Dachau concentration camp was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in 1933, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. After its opening by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, the imprisonment of Jews and Austrian criminals, foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded; the Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were work camps or Arbeitskommandos, were located throughout southern Germany and Austria. The camps were liberated by U. S. forces on 29 April 1945. Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, the so-called tree or pole hanging, standing at attention for long periods. There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, thousands that are undocumented. 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation.
In the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans, expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement, was used for a time as a United States military base during the occupation, it was closed in 1960. There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site, open to the public. Dachau served as a model for the other German concentration camps that followed; every community in Germany had members taken away to these camps. Newspapers continually reported "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps." As early as 1935, a jingle went around: "Lieber Herr Gott, mach mich stumm, Das ich nicht nach Dachau komm'". The camp's layout and building plans were developed by Commandant Theodor Eicke and were applied to all camps, he had a separate, secure camp near the command center, which consisted of living quarters and army camps. Eicke became the chief inspector for all concentration camps, responsible for organizing others according to his model.
The Dachau complex included the prisoners' camp which occupied 5 acres, the much larger area of SS training school including barracks, factories plus other facilities of around 20 acres. The entrance gate used by prisoners carries the phrase "Arbeit macht frei"; this phrase was used in Theresienstadt, near Prague, Auschwitz I. Dachau was the concentration camp, in operation the longest, from March 1933 to April 1945, nearly all twelve years of the Nazi regime. Dachau's close proximity to Munich, where Hitler came to power and where the Nazi Party had its official headquarters, made Dachau a convenient location. From 1933 to 1938, the prisoners were German nationals detained for political reasons. After the Reichspogromnacht or Kristallnacht, 30,000 male Jewish citizens were deported to concentration camps. More than 10,000 of them were interned in Dachau alone; as the German military occupied other European states, citizens from across Europe were sent to concentration camps. Subsequently, the camp was used for prisoners of all sorts, from every nation occupied by the forces of the Third Reich.:137In the postwar years, the camp continued in use.
From 1945 through 1948, the camp was used by the Allies as a prison for SS officers awaiting trial. After 1948, when hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were expelled from eastern Europe, it held Germans from Czechoslovakia until they could be resettled, it served as a military base for the United States, which maintained forces in the country. It was closed in 1960. At the insistence of survivors, various memorials have been constructed and installed here.:138 Demographic statistics vary but they are in the same general range. History will never know how many people were interned or died there, due to periods of disruption. One source gives a general estimate of over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries for the Third Reich's years, of whom two-thirds were political prisoners, including many Catholic priests, nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and another 10,000 in its subcamps from disease and suicide. In late 1944, a typhus epidemic occurred in the camp caused by poor sanitation and overcrowding, which caused more than 15,000 deaths.
It was followed by an evacuation. Toward the end of the war, death marches to and from the camp caused the deaths of numerous unrecorded prisoners. After liberation, prisoners weakened beyond recovery by the starvation conditions continued to die. Two thousand cases of "the dread black typhus" had been identified by 3 May, the U. S. Seventh Army was "working day and night to alleviate the appalling conditions at the camp". Prisoners with typhus, a louse-borne disease with an incubation period from 12 to 18 days, were treated by the 116th Evacuation Hospital, while the 127th would be the general hospital for the other illnesses. There were 227 documented deaths among the 2,252 patients cared for by the 127th. Over the 12 years of use as a concentration camp, the Dachau administration recorded the intake of 206,206 prisoners and deaths of 31,951. Crematoria were constructed to dispose of the deceased. Visitors may now walk through the buildings and view the ovens used to cremate bodies, which hid the evidence of many deaths.
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The Academy of Sciences Glacier, is a large ice cap on Komsomolets Island, Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Federation. It is the largest in Severnaya Zemlya and is the largest single glacier formation of Russia; this glacier was named after the Soviet Academy of Sciences by the 1930–1932 expedition to the archipelago led by Georgy Ushakov and Nikolay Urvantsev. A 724 m long ice core was drilled between 1999 and 2001 from a drilling site located near the summit of the Academy of Sciences Glacier; the Academy of Sciences Glacier is circular in shape with a diameter of about 80 km and an area of 5,570 km2. It covers two thirds of Komsomolets island, except for an unglaciated area at the northern end, its average height is 692 m with a maximum elevation of 749 m. This vast ice cap is located on the southern side of the island, stretching from coast to coast, with the Laptev Sea on its eastern side at Krenkel Bay, the Red Army Strait in the south and the Kara Sea on the west at Zhuravlev Bay. List of glaciers in Russia Ice drilling Media related to Academy of Sciences Glacier at Wikimedia Commons Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World A stable isotope record of an ice core from Akademii Nauk ice cap Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya - an example of a glacier grown in Late Holocene The Glaciology of the Russian High Arctic from Landsat Imagery
The 2017–18 Saint Mary's Gaels women's basketball team represents Saint Mary's College of California in the 2017–18 NCAA Division I women's basketball season. The Gales, led by twelfth year head coach Paul Thomas, play their home games at the McKeon Pavilion and were members of the West Coast Conference, they finished the season 13 -- 5 in WCC play to finish in second place. They lost in the quarterfinals of the WCC Women's Tournament to Pacific, they received an automatic bid to the Women's National Invitation Tournament where they lost to New Mexico in the first round. They finished the season 13 -- 5 in WCC play to finish in a tie for second place, they advanced to the championship game of the WCC Women's Tournament. They received an at-large bid to the WNIT. 2017–18 Saint Mary's Gaels men's basketball team
In computer science, a sparse file is a type of computer file that attempts to use file system space more efficiently when the file itself is empty. This is achieved by writing brief information representing the empty blocks to disk instead of the actual "empty" space which makes up the block, using less disk space; the full block size is written to disk as the actual size. When reading sparse files, the file system transparently converts metadata representing empty blocks into "real" blocks filled with null bytes at runtime; the application is unaware of this conversion. Most modern file systems support sparse files, including most Unix variants and NTFS. Apple's HFS+ does not provide for sparse files, but in OS X, the virtual file system layer supports storing them in any supported file system, including HFS+. Apple File System, announced in June 2016 at WWDC supports them. Sparse files are used for disk images, database snapshots, log files and in scientific applications; the advantage of sparse files is that storage is only allocated when needed: disk space is saved, large files can be created if there is insufficient free space on the file system.
This reduces the time of the first write as the system doesn't have to allocate blocks for the "skipped" space. If the initial allocation requires writing all zeros to the space, it keeps the system from having to write over the "skipped" space twice. For example, a virtual machine image with max size of 100GB that has 2GB of files written would require the full 100GB when backed by pre-allocated storage, yet only 2GB on a sparse file. If the file system supports hole punching and the guest operating system issues TRIM commands, deleting files on the guest will accordingly reduce space needed. Disadvantages are. Sparse files are not supported by all backup software or applications. However, the VFS implementation sidesteps the prior two disadvantages. Loading executables on 32bit Windows which are sparse takes a much longer time, since the file cannot be memory mapped in the limited 4GB address space, are not cached as there is no codepath for caching 32bit sparse executables. On NTFS sparse file can't be compressed.
NTFS implements sparseness as a special kind of compression so a file may be either sparse or compressed. Sparse files are handled transparently to the user, but the differences between a normal file and sparse file become apparent in some situations. The Unix command will create a file of five mebibytes with no data stored on disk; the truncate command may be used, if available: On Linux, an existing file can be converted to sparse by: Alas, there's no portable way to punch holes. The -s option of the ls command shows the occupied space in blocks. Alternatively, the du command prints the occupied space. In some non-standard versions of du, the option --block-size=1 prints the occupied space in bytes instead of blocks, so that it can be compared to the ls output: Normally, the GNU version of cp is good at detecting whether a file is sparse, so cp sparse-file new-file creates new-file, which will be sparse. However, GNU cp does have a --sparse option; this is useful if a file containing long zero blocks is saved in a non-sparse way.
Disk space can be saved by doing: cp --sparse=always file1 file1_sparsed Some cp implementations, like FreeBSD's cp, do not support the --sparse option and will always expand sparse files. A viable alternative on those systems is to use rsync with its own --sparse option instead of cp. --sparse cannot be combined with --inplace. Comparison of file systems NTFS Sparse Files For Programmers Creating sparse files in Windows Server using fsutil Creating sparse files in Solaris using mkfile View the Size of the Sparse File of a Database Snapshot SEEK_HOLE or FIEMAP: Detecting holes in sparse files virtsync is a commercial solution to rsync's --sparse and --inplace issue. SparseChecker - Utility that allows to manage the sparse files on NTFS file system Phantom - a program to convert files to sparse files to reduce disk space ArchLinux Wiki: Sparse file
The Leader of the Opposition in South Africa is a title held by the leader of the largest party, not forming part of the government, in the most important house of Parliament. This was the House of Assembly from 1910 to 1994 and the National Assembly from 1994, he or she acts as the public face of the opposition, leading the Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet and the challenge to the government on the floor of Parliament. They thus act as a chief critic of the government and attempt to portray the opposition as a feasible alternate government; the position of Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly is held by John Steenhuisen of the Democratic Alliance, appointed on 27 October 2019. In the list below, when the office is said to be vacant, there was no opposition party with more than ten seats and no clear Leader of the Opposition has been identified; this was the case between the formation of the Hertzog-Smuts coalition in 1933 and the breakaway of the Purified National Party in 1934.
It was the case during the government of National Unity from 1994 until the National Party ministers resigned in 1996. In some cases, the Leader of the Opposition may have been the Parliamentary leader only, during a vacancy in the party leadership and the first part of their own tenure, before being confirmed as national party leader by a party congress. Only the last two Leaders of the Opposition in the list have been Parliamentary leaders only, whilst the incumbent national party leader was not a Member of Parliament. Section 56 of the South Africa Act 1909, was amended by Section 1 of the South Africa Act Amendment Act 1946. A salary was provided for the Leader of the Opposition and the office was given an official definition. "For the purposes of this section the expression'Leader of the Opposition' shall mean that member of the House of Assembly, for the time being the Leader in that House of the party in opposition to the Government having the greatest numerical strength in that House and if there is any doubt as to, or was at any material time the party in opposition to the Government having the greatest numerical strength in that House of Assembly, or as to, or was at any material time the Leader in the House of such a party, the question shall be decided for the purposes of this section by the Speaker of the House of Assembly, his decision, certified in writing under his hand, shall be final and conclusive".
The current Constitution of South Africa makes provision for recognition of the Leader of the Opposition in section 57: "The rules and orders of the National Assembly must provide for … the recognition of the leader of the largest opposition party in the Assembly as the Leader of the Opposition." Rule 21 of the rules of the National Assembly provides in similar words that: "The leader of the largest opposition party in the Assembly must be recognised as the Leader of the Opposition." Notes The South African Constitution, by H. J. May Keesing's Contemporary Archives, various volumes Smuts: A Reappraisal, by Bernard Friedman ISBN 0-04-920045-3 South Africa 1982 Official Yearbook of the Republic of South Africa, published by Chris van Rensburg Publications
La Rioja is one of the provinces of Argentina and is located in the west of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Córdoba, San Luis and San Juan; the dinosaur Riojasaurus is named after the province. Petroglyphs created by early indigenous peoples at the Talampaya National Park is dated around 10,000 years BC. Succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples developed here; the Diaguita and the Olongasta peoples inhabited the territory of present-day La Rioja Province at the time of encounter with the Spanish colonists in the 16th century. Juan Ramírez de Velazco founded Todos Los Santos de la Nueva Rioja in 1591 under the government of Tucumán of the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1630 the Calchaquí people revolted against the Spanish, but the governor Albornoz suppressed them. In 1783, after the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the control of the province of 10,000 inhabitants passed to the Córdoba independency; the province acquired independence from Córdoba in 1820.
Following attempts by Bernardino Rivadavia, the first elected President of Argentina, to impose a centralist constitution, the caudillo Juan Facundo Quiroga emerged as a popular leader. He represented their preference for more autonomy, for which they continued to press following Quiroga's 1835 assassination. After a period of internal instability in Argentina, the province joined the Argentine Confederation in 1853. La Rioja attracted fewer immigrants from Europe than did other Argentine provinces from 1890 to the 1930s; some Syrian and Lebanese immigrants did settle in the province, among whom the most well-known is the Menem family. Coming from what had been the Ottoman Empire, Saul Menem and his wife were of Armenian and Alawi ancestry, he sent his eldest son, Carlos Menem, to Spain for college. After the younger Menem was elected governor of La Rioja Province in March 1973, he implemented a number of reforms advocated by activists for the poor, rural majority those recommended by Bishop Enrique Angelelli.
Removed and imprisoned following the military ouster of President Isabel Perón in March 1976, Menem was kept in illegal confinement until the end of 1980. He was tortured during this time; the dictatorship repressed people in the province and was responsible for the brutal murder in August 1976 of Bishop Angelelli. After democracy was restored in 1983, Menem was overwhelmingly re-elected to office, he pursued conservative policies, leveraging La Rioja's dry, agreeable climate, its modest wage scale, skilled work-force, to attract La Rioja's first significant light industries bottling and food-processing. Having presided over a growing La Rioja economy as the nation's languished during the 1980s, Menem secured the Peronist Justicialist Party nomination for president in May 1988. Elected president of Argentina in 1988, Menem served until 1999. During those years, he steered billions in federal public works spending into La Rioja. Although the province remains less developed than the average in the nation, its economy today compares favorably with those of its neighbors.
Located in the Argentine Northwest area, its landscape is arid to semi-arid, the dry climate receives annually 200 mm of precipitations, has short winters and hot summers. From the Andes at the west, with peaks of up to 6,795 meters, the relief's height descents towards the sierras of the neighbouring dry Pampas zone. Most ranges in La Rioja are oriented in a north-south fashion; the province's two largest cities, La Rioja and Chilecito are separated by Sierra de Velasco and west of Chilecito and Famatina rises the Sierra de Famatina with heights of up to 6.250 m.a.sl.. The Talampaya National Park is a dry red-soil canyon of the ancient extinguished Talampaya river, which contains many walls and rock formations that make it an interesting tourist destination. La Rioja's economy, estimated at US$1.822 billion in 2006, is the second-smallest among Argentina's provinces. Its per capita output of US$6,283, though about 30% below the national average, makes it the most well-developed in northern Argentina.
Its economy is very well-diversified. Agriculture adds less than 5% to its output. La Rioja's agriculture lies on the banks of the few permanent rivers and oases that allow irrigation, with only 190 square kilometres of cultivated land. Vineyards and olive plantations are the most common, followed by cotton; the province's main crop is the grape, its associated wine production around the Chilecito area, with a production of 8 million litres per year. Cattle and goats are secondary activities for skin and leather. Clay represents the main mining activity, uranium is extracted near El Colorado. Manufacturing in La Rioja has expanded since Gov. Menem began attracting investment into the province, after 1983. Limited to light industry like bottling and food processing, it adds about 20% to La Rioja's output. Tourism is an expanding activity. Besides the Talampaya National Park, tourists visiting La Rioja go to the Chilecito town, Cerro de La Cruz, Termas de Santa Teresita hot springs and the village of Villa Sanagasta.
La Rioja's development plan is being designed by Proyectos Innovadores to encourage further economic growth in the province. The province experienced a wave of immigration from Eastern Europe, East or South Asian and Middle Eastern countries; the provincial government is divided into the usual three br