Coast Guard Administration (Taiwan)
The Coast Guard Administration of the Ocean Affairs Council is charged with maintaining law and order, protecting the resources of the territorial waters of the Republic of China, which surrounds Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu Islands, Green Island, Orchid Island, Dongsha Islands, Nansha Islands as well as providing a first line of defense along coastal areas against smugglers and illegal immigrants. The CGA is considered a civilian law enforcement agency under the administration of Ocean Affairs Council of the Executive Yuan, though during emergencies it may be incorporated as part of the Republic of China Armed Forces; the Coast Guard Administration is headed by three deputy ministers. The CGA includes eight departments, one office and five task forces, as well as a Maritime Patrol Directorate General and a Coastal Patrol Directorate General, its jurisdiction covers the waters surrounding Kinmen, Matsu and the main island of Taiwan to ensure proper protection of the 1,819.8 kilometers coastline and 540,000 square kilometers of "Blue Territory,", 15 times larger than the island of Taiwan.
Maritime Patrol Directorate General: Responsible for all maritime patrols and operations at sea. 1 - 16th Offshore Flotillas Northern, Southern and Eastern Flotilla Sectors Coastal Patrol Directorate General: Responsible for land based operations the patrolling of harbors and other coastal areas. Northern, Southern and Eastern Coastal Patrol Offices The CGA was established on 1 February 2000, combining the Coast Guard Command, the Marine Police Bureau, several cutters from the Taiwan Directorate General of Customs, Ministry of Finance; the CGA formally unifies coastal and maritime law enforcement agencies It has seen a great deal of action for a young agency, participating in numerous search and rescue and anti-smuggling operations. The Coast Guard Administration was recently involved in escorting Taiwanese fishing boats into waters disputed with Japan claimed by both sides as part of their exclusive economic zones; some people in Taiwan still regard the Coast Guard Administration as an intelligence agency due to its root.
Indeed, the land branch of the Coast Guard Administration is inherited from the former Taiwan Garrison Command. As a result, a lot of intelligence personnel from the Military Police Command or the late Taiwan Garrison Command are still in the ROCCGA. There are several mobile investigative groups subordinated to four corresponding areas of responsibility of the Coastal Patrol Directorate General. All mobile investigative groups of the Coast Guard Administration are tasked to perform intelligence-gathering mission of State Security. While executing such intelligence-gathering function, The Coast Guard Administration is subjected to the supervisory and coordination from the National Security Bureau. RB-01 RB-02 RB-03 Type CP-1001 x9 Type SF-801 x6 Type PP-601 x9 MBB/Kawasaki BK 117B-2 light utility Eurocopter AS365 N2 Dauphin medium utility/search and rescue helicopter Sikorsky S-76 Spirit medium utility/search and rescue helicopter Boeing B-234 heavy transport helicopter Bell UH-1H utility helicopter ROC Coast Guard Administration Website China Coast Guard National Police Agency Search and rescue
Kinmen County Government
The Kinmen County Government is the local government of the Republic of China that governs Kinmen County. Civil Affairs Bureau Finance Bureau Education Bureau Economic Development Bureau Public Works Bureau Social Affairs Bureau Transportation and Tourism Bureau Research and Evaluation Office General Affairs Office Accounting and Statistics Office Civil Service Ethics Office Personnel Office Police Bureau Health Bureau Land Administration Bureau Environmental Protection Bureau Fire Bureau Cultural Affairs Bureau Revenue Service Office Kinmen County Kinmen County Council
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese politician, medical doctor and philosopher who served as the provisional first president of the Republic of China. He is referred to as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China due to his role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun remains a unique figure among 20th-century Chinese characters for being revered in both mainland China and Taiwan. Although Sun is considered to be one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. After the success of the revolution and the Han Chinese regaining power after 268 years of living under Manchurian rule, he resigned from his post as President of the newly founded Republic of China to Yuan Shikai, led successive revolutionary governments as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation. Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern Expedition, his party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Chinese Communist Party, split into two factions after his death.
Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, "rights of the people", sometimes translated as "democracy", the people's livelihood. Sun was born as Sun Wen, his genealogical name was Sun Deming; as a child, his pet name was Tai Tseung. Sun's courtesy name was Zaizhi, his baptized name was Rixin. While at school in Hong Kong he got the art name Yat-sen. Sūn Zhōngshān, the most popular of his Chinese names, is derived from his Japanese name Nakayama Shō, the pseudonym given to him by Tōten Miyazaki while in hiding in Japan. Sun Yat-sen was born on 12 November 1866 to Madame Yang, his birthplace was the village of Xiangshan County, Guangdong. He had a cultural background of Cantonese, his father owned little land and worked as a tailor in Macau, as a journeyman and a porter. After finishing primary education, he moved to Honolulu in the Kingdom of Hawaii, where he lived a comfortable life of modest wealth supported by his elder brother Sun Mei.
At the age of 10, Sun Yat-sen began seeking schooling, he met childhood friend Lu Haodong. By age 13 in 1878, after receiving a few years of local schooling, Sun went to live with his elder brother, Sun Mei in Honolulu. Sun Mei financed Sun Yat-sen's education and would be a major contributor for the overthrow of the Manchus. During his stay in Honolulu, Sun Yat-sen went to ʻIolani School where he studied English, British history, mathematics and Christianity. While he was unable to speak English, Sun Yat-sen picked up the language and received a prize for academic achievement from King David Kalākaua before graduating in 1882, he attended Oahu College for one semester. In 1883 he was sent home to China as his brother was becoming worried that Sun Yat-sen was beginning to embrace Christianity; when he returned to China in 1883 at age 17, Sun met up with his childhood friend Lu Haodong again at Beijidian, a temple in Cuiheng Village. They saw many villagers worshipping the Beiji Emperor-God in the temple, were dissatisfied with their ancient healing methods.
They broke the statue, incurring the wrath of fellow villagers, escaped to Hong Kong. While in Hong Kong in 1883 he studied at the Diocesan Boys' School, from 1884 to 1886 he was at The Government Central School. In 1886 Sun studied medicine at the Guangzhou Boji Hospital under the Christian missionary John G. Kerr, he earned the license of Christian practice as a medical doctor from the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese in 1892. Notably, of his class of 12 students, Sun was one of the only two. In the early 1880s, Sun Mei sent his brother to ʻIolani School, under the supervision of British Anglicans and directed by an Anglican prelate named Alfred Willis; the language of instruction was English. Although Bishop Willis emphasized that no one was forced to accept Christianity, the students were required to attend chapel on Sunday. At Iolani School, young Sun Wen first came in contact with Christianity, it made a deep impression on him. Schriffin writes that Christianity was to have a great influence on Sun's whole future political life.
Sun was baptized in Hong Kong by Rev. C. R. Hager an American missionary of the Congregational Church of the United States to his brother's disdain; the minister would develop a friendship with Sun. Sun attended To Tsai Church, founded by the London Missionary Society in 1888, while he studied Western Medicine in Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese. Sun pictured a revolution as similar to the salvation mission of the Christian church, his conversion to Christianity was related to his revolutionary ideals and push for advancement. In 1924 Liao Chongzhen, a prominent and influential government official of the day, arranged a meeting between Sun and Martha Root, a well-known journalist and traveling teacher of the Bahá'í Faith in the late 19th and early 20th century. In this meeting Sun came into contact with the Teachings of the Bahá'í Faith, expressing his appreciation for the Cause and declaring it "highly relevant to the
People's Liberation Army
The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China and its founding and ruling political party, the Communist Party of China. The PLA consists of five professional service branches: the Ground Force, Air Force, Rocket Force, the Strategic Support Force. Units around the country are assigned to one of five theater commands by geographical location; the PLA is the world's largest military force and constitutes the second largest defence budget in the world. It is one of the fastest modernising military powers in the world and has been termed as a potential military superpower, with significant regional defense and rising global power projection capabilities. China is the third largest arms exporter in the world; the PLA is under the command of the Central Military Commission of the CPC. It is obliged to follow the principle of civilian control of the military, although in practical terms this principle has been implemented in such a way as to ensure the PLA is under the absolute control of the Communist Party.
Its commander in chief is the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The Ministry of National Defense, which operates under the State Council, does not exercise any authority over the PLA and is far less powerful than the CMC. Military service is compulsory by law. In times of national emergency, the People's Armed Police and the People's Liberation Army militia act as a reserve and support element for the PLAGF. Former CMC chairman Hu Jintao had defined the missions of the PLA as: To consolidate the ruling status of the Communist Party To ensure China's sovereignty, territorial integrity, domestic security to continue national development To safeguard China's national interests To help maintain world peace The People's Liberation Army was founded on 1 August 1927 during the Nanchang uprising when troops of the Kuomintang rebelled under the leadership of Zhu De, He Long, Ye Jianying and Zhou Enlai after the massacre of the Communists by Chiang Kai-shek, they were known as the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, or the Red Army.
Between 1934 and 1935, the Red Army survived several campaigns led against it by Chiang Kai-Shek and engaged in the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945, the Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China forming two main units known as the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army. During this time, these two military groups employed guerrilla tactics avoiding large-scale battles with the Japanese with some exceptions while at the same time consolidating their ground by absorbing nationalist troops and paramilitary forces behind Japanese lines into their forces. After the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the Communist Party merged the Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army, renaming the new million-strong force the "People's Liberation Army", they won the Chinese Civil War, establishing the People's Republic of China in 1949. The PLA saw a huge reorganisation with the establishment of the Air Force leadership structure in November 1949 followed by the Navy leadership the following April.
In 1950, the leadership structures of the artillery, armoured troops, air defence troops, public security forces, worker–soldier militias were established. The chemical warfare defence forces, the railroad forces, the communications forces, the strategic forces, as well as other separate forces, were established on, all these depended on the leadership of the Communist Party and the National People's Congress via the Central Military Commission. During the 1950s, the PLA with Soviet assistance began to transform itself from a peasant army into a modern one. Part of this process was the reorganisation that created thirteen military regions in 1955; the PLA contained many former National Revolutionary Army units and generals who had defected to the PLA. Ma Hongbin and his son Ma Dunjing were the only two Muslim generals who led a Muslim unit, the 81st corps, to serve in the PLA. Han Youwen, a Salar Muslim general defected to the PLA. In November 1950, some units of the PLA under the name of the People's Volunteer Army intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River.
Under the weight of this offensive, Chinese forces drove MacArthur's forces out of North Korea and captured Seoul, but were subsequently pushed back south of Pyongyang north of the 38th Parallel. The war served as a catalyst for the rapid modernization of the PLAAF. In 1962, the PLA ground force fought India in the Sino-Indian War, achieving all objectives. Prior to the Cultural Revolution, military region commanders tended to remain in their posts for long periods of time; as the PLA took a stronger role in politics, this began to be seen as somewhat of a threat to the party's control of the military. The longest-serving military region commanders were Xu Shiyou in the Nanjing Military Region, Yang Dezhi in the Jinan Military Region, Chen Xilian in the Shenyang Military Region, Han Xianchu in the Fuzhou Military Region; the establishment of a professional military force equipped with modern weapons and doctrine was the last of the Four Modernizations announced by Zhou Enlai and supported by Deng Xiaoping.
In keeping with Deng's mandate to reform, the PLA has demobilized millions o
Republic of China Armed Forces
The Republic of China Armed Forces known as the Taiwanese Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of China now on Taiwan, encompassing the Army, Air Force and Military Police Force. It is a military establishment, which accounted for 16.8% of the central budget in the fiscal year of 2003. Since 2002, the military comes under the full civilian control of the Ministry of National Defense and oversight by the Legislative Yuan, it was the National Revolutionary Army before being renamed as the Republic of China Armed Forces in 1947 due to the implementation of the newly promulgated Constitution of the Republic of China. It was historically known as Chinese National Armed Forces; until the 1970s, the military's primary mission was to retake mainland China from the communist People's Republic of China through the Project National Glory. The military's current foremost mission is the defense of the islands of Taiwan, Kinmen and other ROC's islands against a possible military invasion by the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China, seen as the predominant threat to the Republic of China in the ongoing dispute over the political status of Taiwan.
The Republic of China Armed Forces is the national military of the ROC. It is known as "Guojun 國軍", which means "National Army"; when the ROC was in power in mainland China, its army was the National Revolutionary Army until 1928. Other names during the period included the "Chinese Nationalist Army" or the "KMT Army"; the nationalization of the armed forces in 1947 detached the Kuomintang's direct control of the armed forces, it became a national defense force. Due to the institution of civilian control of the military and the 1947 constitution, it was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces. Two years in 1949, The ROC government was forced into exile on the island of Taiwan, the Republic of China Armed Forces continues to be called the Chinese National Armed Forces in connection with the continuing state of unresolved exile; the earliest use of the name "Republic of China Armed Forces" can be found in the first Constitution of the Republic of China in the Beiyang Government in 1923. The Republic of China's army was known as the National Revolutionary Army, founded on mainland China in 1925.
The National Revolutionary Army was the military arm of Kuomintang from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China. It become the regular army of the ROC during the KMT's period of party rule beginning in 1928. However, with the promulgation of the second Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947 and the formal end of the KMT party-state, the National Revolutionary Army was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces, while the bulk of its forces formed the Republic of China Army; the army was nationalized and thus no longer belonged to the KMT. The ROC Armed Force relocated to the island of Taiwan after the end of the second phase of the Chinese Civil War in 1949; the Land force was established in 1924. It can be traced back to the establishment of the Whampoa Military Academy in Canton by 1911 revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen and built as the National Revolutionary Army, the military arm of KMT. Whampoa Military Academy was relocated to Fengshan District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan after 1949.
It was re-established as the Republic of China Military Academy, modeled after the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. The Navy of the Qing dynasty was first exposed to Western influence. With the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, many former Qing-naval officer agreed with the revolutionary ideal of Xinhai and joined the ROC Navy. However, with warlordism continuing to plague the territory of the Republic of China, the development of the Republican navy was somewhat slow. Furthermore, there were internal conflicts during its development. During the 2nd Sino-Japanese war, most of the ROC Navy was destroyed by the Imperial Japanese Navy. In 1946 the Republic of China Naval Academy was established in Shanghai; the ROC Marine Corps was formed from the former Navy Sentry Corps in December 1914, it used to have two divisions, 66th and 99th divisions, in size, when its doctrine focused on retaking mainland China. Since its transition to a defensive posture, the ROCMC has been downsized from about 38,000 active personnel to only 9,000.
In 2004, the ROCMC redeployed a brigade near the Taipei area to defend against a possible PLA decapitation strike. The ROC Marine Corps' official motto is "永遠忠誠", modeled after the US Marine Corps's "Semper Fidelis". In 1920 Sun Yat-sen established the Aviation Ministry in Canton, but due to the division of the Southern Warlords, it was dismantled. In 1929, Chiang Kai-shek established the Aviation Class in the ROC Military Academy, it was relocated to Hangzhou in 1931. Following the outbreak of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, the ROC Air Force was responsible for shooting down many Japanese Air force fighters. After 1949 the ROC Air Force Academy was relocated to Taiwan island; the ROC Military Police was established in 1914. It was established as a police guard. In 1932 the nationalist government established the "Command Work of Military Police" and the Service Procedure for the Military Police, which established the military police system. In 1936, the Military police Academy was founded in Nanjing.
The school relocated to Taiwan after 1949. In the 21st century as the PRC vastly increased its defense spending, Taiwan registered the lowest growth in defense spending of the major Asia-Pac
Xiamen known from its Hokkien pronunciation as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait. It is divided into six districts: Huli, Jimei, Tong'an, Xiang'an. Altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square kilometers with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include parts of all six of its districts, with a total population of 1,861,289; this area connects to Quanzhou in the north and Zhangzhou in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five million people. The Jinmen or Kinmen Islands administered by the Republic of China lie less than 6 kilometers away. Xiamen Island possessed a natural harbor in Yundang Bay, but Fujian's international trade was long restricted to Quanzhou or to Guangzhou in Guangdong. Due to the siltification of Quanzhou's harbor, the British insisted that Xiamen be opened to foreign trade in the treaty that ended the First Opium War in 1842.
Under the Qing, both before and after the war, there was a large-scale emigration of Chinese from southern Fujian who spread Hokkien-speaking communities to Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines. The overseas Chinese continue to support Xiamen's cultural institutions; as part of the Opening Up Policy under Deng Xiaoping, Xiamen became one of China's original four special economic zones opened to foreign investment and trade in the early 1980s. Its former harbor was enclosed using land excavated during the city's expansion, the city continues to remain an island connected by bridges to the rest of mainland China; the city is known for its mild climate, Hokkien culture and Gulangyu Island, as well as its low pollution. In 2006, Xiamen was ranked as China's 2nd-"most suitable city for living", as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011; the area around Xiamen Bay appears as Tong'an in some Han records. Xiamen Island was described as Jiahe Islet c. 976. It received its present name from the Xiamen Castle erected on the island by Zhou Dexing in 1387 during the Ming.
The name was written using the Chinese characters meaning "Lower Gate". When its port prospered under the Qing, the name was considered unrefined and changed to homophonous characters meaning "Mansion Gate". Xiamen is the atonal pinyin romanization of the characters' pronunciation in Mandarin, it has been romanized as Hiamen. The former English name "Amoy" was based on the same name's pronunciation in the Zhangzhou dialect of Hokkien, Ē-mûi. Xiamen was named Siming for a few years during its occupation by the loyalist Southern Ming forces of Koxinga; the Qing restored the former name upon their conquest of the area, but Koxinga's name was in turn restored after the Xinhai Revolution that inaugurated the republic in 1912. The name Xiamen was restored again but Siming continues to be used as the name of one of its districts. Xiamen is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian whose urban core grew up from the port of Xiamen on southern Xiamen Island, now located within Siming District, it now includes Gulangyu Island and the rugged coast of the mainland from the northeast bank of the Jiulong River in the west to the islands of Xiang'an in the east.
Xiamen Island lies about one degree north of the Tropic of Cancer. It is divided between Siming District in the south. Siming includes Gulangyu, its mainland territory is divided among Haicang, Tong'an, Xiang'an districts. In the 19th century, Xiamen's harbor on Yundang Bay was considered one of the world's great natural harbors. Land reclamation has since been used to fill in the mouth of this inlet, turning it into Siming District's Yundang Lake; the municipal government is located on other reclaimed land beside it. The nearest point of Liehyu in the Kinmen Islands, still controlled by the Republic of China from Taiwan, lies only 6 kilometers off Xiamen Island. Xiamen has a monsoonal humid subtropical climate, characterised by long and humid summers and short and dry winters; the warmest month is July, with a 24-hour average of 27.8 °C, the coolest month is January, averaging 12.8 °C. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from 1.5 °C on 29 December 1991 to 39.2 °C on 20 July 2007. Spring, both by humidity and percentage of sunshine, is the dampest season but typhoons in late summer and early autumn can make the latter period wetter overall.
Summer and autumn are marked by comparatively sunny conditions, while autumn is dry. The annual rainfall is 1,350 millimeters. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24% in March to 56% in July, the city receives 1,853 hours of bright sunshine annually. Frost occurs rarely, the last snowfall in the city took place in January 1893, when snow fell at Guangzhou, Macau, in the inland parts of Hong Kong and in the hills of Taipei; the area is known within China for its low pollution. The area of Xiamen was bypassed by the Qin and Han conquests and colonization of Guangdong, which passed west of Fujian down the Lingqu Canal between the Xiang and Li rivers, it was first organized as Tong'an County in AD 282 under the Jin, but it lost this status soon afterwards. Tong'an County was again established in 933 under the Later Tang; the settlement on the southeastern shore of Xiamen Island developed as a seaport under the Song, although legal foreign trade was restricted to nearby Quanz
Republic of China Army
The Republic of China Army is the largest branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces. An estimated 80% of the ROC Army is located on Taiwan, while the remainder are stationed on the Penghu, Matsu and Taiping Island. Since the Chinese Civil War, no armistice or peace treaty has been signed, as the final line of defense against a possible invasion by the People's Liberation Army, the primary focus is on defense and counterattack against amphibious assault and urban warfare; the ROC Army's current operational strength includes 5 corps. As of 2005, the Army's 35 brigades include 25 infantry brigades, 5 armoured brigades and 3 mechanized infantry brigades. All infantry brigades stood down and transferred to Reserve Command after 2005; this update reflects the ROCA order of battle at the conclusion of the Jinjing Restructuring Plan in 2008. A new type of unit called; these are formed by elements of de-activated brigades under each area defense command. The strength of a defense team may vary from one or more reinforced battalions, making it equal to a regiment.
The team CO is a full colonel. The ROC Army CHQ is headed by a 3-star general and is responsible for overall command of all ROC Army assets. Army GHQ is subordinate to the Chief of the General Staff, the Minister of National Defense and the ROC President. Internal Units: Personnel, Combat Readiness and Training, Planning, Communications and Information, General Affairs, Inspector General, Political Warfare. Aviation and Special Forces Command 601 Air Cavalry Brigade 602 Air Cavalry Brigade 603 Air Cavalry Brigade 101st Reconnaissance Battalion Special Forces Command In charge of 3 training centersArmy Airborne Training Center Army Special Forces Training Center Army Winter and Mountain Training Center Special Operation Command862 Special Operation Group 871 Special Operation Group 6th Army Corps: Northern TaiwanGuandu Area Command Lanyang Area Command 269 Mechanized Infantry Brigade 542 Armor Brigade 584 Armor Brigade 21 Artillery Command 53 Engineer Group 73 Signals Group 33 Chemical Warfare Group8th Army Corps: Southern Taiwan333 Mechanized Infantry Brigade 564 Armor Brigade 43 Artillery Command 54 Engineer Group 75 Signals Group 39 Chemical Warfare Group10th Army Corps: Central Taiwan234 Mechanized Infantry Brigade 586 Armor Brigade 58 Artillery Command 52 Engineer Group 36 Chemical Warfare Group 74 Signals GroupHua-Tung Defense Command: Eastern TaiwanHualien Defense Team Taitung Area CommandKinmen Defense Command Jindong Defense Team Jinshih Defense Team Shihyu Defense Team Artillery GroupPenghu Defense Command 1 Armored Battalion, 1 Armored Infantry Battalion, 1 Armored Cav Battalion, 1 mixed Artillery Battalion.
Matsu Defense Command Beigao Area Command Juguang Area CommandDongyin Area Command Logistics Command Education and Doctorine Command Republic of China Military Academy, Training & Command Schools, Chemical Warfare Corps, Engineering Corps, Arsenal Development. Armed Force Reserve Command 9 active infantry brigades, 24 Reserve brigades ROC Army's former Army Missile Command was transferred to ROC Air Force in 2006. OfficersThe rank of Generalissimo was bestowed only once, to Chiang Kai-shek and is abolished. Since 2013, the rank of Colonel General shall be granted only in wartime. Enlisted The Republic of China Military Academy trains officers for the army in a four-year program; the Republic of China Army originated from Chinese National Revolutionary Army, founded by Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang in 1924, when the Whampoa Military Academy was established with Soviet military assistance. Whampoa Military Academy, presided by Chiang Kai-shek, was tasked with the objective of training a professional Chinese revolutionary army to unify China during the Warlord Era.
It participated in the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War before withdrawing with the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. After 1949, the ROC Army has participated in combat operations on Kinmen and the Dachen Archipelago against the PLA in the Battle of Kuningtou, in the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. In addition to these major conflicts, ROCA commandos were sent to raid the Fujian and Guangdong coasts; until the 1970s, the stated mission of the Army was to retake the mainland from the People's Republic of China. Following the lifting of martial law in 1988 and the democratization of the 1990s, the mission of the ROC Army has been shifted to the defense of Taiwan, Penghu and Matsu from a PLA invasion. With the reduction of the size of the ROC armed forces in recent years, the Army has endured the largest number of cutbacks as ROC military doctrine has begun to emphasize the importance of offshore engagement with the Navy and Air Force. Subsequent to this shift in emphasis, the ROC Navy and Air Force have taken precedence over the ROC Army in d