A model is a person with a role either to promote, display or advertise commercial products, or to serve as a visual aid for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography. Modelling is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not considered to be "modelling". Types of modelling include: fashion, fitness, fine art, body-part and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, films, newspapers and television. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films. Celebrities, including actors, sports personalities and reality TV stars take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work. Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed.
The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. This became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs. With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained anonymous, poorly paid, until the late 1950s. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, popular in the 1930s. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Gerard Ford in New York. One of the most popular models during the 1940s was Jinx Falkenburg, paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940s and 1950s, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain recognition in Paris.
However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950s were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33". In the 1960s, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960s, Italy was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay, they would pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents.
It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumoured; this led many agencies to form worldwide chains. By the late 1960s, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling, it was during this period. Models such as Jean Shrimpton, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Penelope Tree, dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of'66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £ 80 an hour. In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents; the formation of this association changed the fashion industry.
With a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding; that same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960s, models were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing; the innovations of the 1960s flowed into the 1970s fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies b
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. King's was established in 1829 by King George IV and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when it received its first royal charter, claims to be the fourth oldest university institution in England. In 1836, King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. In the late 20th century, King's grew through a series of mergers, including with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology, the Institute of Psychiatry, the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals and the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery. King's has five campuses: its historic Strand Campus in central London, three other Thames-side campuses and one in Denmark Hill in south London. In 2017/18, King's had a total income of £841.1 million, of which £194.4 million was from research grants and contracts.
It is the 12th largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, the largest of any in London, its academic activities are organised into nine faculties, which are subdivided into numerous departments and research divisions. King's is considered part of the'golden triangle' of research-intensive English universities alongside the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University College London, Imperial College London, The London School of Economics, it is a member of academic organisations including the Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association, the Russell Group. King's is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a founding member of the King's Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute and MedCity, it is the largest European centre for graduate and post-graduate medical teaching and biomedical research, by number of students, includes the world's first nursing school, the Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery.
Globally, it was ranked 31st in the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 36th in the 2018 CWTS Leiden Ranking, 36th in the 2018 The World University Rankings, 46th in the 2017 ARWU. King's was ranked 42nd in the world for reputation in the annual Times Higher Education survey of academics for 2018. Nationally it was ranked 26th in the 2019 Complete University Guide, 35th in the 2019 Times/Sunday Times University Guide, 58th in the 2019 Guardian University Guide. King's alumni and staff include 12 Nobel laureates. Alumni include heads of states and intergovernmental organisations. King's College, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the theological controversy surrounding the founding of "London University" in 1826. London University was founded, with the backing of Utilitarians and Nonconformists, as a secular institution, intended to educate "the youth of our middling rich people between the ages of 15 or 16 and 20 or later" giving its nickname, "the godless college in Gower Street".
The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which educated the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, indeed, "the storms of opposition which raged around it threatened to crush every spark of vital energy which remained". Thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. More King's was one of the first of a series of institutions which came about in the early nineteenth century as a result of the Industrial Revolution and great social changes in England following the Napoleonic Wars. By virtue of its foundation King's has enjoyed the patronage of the monarch, the Archbishop of Canterbury as its visitor and during the nineteenth century counted among its official governors the Lord Chancellor, Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Mayor of London; the simultaneous support of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, for an Anglican King's College London and the Roman Catholic Relief Act, to lead to the granting of full civil rights to Catholics, was challenged by George Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea, in early 1829.
Winchilsea and his supporters wished for King's to be subject to the Test Acts, like the universities of Oxford, where only members of the Church of England could matriculate, Cambridge, where non-Anglicans could matriculate but not graduate, but this was not Wellington's intent. Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of King's College London in response to Wellington's support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind "insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty and the introduction of Popery into every department of the State"; the letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with "disgraceful and criminal motives" in setting up King's C
Britney Jean Spears is an American singer, songwriter and actress. Born in McComb and raised in Kentwood, she appeared in stage productions and television series, before signing with Jive Records in 1997. Spears's first two studio albums... Baby One More Time and Oops!... I were global successes and made her the best-selling teenage artist of all-time. Referred to as the "Princess of Pop", Spears was regarded as a pop icon and credited with influencing the revival of teen pop during the late 1990s and early 2000s. Spears adopted more mature and provocative themes for her next two studio albums, Britney and In the Zone, made her feature film debut in a starring role in Crossroads. Following a series of publicized personal struggles and erratic public behavior, Spears's career was interrupted, before the release of her fifth studio album Blackout, critically referred to as her best work, her erratic behavior and hospitalizations led Spears to be placed on a still ongoing conservatorship. She returned to the top of record charts with her sixth and seventh studio albums and Femme Fatale, respectively.
In 2012, Forbes reported that Spears was the highest paid female musician of the year, with earnings of $58 million, having last topped the list in 2002. During the promotion of her eighth and ninth studio albums, Britney Jean and Glory, Spears embarked on a four-year concert residency, Britney: Piece of Me, at Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino in Las Vegas, which became one of the highest-grossing residencies of all-time. In 2019, Spears announced an indefinite career hiatus due to her father's unstable health. Spears scored six number one albums on the Billboard 200, making her the third best performing female artist on the chart. Five of Spears's singles have reached number one on the US Billboard Hot 100: "... Baby One More Time", "Womanizer", "3", "Hold It Against Me" and "S&M". Other singles, "Oops!... I Did It Again" and "Toxic", topped Canadian charts. With "3" in 2009 and "Hold It Against Me" in 2011, she became the second artist after Mariah Carey in the Hot 100's history to debut at number one with two or more songs.
Spears has earned numerous awards and accolades, including a Grammy Award, seven Guinness World Records, six MTV Video Music Awards, including the Michael Jackson Video Vanguard Award, seven Billboard Music Awards, including the Millennium Award, the inaugural Radio Disney Icon Award, a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, becoming the youngest recording artist to receive the honor, at age 21. Billboard ranked her as the eighth biggest artist of the 2000s decade. One of the world's best-selling music artists, Spears has sold over 150 million records worldwide and more than 70 million records in United States, including 36.9 million digital singles and 33.6 million digital albums. In the United States, Spears remains the fourth best-selling female album artist of the Nielsen SoundScan era, as well as the best-selling female albums artist of the 2000s. In 2004, she launched a perfume brand with Elizabeth Arden, Inc. from which sales exceeded US$1.5 billion, as of 2012. The singer serves as one of the few artists in history to have a number one single and studio album in the US during each of the three decades of their career—1990s, 2000s, 2010s.
Spears has topped the list of most searched celebrities seven times in 12 years, a record since the inception of the internet. Spears was born in McComb, the second child of Lynne Irene Bridges and James Parnell Spears, her maternal grandmother, Lillian Portell, was English, one of Spears's maternal great-great-grandfathers was Maltese. Her siblings are Jamie Lynn. Britney was born in the Bible Belt, where conservative evangelical Protestantism is a strong religious influence. Spears was baptized into the Southern Baptist Convention, but in life studied Kabbalist teachings, she sang in a Baptist church choir as a child. At age three, she started attending dance lessons in her hometown of Kentwood and was selected to perform as a solo artist at the annual recital. Spears made her local stage debut at age five, singing "What Child Is This?" at her kindergarten graduation. During her childhood, she attended gymnastics and voice lessons, won many state-level competitions and children's talent shows.
She said about her ambition as a child, "I was in my own world, I found out what I'm supposed to do at an early age". At age eight and her mother Lynne traveled to Atlanta, Georgia to audition for the 1990s revival of The Mickey Mouse Club. Casting director Matt Casella rejected her as too young, but introduced her to Nancy Carson, a New York City talent agent. Carson was impressed with Spears's singing and suggested enrolling her at the Professional Performing Arts School. Spears was hired for her first professional role as the understudy for the lead role of Tina Denmark in the Off-Broadway musical Ruthless!. She appeared as a contestant on the popular television show Star Search and was cast in a number of commercials. In December 1992, she was cast in The Mickey Mouse Club alongside Christina Aguilera, Justin Timberlake, Ryan Gosling, Keri Russell. After the show was canceled in 1996, she returned to Mississippi and enrolled at McComb's Parklane Academy. Although she made friends with most of her classmates, she compared the school to "the opening scene in Clueless with all the cliques.
I was so bored. I was the point guard on the basketball team. I had my boyfriend, I went to homecoming and Christmas formal, but I wanted more."In
Scrubs (TV series)
Scrubs is an American medical comedy-drama television series created by Bill Lawrence that aired from October 2, 2001, to March 17, 2010, on NBC and ABC. The series follows the lives of employees at the fictional Sacred Heart Hospital, which becomes a Teaching Hospital; the title is a play on surgical scrubs and a term for a low-ranking person because at the beginning of the series, most of the main characters are medical interns. The series was noted for its fast-paced slapstick and surreal vignettes presented as the daydreams of the central character, Dr. John "J. D." Dorian, played by Zach Braff. The main cast for all but its last season consisted of Braff, Sarah Chalke, Donald Faison, Neil Flynn, Ken Jenkins, John C. McGinley, Judy Reyes; the series featured multiple guest appearances by film actors, such as Brendan Fraser, Heather Graham, Colin Farrell. Although season eight's "My Finale" was conceived and filmed as a series finale, the show was rebooted for a ninth season, with the setting moved to a medical school, new cast members introduced.
Of the original cast, only Braff, McGinley remained regular cast members, while the others, with the exception of Reyes, made guest appearances. Scrubs, produced by the television production division of Walt Disney Television, premiered on October 2, 2001, on NBC; the series received a Peabody Award in 2006. During the seventh season, NBC announced; the ninth season premiered on December 1, 2009, on May 14, 2010, ABC cancelled the series. Scrubs focuses on the unique point of view of its main character and narrator, Dr. John Michael "J. D." Dorian for the first eight seasons, with season nine being narrated by the new main character Lucy Bennett. Most episodes feature multiple story lines thematically linked by voice-overs done by Braff, as well as the comical daydreams of J. D. According to Bill Lawrence, "What we decided was, rather than have it be a monotone narration, if it's going to be Zach's voice, we're going to do everything through J. D.'s eyes. It opened up a visual medium that those of us as comedy writers were not used to."
Actors were given the chance to improvise their lines on set with encouragement by series creator Bill Lawrence, with Neil Flynn and Zach Braff being the main improvisors. Every episode title for the first eight seasons begins with the word "My". Bill Lawrence says. A few episodes are told from another character's perspective and have episode titles such as "His Story" or "Her Story". Apart from a brief period of narration from J. D. at the beginning and the end, these episodes contain internal narration from other characters besides J. D; the transfer of the narration duties occurs at a moment of physical contact between two characters. Starting with season nine, the episode titles start with "Our..." as the focus has shifted from the perspective of J. D. to a new group of medical students. The webisodes that accompanied season eight, Scrubs: Interns were named "Our...". For the first eight seasons, the series featured seven main cast members, with numerous other characters recurring throughout the course of the series.
Starting with the ninth season, many of the original cast left as regular characters, while four new additions were made to the main cast. Zach Braff portrays John Michael "J. D." Dorian, the show's protagonist and narrator. J. D. is a young attending physician. His voice-over to the series comes from his internal thoughts and features surreal fantasies. J. D. describes himself as a "sensi", being a lover of hugs. Over the course of the series, J. D. rises the ranks of the hospital before leaving Sacred Heart to become the Residency Director at St. Vincent Hospital, before returning to become a teacher at Winston University. J. D. has a child with wife Elliot Reid. Sarah Chalke portrays Elliot Reid, another intern and private-practice physician, her relationship with J. D. becomes romantic on several occasions throughout the series, resulting in them marrying and having a child together. As the series progresses, despite an initial dislike of each other, she becomes friends with Carla. Elliot is driven by a neurotic desire to prove her worth to her family, her peers, herself.
She is described as book-smart, while her social abilities were somewhat lacking. Her social skills develop throughout the seasons. Donald Faison portrays Christopher Turk, J. D.'s best friend and surgeon, who rises from intern to chief of surgery as the series progresses. Turk and J. D. were roommates when they attended the College of William and Mary, as well as in medical school, the two have an close relationship. Turk is driven and competitive while always remaining loyal. During the course of the series, Turk forms a relationship with Carla. In season nine, he is a teacher at Winston University while continuing his duties as chief of surgery. Neil Flynn portrays the hospital's custodian. An incident in the pilot episode establishes an antagonistic relationship between J. D. an
See also: British literature This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, the Crown dependencies, the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States. However, until the early 19th century, it only deals with the literature of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and Ireland, it does not include literature written in the other languages of Britain. The English language has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years; the earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the fifth century, are called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible as well as the Great Vowel Shift.
Through the influence of the British Empire, the English language has spread around the world since the 17th century. Old English literature, or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses the surviving literature written in Old English in Anglo-Saxon England, in the period after the settlement of the Saxons and other Germanic tribes in England c. 450, after the withdrawal of the Romans, "ending soon after the Norman Conquest" in 1066. These works include genres such as epic poetry, sermons, Bible translations, legal works and riddles. In all there are about 400 surviving manuscripts from the period. Widsith, which appears in the Exeter Book of the late 10th century, gives a list of kings of tribes ordered according to their popularity and impact on history, with Attila King of the Huns coming first, followed by Eormanric of the Ostrogoths, it may be the oldest extant work that tells the Battle of the Goths and Huns, told in such Scandinavian works as Hervarar's saga and Gesta Danorum. Lotte Hedeager argues that the work is far older and that it dates back to the late 6th or early 7th century, citing the author's knowledge of historical details and accuracy as proof of its authenticity.
She does note, that some authors, such as John Niles, have argued the work was invented in the 10th century. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English, from the 9th century, that chronicle is the history of the Anglo-Saxons; the poem Battle of Maldon deals with history. This is a work of uncertain date, celebrating the Battle of Maldon of 991, at which the Anglo-Saxons failed to prevent a Viking invasion. Oral tradition was strong in early English culture and most literary works were written to be performed. Epic poems were popular, some, including Beowulf, have survived to the present day. Beowulf is the most famous work in Old English, has achieved national epic status in England, despite being set in Scandinavia; the only surviving manuscript is the Nowell Codex, the precise date of, debated, but most estimates place it close to the year 1000. Beowulf is the conventional title, its composition is dated between the 8th and the early 11th century. Nearly all Anglo-Saxon authors are anonymous: twelve are known by name from medieval sources, but only four of those are known by their vernacular works with any certainty: Cædmon, Alfred the Great, Cynewulf.
Cædmon is the earliest English poet whose name is known, his only known surviving work Cædmon's Hymn dates from the late 7th century. The poem is one of the earliest attested examples of Old English and is, with the runic Ruthwell Cross and Franks Casket inscriptions, one of three candidates for the earliest attested example of Old English poetry, it is one of the earliest recorded examples of sustained poetry in a Germanic language. The poem, The Dream of the Rood, was inscribed upon the Ruthwell Cross. Two Old English poems from the late 10th century are The Seafarer. Both have a religious theme, Richard Marsden describes The Seafarer as "an exhortatory and didactic poem, in which the miseries of winter seafaring are used as a metaphor for the challenge faced by the committed Christian ". Classical antiquity was not forgotten in Anglo-Saxon England, several Old English poems are adaptations of late classical philosophical texts; the longest is King Alfred's 9th-century translation of Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy.
After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the written form of the Anglo-Saxon language became less common. Under the influence of the new aristocracy, French became the standard language of courts and polite society; as the invaders integrated, their language and literature mingled with that of the natives, the Norman dialects of the ruling classes became Anglo-Norman. From until the 12th century, Anglo-Saxon underwent a gradual transition into Middle English. Political power was no longer in English hands, so that the West Saxon literary language had no more influence than any other dialect and Middle English literature was written in the many dialects that corresponded to the region, history and background of individual writers. In this period religious literature continued to enjoy popularity and Hagiographies were written and translated: for example, The Life of Saint Audrey, Eadmer's. At the end of the 12th century, Layamon in Brut adapted the Norman-French of Wace to produce the first English-language work to present the legends of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table.
It was the first historiography written in English since the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Middle English Bible translations, notably Wycliffe's Bible, helped to establish English as
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Buster's Mal Heart
Buster's Mal Heart is a 2016 surreal mystery film written and directed by Sarah Adina Smith. It stars Rami Malek, DJ Qualls, Kate Lyn Sheil; the film had its world premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 11, 2016. It was released on April 2017, by Well Go USA Entertainment. An eccentric mountain man is on the run from the authorities, surviving the winter by breaking into empty vacation homes in a remote community. Calling into radio talk shows — where he has acquired the nickname "Buster" — to rant about the impending Inversion at the turn of the millennium, he is haunted by visions of being lost at sea, memories of his former life as a family man. Buster was once Jonah, a hard-working husband and father whose job as the night-shift concierge at a hotel took its toll on his psyche and his marriage to the sensitive Marty — until a chance encounter with a conspiracy-obsessed drifter changed the course of their lives forever; as the solitary present-day Buster drifts from house to house, eluding the local sheriff at every turn, we piece together the events that fractured his life and left him alone on top of a snowy mountain, or in a small rowboat in the middle of a vast ocean — or both.
After producing her first feature film The Midnight Swim, Smith knew that she wanted to create a story about a man and a mountain. She wrote the script at the Screenwriters Colony in Nantucket, MA, it was a non-traditional script, that combined illustrations with scene descriptions so that it read like a short story. While finding financing came easily for such an unusual script, the biggest challenge was finding someone to cast as the lead. Planning to cast a Latino actor due to the bilingual nature of the main character Jonah, Smith widened the search to expedite the casting process deciding on Rami Malek who she had seen in Short Term 12 and The Pacific. A tarot-card reading confirmed her casting choice. Buster's Mal Heart was filmed near Glacier National Park and in Kalispell, MT, as well as on the ocean in open water. Smith planned to film in her home-state of Colorado but, in the end, decided to shoot in Montana for the available state grant as well as the unique and dramatic landscape.
The film was shot in 18 days. Buster's Mal Heart premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 11, 2016. Shortly after, Well Go USA Entertainment acquired U. S distribution rights to the film; the film went onto screen at the AFI Fest on November 11, 2016. and screened at the Tribeca Film Festival on April 26, 2017. It was released on April 28, 2017. Buster's Mal Heart received positive reviews from film critics, it holds a 72% approval rating on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 43 reviews, with an average score of 6.2/10. On Metacritic, the film holds a weighted average score of 63 out of 100 based on 15 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". John DeFore of The Hollywood Reporter gave the film a positive review writing: "Fans of Mr. Robot won't be disappointed in the least by this vehicle for Emmy-winning series star Rami Malek, which both fits in with Mr. Robot's delusion-prone paranoia and lets the charismatic actor stretch out in his first feature lead."
Jeanette Catsoulis of The New York Times gave the film a positive review writing: "If the story is too tricky to realize its themes or welcome the impatient, it contains enough empathy to humanize a character who's part man, part spiritual symbol. Geoff Berkshire of Variety gave the film a positive review writing: "Whether he's playfully interacting with his wife and daughter, or delivering a madman's rant to thin air, Malek has the range to be utterly charming, utterly creepy, or both at once." Buster's Mal Heart on IMDb Buster's Mal Heart at Rotten Tomatoes Buster's Mal Heart at Metacritic Buster's Mal Heart at Box Office Mojo