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DR-DOS is an operating system of the DOS family, written for IBM PC-compatible personal computers. It was developed by Gary A. Kildall's Digital Research and derived from Concurrent PC DOS 6.0, an advanced successor of CP/M-86. As ownership changed, various versions were produced with names including Novell DOS and Caldera OpenDOS. Digital Research's original CP/M for the 8-bit Intel 8080- and Z-80-based systems spawned numerous spin-off versions, most notably CP/M-86 for the Intel 8086/8088 family of processors. Although CP/M had dominated the market, was shipped with the vast majority of non-proprietary-architecture personal computers, the IBM PC in 1981 brought the beginning of what was to be a massive change. IBM approached Digital Research, seeking an x86 version of CP/M. However, there were disagreements over the contract, IBM withdrew. Instead, a deal was struck with Microsoft, who purchased another operating system, 86-DOS, from Seattle Computer Products; this became Microsoft MS-DOS and IBM PC DOS.

86-DOS' command structure and application programming interface imitated that of CP/M. Digital Research threatened legal action, claiming PC DOS/MS-DOS to be too similar to CP/M. IBM settled by agreeing to sell Digital Research's x86 version of CP/M, CP/M-86, alongside PC DOS. However, PC DOS sold for $40; the proportion of PC buyers prepared to spend six times as much to buy CP/M-86 was small, the availability of compatible application software, at first decisively in Digital Research's favor, was only temporary. Digital Research fought a long losing battle to promote CP/M-86 and its multi-tasking multi-user successors MP/M-86 and Concurrent CP/M-86, decided that they could not beat the Microsoft-IBM lead in application software availability, so they modified Concurrent CP/M-86 to allow it to run the same applications as MS-DOS and PC DOS; this was shown publicly in December 1983 and shipped in March 1984 as Concurrent DOS 3.1 to hardware vendors. While Concurrent DOS continued to evolve in various flavours over the years to become Multiuser DOS and REAL/32, it was not tailored for the desktop market and too expensive for single-user applications.

Therefore, over time two attempts were made to sideline the product. In 1985, Digital Research developed DOS Plus 1.0 to 2.1, a stripped-down and modified single-user derivative of Concurrent DOS 4.1 and 5.0, which ran applications for both platforms, allowed switching between several tasks as did the original CP/M-86. Its DOS compatibility was limited, Digital Research made another attempt, this time a native DOS system; this new disk operating system was launched in 1988 as DR DOS. Although DRI was based in Pacific Grove and in Monterey, the work on DOS Plus started in Newbury, Berkshire, in the UK, where Digital Research Europe had its OEM Support Group located since 1983. Beginning in 1986, most of the operating system work on Concurrent DOS 386 and XM, Multiuser DOS, DR DOS and PalmDOS was done in Digital Research's European Development Centre in Hungerford, Berkshire. On some work was done by Digital Research GmbH in Munich, Germany; as requested by several OEMs, Digital Research started a plan to develop a new DOS operating system addressing the shortcomings left by MS-DOS in 1987.

Of particular importance was a million dollar deal with Kazuhiko "Kay" Nishi of ASCII Corporation, instrumental in opening the Japanese OEM market for Microsoft. The first DR DOS version was released on May 28, 1988. Version numbers were chosen to reflect features relative to MS-DOS. DR DOS 3.31 reported itself as "IBM PC DOS 3.31", while the internal BDOS kernel version was reported as 6.0, single-user nature, reflecting its origin as derivative of Concurrent DOS 6.0 with the multitasking and multiuser capabilities as well as CP/M API support stripped out and the XIOS replaced by an IBM-compatible DOS-BIOS. The system files were named DRBIOS. SYS and DRBDOS. SYS, the disk OEM label used was "DIGITAL␠". DR DOS offered some extended command line tools with command line help, verbose error messages, sophisticated command line history and editing as well as support for file and directory passwords built right into the kernel, it was cheaper to license than MS-DOS, was ROMable right from the start.

The ROMed version of DR DOS was named ROS. DRI was approached by a number of PC manufacturers who were interested in a third-party DOS, which prompted several updates to the system. At this time, MS-DOS was only available to OEMs bundled with hardware. DR DOS achieved some immediate success when it became possible for consumers to buy it through normal retail channels beginning with version 3.4. Known versions are DR DOS 3.31, 3.32, 3.33, 3.34, 3.35, 3.40, 3.41. Like MS-DOS, most of them were produced in several variants for different hardware. While most OEMs kept the DR DOS name designation, one OEM version is known to have been called EZ-DOS 3.41. DR DOS version 5.0 was released in May 1990, still reporting itself as "PC DOS 3.31" for compatibility purposes, but internally indicating a single-user BDOS 6.4 kernel. (Ver

Jeff Congdon

Jeffrey D. Congdon is an American former basketball player from Garden Grove, California. Congdon played college basketball at Brigham Young University with teammates Dick Nemelka and Craig Raymond. Congdon was selected by the Detroit Pistons in the 4th round of the 1966 NBA draft. A 6'1" guard, Congdon played for the Anaheim Amigos during part of the 1967–68 American Basketball Association season. Congdon played the remainder of that season with the Denver Rockets, remained with Denver during the 1968–69 and 1969–70 seasons. Congdon spent the 1970 -- 71 seasons with the Utah New York Nets. Congdon joined the Dallas Chaparrals to finish out his professional career during the 1971–72 season. Jeff Congdon at

Titus Quinctius Flamininus

Titus Quinctius Flamininus was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece. Flamininus belonged to the minor patrician gens Quinctia; the family had a glorious place in the early history of Rome the famous hero Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, but it had somewhat lost its political influence by the middle of the fourth century BC. Flamininus' great grandfather Caeso Quintius Claudus was still consul in 271, the last time a Quintius is recorded as holding a curule office before 209. Lucius Quinctius, his grandfather, was Flamen Dialis—the great priest of Jupiter—during the third quarter of the third century; the cognomen Flamininus borne by his descendants derives from this prestigious priesthood. Flamininus' great grandson put an apex, the head covering of the Flamen, as a symbol of his family on a denarius he minted. Flamininus' father—also named Titus—is not known, he had two sons: the elder, Titus Flamininus, was born c.228, the younger Lucius followed soon after.

At the end of the third century, the Quinctii regained a good status among the political class, as shown by Flamininus' uncle Caeso who built the Temple of Concord in 217, his younger brother that became augur in 213 at a young age, his distant cousin Titus Quinctius Crispinus, consul in 208. The Quinctii were for a long time allied to the Fabii, one of the most prominent gentes of the Republic, they owed them the rare praenomen Caeso—a feature of the early Fabii—through marriages. Flamininus was married to a Fabia, as Polybius says that Quintus Fabius Buteo, who served under him in Greece, was his wife's nephew; the Buteones were influent at the time thanks to Marcus Fabius Buteo, the Princeps Senatus between 216 and 210. Flamininus' early career was peculiar; the Second Punic War, raging in Italy created several unusual careers, that of Scipio Africanus being the most famous example. It started in 208 as a junior military position, he served under the five time consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus, who commanded the operations against Hannibal in Southern Italy.

Marcellus died in a Carthaginian ambush near Crotone in 208. Flamininus became quaestor in 206, although some historians have suggested a date, he was sent to Tarentum to second his uncle Quinctius Claudus Flamininus, the propraetor in charge of the Roman garrison. Rome kept a strong military presence into this Greek city because it had defected to Hannibal, his uncle died in Tarentum in 205, it seems that Flamininus was given his command since he was on-site. Becoming propraetor before 25 was an extraordinary achievement, but it can be explained by the fact that experienced commanders were used abroad at the end of the Second Punic War. Livy remains silent on the following years. In any case, Flamininus had a good relationship with the Greek population of Tarentum. During his time there, he became familiar with the Greek language and culture. Flamininus is mentioned again in 201 as the last member of a ten-men commission tasked with settling veterans of Scipio Africanus in Southern Italy because he knew the area after his command at Tarentum.

This commission continued its work in 200, but Flamininus was appointed to another commission of three men to enrol settlers in Venusia. It is the only occurrence in Roman history of a man being member of two commissions simultaneously. In 199, Flamininus ran for the consulship, while he was not 30 years old; the cursus honorum had not yet been formally organised in these years, but his bid for election still broke the tradition. He was younger than Scipio Africanus, elected consul in 205 at 31, who had for him impressive military records and prestigious family support. In contrast, Flamininus came from a smaller family and could not boast any notable achievement during the war against Hannibal. At least two tribunes of the plebs, Marcus Fulvius and Manius Curius, vetoed his candidacy on the ground that he was too young and had not held any curule office. However, the Senate compelled them to remove their veto and allow Flamininus to present himself in the elections; this anomaly led modern historians to suppose that Flamininus was backed by several powerful politicians.

Early prosopographers such as Friedrich Münzer and H. H. Scullard thought that he was a member of the political faction led by the Fabii; however this view has been contested, because the Fabii were in decline after the death of Buteo and the Cunctator. Flamininus was elected consul, together with the plebeian Sextus Aelius Paetus Catus, as the consul posterior, which means the Centuriate Assembly elected him in second place, after Aelius. Plutarch tells that he owed his success to his land distributions in the commissions that made him popular among the settlers, who voted for him in return; the other consul lacked any notable military achievement, was elected thanks to his aedileship the previous year, during which he imported a lot of grain from Africa. As the two consuls could not agree on the allocation of the provinces between them, they turned to sortition. At the time, the main prize was the conduct of the Second Macedonian War against Philip V of Macedon. Although several scholars have thought that the lottery was rigged in favour of Flamininus, it appears that he was just lucky.

After his election to the consulship he was chosen to replace Publius Sulpicius Galba who wa

British Thomson-Houston

British Thomson-Houston was a British engineering and heavy industrial company, based at Rugby, Warwickshire and founded as a subsidiary of the General Electric Company of Schenectady, New York, USA. They were known for their electrical systems and steam turbines. BTH was taken into British ownership and amalgamated with the similar Metropolitan-Vickers company in 1928 to form Associated Electrical Industries, but the two brand identities were maintained until 1960; the holding company, Associated Electrical Industries merged with GEC, the remnants of which exist today as Marconi Corporation. In the 1960s BTH apprenticeships were thought-of, with apprentices exposed to production of a wide range of industrial products; each year in Rugby there was a big parade of floats run by its apprentices, many of whom lodged in the nearby Coton House apprentice hostel. In 1980, G. E. C. Turbine Generators Ltd, on the Rugby site, was awarded a Queen's Awards for Enterprise; the company Laing and Down was formed in 1886 to sell products from Thomson-Houston, an American firm known as the American Electric Corporation until 1883.

Laing and Down soon won a contract for electrical lighting for the east end of London. In 1894 Laing and Down purchased patents and exclusive production rights from the American company, now known as General Electric after Thomson-Houston merged with Edison General Electric Company in 1892. At this stage Laing and Down was renamed as British Thomson-Houston and General Electric became the majority owner of the company. Once BTH had the production licences for Thomson-Houston's products it started setting up factories in the English Midlands, with Rugby, Warwickshire chosen as the main location due to its good accessibility by rail and a local coal supply. In 1900 BTH bought Glebe Farm on the west side of Mill Road north of the railway in Rugby for £10,000, from Thos. Hunter & Co. to build their factory on it. The Mill Road factory made electric motors and generators. In the same year BTH got a licence to produce the Curtis steam turbine, which became one of the company's major products. In 1905 BTH made its first turbo-alternator and in 1911 got licences for all of General Electric's drawn-wire light bulbs, which it produced under the Mazda trademark.

For much of the late 19th century BTH competed for electrical generation and distribution contracts with British Westinghouse, mirroring the same company's battles in the US between their parents, General Electric and Westinghouse. The Power Act 1900 let BTH and British Westinghouse get new contracts to supply electric power to large areas; as well as manufacturing, BTH began to move into transport. On 22 December 1898 BTH opened the Cork Electric Tramways and Lighting Company, followed by the Isle of Thanet Electric Tramways on 4 April 1901 and the Chatham and District Light Railways Company in June 1902. In 1907 BTH started a joint venture with Wolseley Motors to make petrol-electric buses and in 1909 the company supplied major coal-fired steam generators to London to power an electric trolley system, being set up. During World War I BTH expanded into naval electrical equipment, supplying the Royal Navy with various lighting and signalling gear. After the war BTH expanded adding or expanding factories at Willesden, Birmingham and Lutterworth.

It had factories in Coventry, in Larne in Northern Ireland. From 1924 to 1927 Demetrius Comino worked as an apprentice for BTH. In 1926 Gerard Swope, president of General Electric, proposed that BTH, General Electric Company and English Electric should amalgamate. Lord Hirst of GEC was not interested in Swope's scheme, but a new holding company was formed, Associated Electrical Industries, in 1928 AEI bought BTH and Metropolitan-Vickers. BTH had been in the process of buying Edison Swan and Ferguson, Pailin & Co, with AEI completing the purchases in 1929. Howard C. Levis, chairman of BTH from 1916, became chairman of AEI in 1928. In 1927 BTH sold the Chatham and District Light Railways Company to Maidstone and District Motor Services Ltd. Throughout the 1920s BTH made turbo generators and motors for ocean liners including RMS Mooltan, RMS Viceroy of India, RMS Strathnaver and RMS Strathaird; the BTH factory in Northern Ireland made the turbo generator and propulsion motor for one of the world's first turbo-electric merchant ships, the banana boat SS San Benito, in 1921.

This was followed by turbo generators and propulsion motors for the banana boats SS Musa, SS Platano and SS Darien. The site at Rugby was developed. Building 52, the research laboratory, was purpose-built in 1924. In the late 1920s AEI started to build buildings west of the footpath that runs north through the AEI site in Rugby to the Leicester Road. During World War II BTH expanded north of the River Avon into the Boughton Road site to make magnetos for aircraft engines and other war products. BTH had a major role in developing the world's first prototype jet engine, built by Frank Whittle's Power Jets company built at the BTH works in Rugby in 1937. Development was moved to the Lutterworth works, which were falling into disuse at the time. BTH's directors seemed skeptical of the design and offered little help, in 1940 decided they were not interested in making jet engines due to their commitment to electrical equipment. Rover was soon selected to make jet engines, but exchanged jet engine production with Rolls-Royce for making tank engines in 1943.

In 1944 the Lutterworth Power Jets work was nationalised. After World War II Oliver Lyttelton took over as chairman of AEI, st

2017 Florida Gators football team

The 2017 Florida Gators football team represented the University of Florida in the 2017 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The Gators played their home games at Ben Hill Griffin Stadium in Florida. Florida played as a member of the Eastern Division of the Southeastern Conference, they were led by third-year head coach Jim McElwain until his dismissal on October 28, after which defensive coordinator Randy Shannon served as the interim head coach until the end of the season. Florida finished with a 4–7 record overall and were 3–5 in SEC play, good for fifth place in the Eastern Division, it was the program's second losing season since 1979. The 2016 season opener was highlighted by the rededication of Florida Field to honor Steve Spurrier, the all-time winningest head coach in Florida history, as the field was rebranded as Steve Spurrier-Florida Field. Florida yielded only 14 points over the first three games of the 2016 season, including a 38-point domination of SEC East rival Kentucky, a shutout victory over the North Texas Mean Green.

In the latter game, Gators starting quarterback Luke Del Rio exited the game with a knee injury and would not return. Austin Appleby was called to lead the offense for the next two games at Tennessee and Vanderbilt respectively. Tennessee, seeking revenge for the previous year's comeback by the Gators at The Swamp fell behind as the Gators entered halftime with a commanding 21–3 lead. However, the Gators experienced a colossal collapse in the second half as Tennessee stormed back with 35 unanswered points before Florida could score a touchdown late in the game, the Gators left Knoxville with a stunning 28–38 loss on their record, the first of the season. At Vanderbilt, the Gators struggled to a 13–6 victory over the Commodores; the Gators' next game was to be against the LSU in Gainesville. However, it became apparent that week as the date of the game approached that Hurricane Matthew would devastate Florida's Atlantic coast; because only a small deviation in the storm's destructive projected path would have brought severe weather to the immediate Gainesville area, the Saturday game was indefinitely postponed on Thursday.

In the week that followed, heated negotiations between athletic directors Jeremy Foley of Florida and Joe Alleva of LSU. LSU refused to concede a home game in order to make up the game, so Florida agreed to travel to LSU on November 19. In exchange, LSU agreed to play the Florida game in Gainesville for the next two seasons. After an unplanned bye week, Florida cruised to a 40–14 victory over Missouri, a game in which Luke Del Rio made his return, as the Gators led into the scheduled bye week before the annual rivalry game against Georgia in Jacksonville. Florida led 14–10 after a back-and-forth first half before shutting out the Bulldogs 10–0 in the second half to earn their third consecutive victory over their rivals with a 24–10 win, earning a 6–1 record on the season. With Tennessee losing their third consecutive conference game the same day, Florida moved into November with a 2-game advantage over the Volunteers. However, the Gators would pick up their second conference loss the following week after a 31–10 blowout by the unranked Arkansas Razorbacks.

Florida returned home for senior day against South Carolina the next week, defeating the Gamecocks 20–7 in Will Muschamp's first time back to The Swamp since his firing after the 2014 season. The Gators were now poised to secure the Eastern Division championship in the conference finale, the makeup game at LSU; the defense capitalized on numerous LSU turnovers while the offense put on a solid performance which included a 98-yard touchdown pass to put the Gators up 10–7 entering the fourth quarter. The game came down to a fourth-and-goal play for LSU with three seconds remaining in the game, a play, stuffed by the Gators defense, preserving an emotional 16–10 win in Death Valley to guarantee a berth in the 2016 SEC Championship Game against undefeated Alabama. Florida lost for the fourth straight year to rival Florida State 13–31 to close out the regular season, was trounced 54–16 by Alabama in the SEC Championship Game. Florida accepted a berth in the 2017 Outback Bowl against Iowa, which the Gators won 30–3 to end the season at 9–4, earning Jim McElwain his only bowl victory at Florida.

The spring game, dubbed the Orange and Blue Debut, took place in Gainesville. The Gators' 2017 schedule consisted of 6 home games, 3 away games, 2 neutral site games in the regular season; the Gators hosted SEC opponents Tennessee, Vanderbilt, LSU, Texas A&M. They traveled to Kentucky and South Carolina, they faced Georgia at a neutral site. Florida's non-conference schedule consisted of two home games: UAB and their rival Florida State. A third was scheduled for Sep 9 vs Northern Colorado, but was cancelled due to inclement weather caused by Hurricane Irma; the season was opened against Michigan in the Advocare Classic. ^ The game between Florida and Northern Colorado was scheduled for September 9 at 7:30 p.m. On the Wednesday before the game, the kickoff time was moved up to noon, as forecasts for Hurricane Irma had the storm approaching the east coast of Florida on Sunday. On Thursday, updated forecast tracks predicted that Irma would move up the middle of the Florida peninsula as a major hurricane, prompting both schools to agree to cancel the game altogether due to safety and traffic concerns.

This cancellation marked the third time in four seasons that Florida had to cancel or move a home game due to inclement weather and the second season in a row in which a scheduled home game was affected by the threat of a hurricane. Schedule Source With 0:09 seconds left in the fourth quarter quarterback Feleipe Franks threw a 63 yard hail mary to wi

Xianren Cave

The Xianren Cave, together with the nearby Diaotonghuan rock shelter, is an archaeological site in Dayuan Township, Wannian County in the Jiangxi province, China and a location of important discoveries of prehistoric pottery shards and it bears evidence of early rice cultivation. The cave's name refers to the legendary Chinese enlightened people, the Xian "immortals"; the cave is 7 m high, 11 m wide, 14 m deep. A 2012 publication in the Science journal, announced that the earliest pottery yet known anywhere in the world was found at this site dating by radiocarbon to between 20,000 and 19,000 years before present, at the end of the Last Glacial Period; the carbon 14 datation was established by dating surrounding sediments. Many of the pottery fragments had scorch marks; these early pottery containers were made well before the invention of agriculture, by mobile foragers who hunted and gathered their food during the Late Glacial Maximum. List of caves in China