Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology, it has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres and cultures. Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have incorporated their own cultures and as a result, the art has evolved in a number of distinct ways. See glossary of ballet. A ballet, a work, consists of the music for a ballet production. Ballets are performed by trained ballet dancers. Traditional classical ballets are performed with classical music accompaniment and use elaborate costumes and staging, whereas modern ballets, such as the neoclassical works of American choreographer George Balanchine are performed in simple costumes and without the use of elaborate sets or scenery.
Ballet is a French word which had its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo which comes from Latin ballo, meaning "to dance", which in turn comes from the Greek "βαλλίζω", "to dance, to jump about". The word came into English usage from the French around 1630. Ballet originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the sixteenth centuries. Under Catherine de' Medici's influence as Queen, it spread to France, where it developed further; the dancers in these early court ballets were noble amateurs. Ornamented costumes were meant to impress viewers, but they restricted performers' freedom of movement; the ballets were performed in large chambers with viewers on three sides. The implementation of the proscenium arch from 1618 on distanced performers from audience members, who could better view and appreciate the technical feats of the professional dancers in the productions. French court ballet reached its height under the reign of King Louis XIV. Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661 to establish standards and certify dance instructors.
In 1672, Louis XIV made Jean-Baptiste Lully the director of the Académie Royale de Musique from which the first professional ballet company, the Paris Opera Ballet, arose. Pierre Beauchamp served as Lully's ballet-master. Together their partnership would drastically influence the development of ballet, as evidenced by the credit given to them for the creation of the five major positions of the feet. By 1681, the first "ballerinas" took the stage following years of training at the Académie. Ballet started to decline in France after 1830, but it continued to develop in Denmark and Russia; the arrival in Europe of the Ballets Russes led by Sergei Diaghilev on the eve of the First World War revived interest in the ballet and started the modern era. In the twentieth century, ballet had a wide influence on other dance genres, Also in the twentieth century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical ballet to the introduction of modern dance, leading to modernist movements in several countries. Famous dancers of the twentieth century include Anna Pavlova, Galina Ulanova, Rudolf Nureyev, Maya Plisetskaya, Margot Fonteyn, Rosella Hightower, Maria Tall Chief, Erik Bruhn, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Suzanne Farrell, Gelsey Kirkland, Natalia Makarova, Arthur Mitchell.
Stylistic variations and subgenres have evolved over time. Early, classical variations are associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, Italian ballet. Variations, such as contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet, incorporate both classical ballet and non-traditional technique and movement; the most known and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet. Classical ballet is based on vocabulary. Different styles have emerged in different countries, such as French ballet, Italian ballet, English ballet, Russian ballet. Several of the classical ballet styles are associated with specific training methods named after their creators; the Royal Academy of Dance method is a ballet technique and training system, founded by a diverse group of ballet dancers. They merged their respective dance methods to create a new style of ballet, unique to the organization and is recognized internationally as the English style of ballet; some examples of classical ballet productions are: the Nutcracker.
Romantic ballet was an artistic movement of classical ballet and several productions remain in the classical repertoire today. The Romantic era was marked by the emergence of pointe work, the dominance of female dancers, longer, flowy tutus that attempt to exemplify softness and a delicate aura; this movement occurred during the early to mid-nineteenth century and featured themes that emphasized intense emotion as a source of aesthetic experience. The plots of many romantic ballets revolved around spirit women who enslaved the hearts and senses of mortal men; the 1827 ballet La Sylphide is considered to be the first, the 1870 ballet Coppélia is considered to be the last. Famous ballet dancers of the Romantic era include Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot. Jules Perrot is known for his choreography that of Giselle considered to be the most celebrated romantic ballet. Neoclassical ballet is abstract, with no clear plot, costumes or scenery. Music choice can be diverse and will include music, neoclassical.
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the
A square dance is a dance for four couples arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, facing the middle of the square. Square dances were first documented in 16th-century England but were quite common in France and throughout Europe, they came to North America with the European settlers and have undergone considerable development there. In some countries and regions, through preservation and repetition, square dances have attained the status of a folk dance; the Western American square dance may be the most known form worldwide due to its association in the 20th century with the romanticized image of the American cowboy. Square dancing is, therefore associated with the United States. Nineteen U. S. states have designated it as their official state dance. The various square dance movements are based on the steps and figures used in traditional folk dances and social dances from many countries; some of these traditional dances include English country dance and the quadrille. In most American forms of square dance, the dancers are prompted or cued through a sequence of steps by a caller to the beat of music.
In some forms of traditional square dancing, the caller may be one of the dancers or musicians, but in modern Western square dancing the caller will be on stage, giving full attention to directing the dancers. Modern Western square dances are not learned as complete routines; the American folk music revival in New York City in the 1950s was rooted in the resurgent interest in square dancing and folk dancing there in the 1940s, which gave musicians such as Pete Seeger popular exposure. Terminology: In the United States, in general, people go to square dances and call it square dancing. In England and Scotland, people go to all sorts of dances at which some of the dances will be square dances, but they don't say that they are "square dancing"; the majority of dances at such events will be in the form of longways sets, sets of four, three-couple or four-couple sets or circassian circles. Conversely, people not familiar with the various different forms of dance may ask for an evening of square dance meaning a barn dance where many different formations of dance are used.
It is possible to go to one of these "square dances" and not do a single actual square dance all evening. Traditional square dance, called "old time square dance". Traditional square dance can be subdivided into regional styles; the New England and Appalachian styles have been well documented. There are several other styles. Traditional square dance is presented in alternation with contra dances or with some form of freestyle couple dancing. One ancestor of New England style square dances is the quadrille, older New England callers refer to their squares as "quadrilles." Where traditional square dance has been revived, it encompasses a wide range of new choreography. Modern Western square dance, called "Western square dance", "contemporary Western square dance", or "modern American square dance". Modern Western square dance evolved from the Western style of traditional square dance from about 1940 to 1960. Traditional Western square dancing was promoted beginning in the 1930s by Lloyd Shaw, who solicited definitions from callers across the country in order to preserve that dance form and make it available to other teachers.
Since the 1970s modern Western square dance has been promoted and standardized by Callerlab, the "International Association of Square Dance Callers". Modern Western square dance is sometimes presented in alternation with round dances; this modern form of square dancing is taught in around thirty countries. As well as the USA and Canada, this includes the United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands, China and Russia. Within Europe, the majority of square dance clubs are in the United Kingdom. All teach the Callerlab syllabus; the initial stage reached by all dancers is called Mainstream. This program consists of a'core' list of about 70 moves, revised periodically; because of this standardization, it is possible for anyone with the proper training to enjoy modern Western square dancing in many countries around the world. Playford: John Playford published The English Dancing Master in 1651. Eight of the 105 dances are square dances, many exhibiting concepts that we still use today such as the Heads performing an action and the Sides repeating the same action.
Three of the dances, such as "Dull Sir John" state "A Square Dance for Eight thus". Square dances such as "Newcastle", one of those original eight, are still popular today, countless new dances have been written in the Playford style, or English country dance style as it is known in the United States. Folk Dance /Barn dance: At English folk or country dances a wide range of dances is performed, many of which are square dances: Playford style dances. D. Willock in the "Manual of Dancing".
Funny Face is a 1957 American musical romantic comedy film directed by Stanley Donen and written by Leonard Gershe, containing assorted songs by George and Ira Gershwin. Although having the same title as the 1927 Broadway musical Funny Face by the Gershwin brothers, featuring the same male star, the plot is different and only four of the songs from the stage musical are included. Alongside Astaire, the film stars Kay Thompson. Maggie Prescott is a fashion magazine publisher and editor, for Quality magazine, looking for the next big fashion trend, she wants a new look for the magazine. Maggie wants the look to be both "beautiful" and "intellectual", she and famous fashion photographer Dick Avery want models who can "think as well as they look." The two brainstorm and come up with the idea to find a "sinister-looking" book store in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan. They subsequently find a bookstore named "Embryo Concepts". Maggie and Dick take over Embryo Concepts, being run by the shy bookshop clerk and amateur philosopher, Jo Stockton.
Jo thinks the fashion and modeling industry is nonsense, saying: "it is chichi, an unrealistic approach to self-impressions as well as economics". Maggie decides to use Jo in the first fashion shot. After the first shot Maggie locks Jo outside to keep her from interrupting the rest of the photo shoot; the crew leaves the store in a shambles. Jo dismisses him but feels the stirrings of romance. What Jo wants more than anything else is to go to Paris and attend the famous philosopher/professor Emile Flostre's lectures about empathicalism; when Dick gets back to the darkroom, he sees something in Jo's face, "new" and "fresh", which would be perfect for the campaign, giving it "character", "spirit", "intelligence". They send for Jo. Once she arrives, they start treating her like a doll, trying to make her over, pulling at her clothes and attempting to cut her hair, she runs away, only to hide in the darkroom where Dick is working. When Dick mentions Paris, Jo becomes interested in that she would get a chance to see Professor Flostre, is persuaded to model for the magazine.
Soon, Dick, Jo are off to Paris to prepare for a major fashion event, shooting photos at famous landmarks from the area. During the various photo shoots, Jo and Dick develop feelings for each other and they fall in love. One night, when Jo is getting ready for a gala, she learns that Flostre is giving a lecture at a cafe nearby, she attends. Dick finds her and they get into an argument at the gala's opening, which results in Jo being publicly embarrassed and Maggie outraged. Jo goes to talk to Flostre at his home. Through some scheming and Dick make it into the soiree at Flostre's home. After performing an impromptu song and dance for Flostre's disciples, they confront Flostre; this leads to Dick causing Flostre to fall and knock himself out. Jo urges them to leave; when Flostre wakes up, he tries to make a pass at Jo. Shocked at the behavior of her "idol", she runs out. Before the group leaves for home, there is a final fashion show. Jo and Maggie try to get in touch with Dick. Jo does the runway show and before her wedding gown finale, looks out the window and sees the plane Dick was supposed to be on, take off.
Heartbroken, she runs off the runway in tears at the conclusion of the show. Meanwhile, Dick is at the airport, he learns that Jo bashed him on the head with a vase. Dick, goes back to find Jo, he goes back to the runway show. After applying empathicalism at Maggie's behest, Dick realizes that Jo would return to the church where they had photographed her in a wedding dress and shared their first romantic moment and kiss. Returning there himself, he finds Jo by a little brook, he she to him. They kiss. Audrey Hepburn as Jo Stockton Fred Astaire as Dick Avery Kay Thompson as Maggie Prescott Michel Auclair as Professor Emile Flostre Robert Flemyng as Paul Duval Dovima as Marion Jean Del Val as Hairdresser Virginia Gibson as Babs Sue England as Laura Ruta Lee as Lettie Alex Gerry as Dovitch Suzy Parker as Specialty Dancer Sunny Harnett as Specialty Dancer "Think Pink!" "How Long Has This Been Going On?" - composed for the musical Funny Face, but not used "How Long Has This Been Going On?" "Funny Face" - from Funny Face "Bonjour, Paris!"
"Clap Yo' Hands" - from Oh, Kay! "He Loves and She Loves" - from Funny Face "Bonjour, Paris!" "On How to Be Lovely" "Basal Metabolism" "Let's Kiss and Make Up" - from Funny Face "'S Wonderful" - from Funny Face The plot of the film version is drastically different from that of the Broadway musical, only four of the songs remain. Astaire starred in the stage version alongside his sister, Adele Astaire; the film plot is adapted from another Broadway musical, Wedding Bells, by Leonard Gershe. The original title for the film was Wedding Day. Unlike her film My Fair Lady, Hepburn sings the songs herself in this, her first musical, she performs one solo, "How Long Has This Been Going On?". Her previous dance training is called into play
Eugene Curran Kelly was an American dancer, actor of film and television, film director and choreographer. He was known for his energetic and athletic dancing style, his good looks, the likable characters that he played on screen. Best known today for his performances in films such as An American in Paris, Anchors Aweigh — for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor—and Singin' in the Rain, he starred in musical films until they fell out of fashion in the late 1950s, he starred in, choreographed, or co-directed some of the most well-regarded musicals of the 1940s and 1950s, debuting with Judy Garland in For Me and My Gal, followed by Du Barry Was a Lady, Thousands Cheer, The Pirate, On the Town, It's Always Fair Weather, among others. He starred in two films outside the musical genre: Inherit the Wind and What a Way to Go!. Kelly directed films without a collaborator, including Hello, Dolly!, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. His many innovations transformed the Hollywood musical, he is credited with single-handedly making the ballet form commercially acceptable to film audiences.
Kelly received an Academy Honorary Award in 1952 for his career achievements, the same year An American in Paris won six Academy Awards, including Best Picture. He received lifetime achievement awards in the Kennedy Center Honors, from the Screen Actors Guild and American Film Institute. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him as the 15th greatest male screen legend of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Kelly was born in the East Liberty neighborhood of Pittsburgh, he was the third son of James Patrick Joseph Kelly, a phonograph salesman, his wife, Harriet Catherine Curran. His father was born in Peterborough, Canada, to an Irish Canadian family, his maternal grandfather was an immigrant from Derry and his maternal grandmother was of German ancestry. When he was eight, Kelly's mother enrolled his brother James in dance classes; as Kelly recalled, they both rebelled: "We didn't like it much and were continually involved in fistfights with the neighborhood boys who called us sissies... I didn't dance again until I was 15."
At one time, his childhood dream was to play shortstop for the hometown Pittsburgh Pirates. By the time he decided to dance, he was an accomplished able to defend himself, he attended St. Raphael Elementary School in the Morningside neighborhood of Pittsburgh and graduated from Peabody High School at age 16, he entered the Pennsylvania State College as a journalism major, but the 1929 crash forced him to work to help his family. He created dance routines with his younger brother Fred to earn prize money in local talent contests, they performed in local nightclubs. In 1931, Kelly enrolled at the University of Pittsburgh to study economics, joining the Phi Kappa Theta fraternity, he became involved in the university's Gown Club, which staged original musical productions. After graduating in 1933, he continued to be active with the Cap and Gown Club, serving as the director from 1934 to 1938. Kelly was admitted to the University of Pittsburgh Law School, his family opened a dance studio in the Squirrel Hill neighborhood of Pittsburgh.
In 1932, they renamed it the Gene Kelly Studio of the Dance and opened a second location in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, in 1933. Kelly served as a teacher at the studio during his law-student years at Pitt. In 1931, he was approached by the Beth Shalom Synagogue in Pittsburgh to teach dance, to stage the annual Kermesse; the venture proved Kelly being retained for seven years until his departure for New York. Kelly decided to pursue a career as a dance teacher and full-time entertainer, so he dropped out of law school after two months, he increased his focus on performing and claimed: "With time I became disenchanted with teaching because the ratio of girls to boys was more than ten to one, once the girls reached 16, the dropout rate was high." In 1937, having managed and developed the family's dance-school business, he did move to New York City in search of work as a choreographer. Kelly returned to Pittsburgh, to his family home at 7514 Kensington Street, by 1940, worked as a theatrical actor.
After a fruitless search for work in New York, Kelly returned to Pittsburgh to his first position as a choreographer with the Charles Gaynor musical revue Hold Your Hats at the Pittsburgh Playhouse in April 1938. Kelly appeared in six of the sketches, one of which, La cumparsita, became the basis of an extended Spanish number in the film Anchors Aweigh eight years later, his first Broadway assignment, in November 1938, was as a dancer in Cole Porter's Leave It to Me!—as the American ambassador's secretary who supports Mary Martin while she sings "My Heart Belongs to Daddy". He had been hired by Robert Alton, who had staged a show at the Pittsburgh Playhouse where he was impressed by Kelly's teaching skills; when Alton moved on to choreograph the musical One for the Money, he hired Kelly to act and dance in eight routines. In 1939, he was selected for a musical revue, One for the Money, produced by the actress Katharine Cornell, known for finding and hiring talented young actors. Kelly's first big breakthrough was in the Pulitzer Prize–winning The Time of Your Life, which opened on October 25, 1939—in which, for the first time on Broadway, he danced to his own choreography.
In the same year, he received his first assignment as a Broadway choreographer, for Billy Rose's Diamond Horseshoe. He began dating a cast member, Betsy Blair, they got married on Octo
Shall We Dance (1937 film)
Shall We Dance, released in 1937, is the seventh of the ten Astaire-Rogers musical comedy films. The idea for the film originated in the studio's desire to exploit the successful formula created by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart with their 1936 Broadway hit On Your Toes; the musical featured an American dancer getting involved with a touring Russian ballet company. In a major coup for RKO, Pandro Berman managed to attract the Gershwins – George Gershwin who wrote the symphonic underscore and Ira Gershwin the lyrics – to score this, their second Hollywood musical after Delicious in 1931. Peter P. Peters, an American ballet dancer billed as "Petrov", dances for a ballet company in Paris owned by the bumbling Jeffrey Baird. Peters secretly wants to blend classical ballet with modern jazz dancing, when he sees a photo of famous tap dancer Linda Keene, he falls in love with her, he contrives to meet her. They meet again on an ocean liner traveling back to New York, Linda warms to Petrov. Unknown to them, a plot is launched as a publicity stunt "proving" that they are married.
Outraged, Linda becomes engaged to the bumbling Jim Montgomery, much to the chagrin of both Peters and Arthur Miller, her manager, who secretly launches more fake publicity. Peters and Keene, unable to squelch the rumor, decide to marry and immediately get divorced. Linda begins to fall in love with her husband, but discovers him with another woman, Lady Denise Tarrington, leaves before he can explain; when she comes to his new show to serve him divorce papers, she sees him dancing with dozens of women, all wearing masks with her face on them: Peters has decided that if he cannot dance with Linda, he will dance with images of Linda. Seeing that he loves her, she joins him onstage. George Gershwin – who had become famous for blending jazz with classical forms – wrote each scene in a different style of dance music, he composed one scene for the ballerina Harriet Hoctor. Ira Gershwin seemed decidedly less excited by the idea; the score of Shall We Dance is the largest source of Gershwin orchestral works unavailable to the general public, at least since the advent of modern stereo recording techniques in the 1950s.
The movie contains the only recordings of some of the instrumental pieces available to Gershwin aficionados Some of the cuts arranged and orchestrated by Gershwin include: "Dance of the Waves", "Waltz of the Red Balloons", "Graceful and Elegant", "Hoctor's Ballet" and "French Ballet Class". The instrumental track "Walking the Dog", has been recorded and has been played from time to time on classical music radio stations. Nathaniel Shilkret, musical director for the movie, hired Jimmy Dorsey and all or part of the Dorsey band as the nucleus of a fifty-piece studio orchestra including strings. Dorsey was in Hollywood at the time working the "Kraft Music Hall" radio show on NBC hosted by Bing Crosby. Dorsey is heard soloing on "Slap That Bass," "Walking the Dog" and "They All Laughed." Gershwin was suffering during the production of the motion picture from the brain tumor, shortly to kill him, Shilkret contributed by assisting with orchestration on some of the numbers. Hermes Pan collaborated with Astaire on the choreography throughout and Harry Losee was brought in to help with the ballet finale.
Gershwin modeled the score on the great ballets of the 19th century, but with obvious swing and jazz influences, as well as polytonalism. While Astaire made further attempts—notably in Ziegfeld Follies and the Thief and Daddy Long Legs —it was his rival and friend Gene Kelly who would succeed in creating a modern original dance style based on this concept; some critics have attributed Astaire's discomfort with ballet to his oft-expressed disdain for "inventing up to the arty". "Overture to Shall We Dance":was written by George Gershwin in 1937 as the introduction to his score for Shall We Dance. Performance time runs about four minutes. "The opening is in Gershwin's best big-city style. "French Ballet Class" written in the style of the galop. "Rehearsal Fragments": In a brief segment which seeks to motivate the film's core dance concept, Astaire illustrates the idea of combining "the technique of ballet with the warmth and passion of this other mood" by performing two ballet leaps, the second of, followed by a tap barrage.
"Rumba Sequence": Astaire watches a flip book showing a brief orchestral rumba danced by Ginger Rogers and Pete Theodore, choreographed by Hermes Pan. The increasing complexity and chromaticism in Gershwin's music can be detected between music for this sequence and Gershwin's earlier effort at a rumba, the Cuban Overture, written five years earlier. Scored for chamber orchestra. " Beginner's Luck": A brief comic tap solo with cane where Astaire's rehearsing to a record of the number is cut short when the record gets stuck. "Waltz of the Red Balloons" written in the style of a valse joyeaux. "Slap That Bass": In a mixed race number unusual for its time, Astaire encounters