Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about 800 kilometers along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers. Nepal is landlocked by China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea for most goods imported from China. For a small country, Nepal has tremendous geographic diversity, it rises from as low as 59 metres elevation in the tropical Terai—the northern rim of the Gangetic Plain, beyond the perpetual snow line to some 90 peaks over 7,000 metres including Earth's highest 8,848 metres Mount Everest or Sagarmatha. In addition to the continuum from tropical warmth to cold comparable to polar regions, average annual precipitation varies from as little as 160 millimetres in the rainshadow north of the Himalaya to as much as 5,500 millimetres on windward slopes. Along a south-to-north transect, Nepal can be divided into three belts: Terai and Himal.
In the other direction, it is divided into three major river systems, from east to west: Koshi, Gandaki/Narayani and Karnali, all tributaries of the Ganges. The Ganges-Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra watershed coincides with the Nepal-Tibet border, however several Ganges tributaries rise inside Tibet. Terai is a low land region containing some hill ranges; the Terai region begins at the Indian border and includes the southernmost part of the flat, intensively farmed Gangetic Plain called the Outer Terai. By the 19th century and other resources were being exported to India. Industrialization based on agricultural products such as jute began in the 1930s and infrastructure such roadways and electricity were extended across the border before it reached Nepal's pahad; the Outer Terai is culturally more similar to adjacent parts of India's Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than to the Pahad of Nepal. Nepali is taught in schools and spoken in government offices, however the local population uses Maithali and Tharu languages.
The Outer Terai ends at the base of the first range of foothills called the Siwaliks or Churia. This range has a densely forested skirt of coarse alluvium called the bhabhar. Below the bhabhar, less permeable sediments force groundwater to the surface in a zone of springs and marshes. In Persian, terai refers to marshy ground. Before the use of DDT this was dangerously malarial. Nepal's rulers used. Above the bhabhar belt, the Siwaliks rise to about 700 metres with peaks as high as 1,000 metres, steeper on their southern flanks because of faults known as the Main Frontal Thrust; this range is composed of poorly consolidated, coarse sediments that do not retain water or support soil development so there is no agricultural potential and sparse population. In several places beyond the Siwaliks there are dūn valleys called Inner Terai; these valleys have productive soil but were dangerously malarial except to indigenous Tharu people who had genetic resistance. In the mid-1950s DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos and the way was open to settlement from the land-poor hills, to the detriment of the Tharu.
The terai ends and the Pahad begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat Range. Hilly is a mountain region which doesn't contain snow, it is situated south of the Himal, the hilly is betw altitude. This region begins at the Mahabharat Range where a fault system called the Main Boundary Thrust creates an escarpment 1,000 to 1,500 metres high, to a crest between 1,500 and 2,700 metres; these steep southern slopes are nearly uninhabited, thus an effective buffer between languages and culture in the Terai and hilly. Hindu Paharis populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato; the urbanized Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys fall within the Hill region. Newars are an indigenous ethnic group with their own Tibeto-Burman language; the Newar were indigenous to the Kathmandu valley but have spread into Pokhara and other towns alongside urbanized Pahari. Other indigenous janajati ethnic groups -— natively speaking localized Tibeto-Burman languages and dialects -— populate hillsides up to about 2,500 metres.
This group includes Magar and Kham Magar west of Pokhara, Gurung south of the Annapurnas, Tamang around the periphery of Kathmandu Valley and Rai, Koinch Sunuwar and Limbu further east. Temperate and subtropical fruits are grown as cash crops. Marijuana was grown and processed into Charas until international pressure persuaded the government to outlaw it in 1976. There is increasing reliance on animal husbandry with elevation, using land above 2,000 metres for summer grazing and moving herds to lower elevations in winter. Grain production has not kept pace with population growth at elevations above 1,000 metres where colder temperatures inhibit double cropping. Food deficits drive emigration out of the pahad in search of employment; the Hilly ends where ridges begin rising out of the temperate climate zone into subalpine zone above 3,000 metres. Himal is a mountain region containing snow; the Mountain Region or Parbat begins where high ridges begin rising above 3,000 metres into the subalpi
Doti known as Doti region, Dotigarh as used in the Jagar, the Farwestern region of Nepal, is a region situated between River Kali boarding to the Uttarakhand in the west and Karnali river on the east. Doti was one of eight different princely states Katyuri Kingdom was divided into Eight for their eight Prince and became different independent Kingdom. Doti division covers the nine districts of Seti and Mahakali Zone, four in Mahakali and five in Seti Zone respectively, they are: Darchula District Baitadi District Dadeldhura District Kanchanpur District Doti District Kailali District Bajhang District Bajura District Achham DistrictKailali and Kanchanpur District are Terai districts. The name Doti is believed to have originated from the word Dovati, which means the land area between the confluence of two rivers. Other view is. Doti was an ancient kingdom in far western region of Kumaon, formed after the disintegration of the Katyuri Kingdom of Kumaon around the 13th century. Doti was one of eight different princely states Katyuri Kingdom was divided into Eight for their eight Prince and became different independent Kingdom.
Baijnath-Katyuri Dwarahat Doti Baramandal Askot Sira Sora Sui Later on, the whole land between Ramganga on the west and the Karnali on the east, came under the Raikas after the origin of Raikas of Katyuris in Doti."Brahma Dev Mandi" at Kanchanpur District of Mahakali Zone was established by Katyuri king Brahma Dev. Niranjan Malla Dev was the founder of Doti Kingdom around the 13th century after the fall of the Katyuri Kingdom, he was the son of Last Katyuris of united Katyuris kingdom. Kings of Doti were called Raikas. On Raikas, after defeating the Khas Malla of Karnali Zone, were able to establish a strong Raikas Kingdom in Far Western Region and Kumaun, Doti. So far, the historical evidences of following Raikas have been discovered: Niranjan Malla Dev Nagi Malla Ripu Malla Nirai Pal: maybe of Askot his historical evidence of 1354 A. D has been found in Almora too Nag Malla Dhir Malla Ripu Malla Anand Malla Balinarayan Malla: not known Sansar Malla Kalyan Malla Suratan Malla Kriti Malla Prithivi Malla Medini Jay Malla Ashok Malla Raj Malla Arjun Malla/Shahi: not known but he was ruling Sira as Malla and Doti as Shahi Bhupati Malla/Shahi Sagaram Shahi Hari Malla/Shahi: last Raikas King of Sira Rudra Shahi Vikram Shahi Mandhata Shahi Raghunath Shahi Hari Shahi Hrishna Shahi Deep Shahi, Prithivi pati Shahi: he had fought against Nepali Ruler with British in 1814 A.
D. The historic place of war between the Doti Kingdom and Nepal during the period of Gorkha Expansion in 1790, according to the history of Nepal, is Nari-Dang which lies on the bank of the Seti River and Dumrakot was the base of the Doti Kingdom during the fighting against the Gorkhalis. In the war with the Gorkhalis, the Doti kingdom was defeated and Doteli King fled to Pilibhit. During the period of Akbar's rule in the 16th century, the Moguls had attacked the Raikas of Doti, they invaded capital of the Raika Kingdom. Ajemeru is now in Dadeldhura District of far western region of Nepal. Hussain Khan, army chief of Akbar residing in Lucknow had led the attack. According to `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni, Indo-Persian historian during Mughal Empire, Mughal Army chief of Lukhnow, Hussian Khan, lured by the wealth and treasures of the kingdom of the Raikas, wanted to plunder the state, this being the motive behind the assault. Raja Deep Shahi was expelled from Nepal in 1790 A. D and on arriving to Terai of Oudh he established Khairgarh-Singhai State in Khairigarh under British India.
Kanchanpur Praganna was the parts of his State or Zamindari. He succeeded in defeating the Banjaras rulers of Khairigarh and establishing himself not only in that Pargana but in parts of Bhur, his state was merged with India In 1947 after Indian Independence. The Far-Western Development Region has the Mid-Western Development Region to the east, Uttar Pradesh to the south, Uttarakhand to the west and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the north; the highest mountain in the region is the Api Peak, with 7,132 m high. Other high mountain is Saipal, 7,031 m high, in the Bajhang district; the most important rivers in the Far-Western Development Region are the Seti and the Mahakali rivers. It is the smallest Development Region of Nepal with an area of 19,539 km2 and with the lowest population with 2,552,517 people living there. Main ethnic group are chhetris 76% Dotiyali or Dotyali and Kumauni is the local language spoken in Doti region or far western region of Nepal. Dotiyali, similar to Kumauni language is one of language of Indo-European family.
According to Rahul Sankrityayan, Dotiyali is the dialect of Kumauni language, brought in Doti by section of Katyuri dynasty of kumaoun which had ruled over Doti till 1790. Therefore, It is an offs
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Sudurpashchim Pradesh is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal, adopted on 20 September 2015. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Karnali Pradesh and Province No. 5 to the east, the Indian states of Uttarakhand to the west and Uttar Pradesh to the south. Known as Province No. 7, the newly elected Provincial Assembly adopted Sudurpashchim Pradesh as the permanent name for the province in September 2018. As per a 28 September 2018 Assembly voting, the city of Godawari has been declared the capital of the Province; the province is coterminous with Nepal. Doti was an ancient kingdom in far western region of Kumaon, formed after the disintegration of the Katyuri Kingdom of Kumaon around the 13th century. Doti was one of eight different princely states Katyuri Kingdom was divided into eight for their eight prince's and became different independent kingdoms. On, the whole land between Ramganga on the west and the Karnali on the east, came under the Raikas after the origin of Raikas of Katyuris in Doti.
"Brahma Dev Mandi" at Kanchanpur District of Mahakali Zone was established by Katyuri king Brahma Dev. Before announcement of new provinces in Nepal, the area of this province was known as Far-Western development region of Nepal. There was no changes made in this province. Niranjan Malla Dev was the founder of Doti Kingdom around the 13th century after the fall of the Katyuri Kingdom, he was the son of Last Katyuris of united Katyuris kingdom. Kings of Doti were called Raikas. On Raikas, after defeating the Khas Malla of Karnali Zone, were able to establish a strong Raikas Kingdom in Far Western Region and Kumaun, Doti. During the period of Akbar's rule in the 16th century, the Mughals had attacked the Raikas of Doti, they invaded capital of the Raika Kingdom. Ajemeru is now in Dadeldhura District of far western region of Nepal. Hussain Khan, army chief of Akbar residing in Lucknow had led the attack. According to `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni, Indo-Persian historian during Mughal Empire, Mughal Army chief of Lukhnow, Hussian Khan, lured by the wealth and treasures of the kingdom of the Raikas, wanted to plunder the state, this being the motive behind the assault.
The historic place of war between the Doti Kingdom and Nepal during the period of Gorkha Expansion in 1790, according to the history of Nepal, is Nari-Dang, on the bank of the Seti River. The Dumrakot was the base of Doti Kingdom for fighting against the Gorkhalis. Raja Deep Shahi was expelled from Nepal in 1790 A. D and on arriving to Terai of Oudh he established Khairgarh-Singhai State in Khairigarh under British India. Kanchanpur Praganna was the parts of his State or Zamindari, he succeeded in defeating the Banjaras rural of Khairigarh and establishing himself not only in that Pargana but in parts of Bhur. His state was merged with India In 1947 after Indian Independence; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Dipayal High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Mohan Raj Malla, Trilochan Bhatta and Yagya Prasad Basyal. The province has 53 provincial assembly constituencies and 16 House of Representative constituencies.
Sudurpashchim Pradesh has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years; the Provincial Assembly of Sudurpashchim is temporarily housed at the District Coordination Committee Hall in Dhangadhi. The province is divided into nine districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include one sub-metropolitan city and 33 municipalities. There are 54 rural municipalities in the province. Achham District Baitadi District Bajhang District Bajura District Dadeldhura District Darchula District Doti District Kailali District Kanchanpur District The province has a population of 2,552,517, 9.63% of the total population of Nepal. The population density is about 130 persons per square kilometre; the province has a population growth rate of 1.53%. The sex ratio is 912 males for 1000 females, with a total of 1,217,887 males and 1,334,630 females recorded in 2011.
The urban population of the region is 1,504,279 and the rural population is 1,048,238. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Gaunpalika or gaupalika is the newly formed lower administrative division in Nepal. The Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development dissolved the existing village development committees and announced the establishment of this new local body. There are 460 rural municipalities; the main purpose of a gaunpalika is similar to that of a village development committee. Besides this, this division has the authority to collect various taxes like entertainment tax, business tax and residential tax at the local level; the Village Development Committee was dissolved on 10 March 2017. Panchayat was dissolved and turned into VDC by the Constitution of Nepal 1990. According to the English translation of the Constitution of Nepal, the term "gaunpalika" has been used as "village body". However, the Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development explained that the term "rural municipality" was coined after opinions from experts and diverse sources; the chief is the head of a rural municipality. A total of 744 chiefs were selected by the government in 10 March 2017.
The rural municipalities will have an annual budget of at least Rs 10 million. Village development committees of Nepal topics
Amargadhi is a municipality and the district headquarter of Dadeldhura District in Province No. 7 of western Nepal. It was named after Gorkha General Amar Singh Thapa, who fought in the Gurkha War between 1814 and 1816 At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 21,245 people living in 4,778 individual households. Mahakali Highway links Amargadhi to the Terai region of Nepal as well as Api Municipality in the Lesser Himalayas. Seti Highway branches off Mahakali Highway at Amargadhi towards Dipayal Silgadhi. To Promote local culture Amargadhi has three community radio stations, Radio Amargadhi - 97.4 MHz, Radio Sudur Awaz - 95 MHz and Radio Aafno 104.8 MHZ. UN map of the municipalities of Dadeldhura District
Ghatal is a city and a municipality in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. It is the headquarters of the Ghatal subdivision. Ghatal is a flood-prone area; the river Shilabati divided the city into two parts. The Ghatal Police station lies on the west bank of the river. There is one peculiar floating bridge on the river made of by joining some boats tied with rope from both sides in the banks, called "Bhasa Pool". One cement bridge is constructed on the main pitch road or State Highway 4 passing through Chandrakona Town, Ghatal and Mechogram. Ghatal Sub-Division and the town Ghatal have their old history of civilization, the struggle for freedom of India. Many patriots, social reformers, freedom fighters were the sons of this PS area; the river Darakeswar and Shilabati meet with rivers Jhumi and Damodar at a place named as Bandar 3 km East from Ghatal PS. This is the subdivision of Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Patriot Pradyot Bhattacharya, Patriot Pravangsu Paul, Patriot Mohini Mondal, Raja Narendralal Khan, Patriot Manabendranath Roy and so many memorable persons.
In ancient times, Tamralipta was an important port for shipping export and import between Bengal and other countries including Sri Lanka. This Bandar of Ghatal was used as a port for anchoring boats and ships with goods. Ghatal was once famous for the manufacture of cotton, tusser silk, bell-metal utensils, earthenware, it was so important that the Dutch had a factory in the headquarters town, still used as a sub-divisional court. In the early days of British occupation, three commercial residents were located in the locality to supervise local trade; the old industries like the cultivation and weaving of silk and cotton for which Ghatal and its nearest areas were famous from ancient times were systematically wiped away by the policy of the East India Company's administration. Withdrawal of the company's investments, shrinkage in the marketability of textile goods at home and abroad, heavy competition of the foreign goods were responsible for the decline of textile industries in Ghatal and the nearest areas like Radhanagar, Khirpai and Khrar.
This area was famous for the sugar industry in ancient times. In 2002, Medinipur District was divided into two parts, Purba Medinipur and Paschim Medinipur, for the sake of administrative efficiency and expediency. Paschim Medinipur consists of four sub-divisions - Kharagpur, Medinipur Sadar, Jhargram. Ghatal sub-division now consists of five blocks- Chandrokona-I, Chandrokona-II, Daspur-I, Daspur-II, Ghatal, five municipalities - Ramjibanpur, Chandrokona and Ghatal. Ghatal is located at 22.67°N 87.72°E / 22.67. It has an average elevation of 5 metres, it is situated on the sides of the river Shilabati on the south, Dwarakeswar on the east and Jhumi river another third side. As of 2001 India census, Ghatal had a population of 51,586. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Ghatal has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83%, female literacy is 69%. In Ghatal, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age; as per the 2001 census, Ghatal CD Block had a population of 190,705 out of which 96,605 were males and 94,100 were females.
Growth of population in the 1991-2001 decade was 11.83 per cent. The headquarters of Ghatal Block is located at Ghatal. Ghatal police station has jurisdiction over Ghatal CD Block. Most of the rich and upper-middle-class people living in the town have old and established businesses. Besides the town area, the people of the nearby villages earn their livelihood by producing crops, like paddy, wheat and vegetables of different kinds; some people earn money by hawking and weaving. Its climate is moderate, but low lying areas of Ghatal are flood-prone areas and is flooded by the Shilaboti, Kethiya and Rupnarayan Rivers during rainy season. On the other hand the other side of river Shilaboti is protected by. Rice and other vegetable farming are the main occupations of the people of this subdivision. Ghatal is well connected by roads and highways with nearby cities like Kolkata, Midnapore, Digha, Bankura. For local transportation, buses and cycle-rickshaws are available. Panskura Railway Station is the nearest railway station.
SH 4 passes through Ghatal. There are a number of well-known colleges in Ghatal. For higher education, there is one general degree college named Ghatal Rabindra Satabarsiki Mahavidyalaya under Vidyasagar University, one polytechnic college named Ghatal Government Polytechnic and One ITI college named Ghatal Government ITI in Birsingha; the literacy rate of Ghatal is 76%. The schools are: Ghatal Vidyasagar High School Ghatal Yogoda Satsanga Sri Yukteswar Vidyapith Ghatal Basanta Kumari Girl's High School The common people of this area maintained a culture something different from other parts of the district in conducting and observing their way of work in rituals and customs, they cherish customs. For example, the people celebrating the worship of Maa Sitala Buri and other Maa Sitalas in an around Ghatal Town used to carry hundreds of dhaks in procession and arrange open operas acting on the stage dragged and pushed by the men on pitch road running through the town. Among many festivals in Ghatal Sishu Mela is most popular.
Many people of Ghatal town and its neighbouring blocks take part in the Sishu Mela. Vidyasagar Mela is popular, which takes place in Birsingha; the regular Ben