of hip hop," a "nascent cultural hero," and an integral part of the beginnings of hip hop by Time. On August 11, 1973, DJ Kool Herc was a disc jockey and emcee at a party in the recreation room at Sedgwick Avenue. DJ Kool Herc: extended an instrumental beat to let people dance longer and began MC'ing during the extended breakdancing.... Helped lay the foundation for a cultural revolution.. According to music journalist Steven Ivory, in 1973, Herc placed on the turntables two copies of Brown's 1970 Sex Machine album and ran "an extended cut'n' mix of the percussion breakdown" from "Give It Up or Turnit Loose", signaling the birth of hip hop; the "b-boys" and "b-girls" were the dancers to Herc's breaks, who were described as "breaking".

Herc has noted that "breaking" was street slang of the time meaning "getting excited", "acting energetically," or "causing a disturbance". Herc coined the terms "b-boy", "b-girl," and "breaking" which became part of the lexicon of what would be ev

Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro

Copacabana is a bairro located in the South Zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is known for its 4 km balneario beach, one of the most famous in the world; the district was called Sacopenapã until the mid-18th century. It was renamed after the construction of a chapel holding a replica of the Virgen de Copacabana, the patron saint of Bolivia; the name may be derived from the Aymara kota kahuana, meaning "view of the lake." The social scientist Mario Montaño Aragón found in the "archives of Indias" in Sevilla, Spain, a different history: "Kotakawana" is the god of fertility in ancient Andean mythology, the equivalent to the classical Greek goddess Aphrodite or the Roman Venus. This god is androgynous and lives in the Titicaca, his court consists of creatures that are represented in colonial sculptures and in Catholic churches, they were known as mermaids in Western culture. Copacabana ends at Posto Seis. Beyond Copacabana, there are two small beaches: one, inside Fort Copacabana and the other, right after it: Diabo Beach.

Arpoador beach, where surfers go after its perfect waves, comes next, followed by the famous borough of Ipanema. The area was one of the four "Olympic Zones" during the 2016 Summer Olympics. According to Riotur, the Tourism Secretariat of Rio de Janeiro, there are 63 hotels and 10 hostels in Copacabana. Copacabana beach, located at the Atlantic shore, stretches from Posto Dois to Posto Seis. Leme is at Posto Um. There are historic forts at both ends of Copacabana beach. One curiosity is. Hotels, bars and residential buildings dot the promenade facing Avenida Atlântica. On Sundays and holidays, one side of Avenida Atlântica is closed to cars, giving residents and tourists more space for activities along the beach. Copacabana Beach plays host to millions of revellers during the annual New Year's Eve celebrations, in most years, has been the official venue of the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup; the Copacabana promenade is a pavement landscape in large scale. It was rebuilt in 1970 and has used a black and white Portuguese pavement design since its origin in the 1930s: a geometric wave.

The Copacabana promenade was designed by Roberto Burle Marx. Copacabana has the 11th highest Human Development Index in Rio. According to the IBGE, 160,000 people live in Copacabana and 44,000 or 27.5% of them are 60 years old or older. Copacabana covers an area of 7.84 km2 which gives the borough a population density of 20,400 people per km2. Residential buildings eleven to thirteen stories high built next to each other dominate the borough. Houses and two-story buildings are rare; when Rio was the capital of Brazil, Copacabana was considered one of the best neighborhoods in the country. More than 40 different bus routes serve Copacabana, as do three subway Metro stations: Cantagalo, Siqueira Campos and Cardeal Arcoverde. Three major arteries parallel to each other cut across the entire borough: Avenida Atlântica, a 6-lane, 4 km avenue by the beachside, Nossa Senhora de Copacabana Avenue and Barata Ribeiro/Raul Pompéia Street both of which are 4 lanes and 3.5 km in length. Barata Ribeiro Street changes its name to Raul Pompéia Street after the Sá Freire Alvim Tunnel.

Twenty-four streets intersect all three major arteries, seven other streets intersect some of the three. On 26 April 1949, RMS Magdalena broke in two. Much of her cargo of oranges was washed up upon the beach. On December 31, 1994, the New Year's Eve celebrations featured a Rod Stewart concert with an attendance of 3.5 million, making it the largest concert crowd ever. More the beach has been a site for huge free concerts unrelated to the year-end festivities. On March 21, 2005, Lenny Kravitz performed there on a Monday night. On February 18, 2006, a Saturday, The Rolling Stones surpassed that mark by far, attracting over 1.5 million people to the beach. On July 7, 2007, the beach hosted the Brazilian leg of the Live Earth concerts, which attracted 400,000 people; as the headliner, Lenny Kravitz got to play the venue a second time, with Jorge Benjor, Macy Gray, O Rappa and Pharrell as the main opening acts. On October 2, 2009, 100,000 people filled the beach for a huge beach party as the IOC announced Rio would be hosting the 2016 Olympics.

11 of the 15 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cups have taken place here. On July 28, 2013, the beach hosted the final event of the World Youth Day 2013. About 3 million people including 3 presidents joined Pope Francis. From May till July, 2014 the United Buddy Bears exhibit was held on the Copacabana promenade and attracted more than 1,000,000 people; the presentation consisted of more than 140 bear sculptures, each two metres high and designed by a different artist. In August 2016, Copacabana Beach was the site of beach volleyball in the Olympic Games; the fireworks display in Rio de Janeiro to celebrate New Year's Eve is one of the largest in the world, lasting 15 to 20 minutes. It is estimated; the festival includes a concert that extends throughout the night. The celebration has become o

John McGuinness (politician)

John James McGuinness is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician, a Teachta Dála for the Carlow–Kilkenny constituency since the 1997 general election. He was appointed Chair of the Committee on Finance, Public Expenditure and Reform in April 2016, he served as Chair of the Public Accounts Committee from 2011 to 2016 and Minister of State for Trade and Commerce from 2007 to 2009. McGuinness was educated in Kilkenny Christian Brothers Secondary School, he holds a Diploma in Business Management. He is married to Margaret Redmond and they have three sons and one daughter, his eldest son Andrew is a Fianna Fáil County Councillor on Kilkenny County Council and served as Mayor from 2014 to 2015. He first entered local politics in 1979 when he won a seat on Kilkenny Borough Council and was a subsequent Mayor of the city from 1996 to 1997, he was the third generation of his family to serve on this council. From 1991 until the abolition of the dual mandate in 2003, he was member of Kilkenny County Council, where his father, Michael McGuinness, was the longest-serving councillor.

He was first elected to Dáil Éireann as a Fianna Fáil TD for the Carlow–Kilkenny constituency at the 1997 general election. He was vice-chairperson of the Public Accounts Committee in the 29th Dáil and a member of the Joint Oireachtas Committees for European Affairs and Small Business and Women's Rights in the 28th Dáil. In 2007, he was appointed as Minister of State at the Department of Enterprise and Employment for Trade and Commerce, he has subsequently revealed a testy relationship with his senior minister Mary Coughlan, considerable disagreement with policy in the department. On 22 April 2009, as part of cost-cutting measures due to the Irish financial crisis, the Taoiseach Brian Cowen reduced the number of Ministers of State from 20 to 15. McGuinness was among the seven junior ministers. On 24 April 2009, he criticised Coughlan and Cowen for their lack of leadership being given to the country, he said: "She's not equipped to deal with the complex issues of dealing with enterprise and business within the department.

And neither is the department". McGuinness' rejected suggestions he campaigned to undermine Coughlan, when it was revealed that he had hired external PR advice in an effort to enhance his own profile as a Minister of State within the Department. In 2010, a political memoir that he co-wrote with Naoise Nunn, called The House Always Wins, was published by Gill & Macmillan, he is the Fianna Fáil spokesperson on Small Business and Regulatory Framework since April 2011. McGuinness was appointed as Chair of the Finance, Public Expenditure and Reform, Taoiseach Committee on 14 June 2016. Official website John McGuinness' page on the Fianna Fáil website