Dagobert I

Dagobert I was the king of Austrasia, king of all the Franks, king of Neustria and Burgundy. He was the last king of the Merovingian dynasty to wield any real royal power. Dagobert was the first of the Frankish kings to be buried in the royal tombs at Saint Denis Basilica. Dagobert was the grandson of Fredegund. Chlothar had reigned alone over all the Franks since 613. In 622, Chlothar made Dagobert king of Austrasia certainly to bind the Austrasian nobility to the ruling Franks; as a child, Dagobert lived under the care of the Carolingian dynasty forebears and Austrasian magnates, Arnulf of Metz and Pepin of Landen. Chlothar attempted to manage the unstable alliances he had with other noble families throughout much of Dagobert's reign; when Chlothar granted Austrasia to Dagobert, he excluded Alsace, the Vosges, the Ardennes, but shortly thereafter the Austrasian nobility forced him to concede these regions to Dagobert. The rule of a Frank from the Austrasian heartland tied Alsace more to the Austrasian court.

Dagobert created a new duchy in southwest Austrasia to guard the region from Burgundian or Alemannic encroachments and ambitions. The duchy comprised the Vosges, the Burgundian Gate, the Transjura. Dagobert made his courtier Gundoin—who incidentally established monasteries in Alsace and Burgundy—the first duke of this new polity, to last until the end of the Merovingian dynasty. While Austrasian rulers such as Chlothar and Dagobert controlled these regions through part of the seventh-century, they became autonomous kingdoms as powerful aristocratic families sought separate paths across their respective realms. Upon the death of his father in 629, Dagobert inherited the Burgundian kingdoms, his half-brother Charibert, son of Sichilde, claimed Dagobert opposed him. Brodulf, brother of Sichilde, petitioned Dagobert on behalf of his young nephew, but Dagobert assassinated him and became sole king of the Franks, he gave the Aquitaine to Charibert as a "consolation prize." In 629, Dagobert concluded a treaty with the Byzantine emperor Heraclius, which entailed enforcing the compulsory baptism of Jews throughout his kingdom.

Besides signing this treaty, Dagobert took steps to secure trade across his empire by protecting important markets along the mouth of the Rhine at Duurstede and Utrecht, which in part explains his determination to defend the Austrasian Franks from the Avar menace. Under the rule of Dagobert's father and like-minded Merovingians, Frankish society during the seventh-century experienced greater integration—the Catholic faith became predominant for instance—and a improved economic situation, but there was no initial impetus for the political unification of Gaul. Clothar II did not seek to force his Neustrian neighbors into submission, choosing instead a policy of cooperation; this did not prohibit plunder-raids to replenish the dynastic coffers, which Dagobert undertook in Spain for example—one raid there earned him 200,000 gold solidi. Historian Ian Wood claims that Dagobert "was richer than most Merovingian monarchs" and cites for example his assistance to the Visigoth Sisenand—whom he aided in his rise to the Visigothic throne in Spain—and for which, Sisenand awarded Dagobert a golden dish weighing some five-hundred pounds.

When Charibert and his son Chilperic were assassinated in 632, Dagobert had Burgundy and Aquitaine under his rule, becoming the most powerful Merovingian king in many years and the most respected ruler in the West. In 631, Dagobert led a large army against Samo, the ruler of the Slavic Wends at the request of the Germanic peoples living in the eastern territories and due to Dagobert's quarrel with him about the Wends having robbed and killed a number of Frankish merchants. While Dagobert's Austrasian forces were defeated at the Wogastisburg, his Alemmanic and Lombard allies were successful in repelling the Wends. Taking advantage of the situation at the time, the Saxons offered to help Dagobert if he agreed to rescind the 500 cow yearly tribute to the Austrasians. Despite accepting this agreement, Fredegar reports that it was to little avail since the Wends attacked again the following year. In 632, the nobles of Austrasia revolted under the mayor of the palace, Pepin of Landen. In 634, Dagobert appeased the rebellious nobles by putting his three-year-old son, Sigebert III, on the throne, thereby ceding royal power in the easternmost of his realms, just as his father had done for him eleven years earlier.

In historian Ian Wood's view, Dagobert's creation of a sub-kingdom for his son Sigibert had "important long-term implications for the general structure of Merovingian Francia."As king, Dagobert made Paris his capital. During his reign, he built the Altes Schloss in Meersburg, which today is the oldest inhabited castle in that country. Devoutly religious, Dagobert was responsible for the construction of the Saint Denis Basilica at the site of a Benedictine monastery in Paris, he appointed St. Arbogast bishop of Strasbourg. Dagobert was beloved in many ways according to Fredegar, who wrote that "He rendered justice to rich and poor alike," adding that, "he took little sleep or food, cared only so to act that all men should leave his presence full of joy and admiration." Such images do not convey the power and domination wielded by Frankish kings like Dagobert, who along with his father Chlothar, reigned to such a degree that historian Patrick Geary described the period of their combined rule as the "apogee of Merovingian royal power."Dagobert went down in history as one of the greatest Frankish kings, having

Assam Mail

The Assam Mail was one of the better known metre gauge trains in the Indian Railway system, there from the pre-independence days. The train was discontinued in 1986 with the completion of the broad gauge conversion of the meter gauge line to Dibrugarh. Popularly known as 3 Up/ 4 Dn, it ran in the pre-independence days from Santahar, now in Bangladesh, to Guwahati, it travelled along the Santahar-Kaunia Line up to Kaunia to Lalmonirhat along Parbatipur-Lalmonirhat-Burimari Line, crossing the Teesta. Thereafter, it took the now defunct Mogalhat-Gitaldaha route crossing the Dharla over the bridge, part of which has since been washed away, on to Golokganj and Amingaon. Passengers to and from Kolkata and the rest of India traveled between Kolkata and Santahar by broad gauge Darjeeling Mail or some other connection and switched over to metre gauge Assam Mail. After independence and partition of India in 1947, the train stopped temporarily; when Assam Link Project connected Fakiragram to Kishanganj Assam Mail started running along the Katihar-Siliguri Line.

It needed a loco reversal at Siliguri Junction and traveled along what is now the New Jalpaiguri-Alipurduar-Samuktala Road line. Assam Mail was converted into a two part train, it ran from New Delhi to Dibrugarh, with the broad gauge part running up to Barauni from where the metre gauge part continued up to Dibrugarh. Passengers had to change trains; the metre gauge part of the Assam Mail from Barauni to Dibrugarh covered 1,387 kilometres. It was one of the longer metre gauge runs in the country, running across the flood plains of the Kosi, the Dooars, Western Assam and Upper Assam."With the BG extension from Barauni Jn to Guwahati in 1986, the Assam Mail was renamed as the North East Superfast Express and this legendary train of N. F. Railway went into oblivion."

List of UK top-ten singles in 1971

The UK Singles Chart is one of many music charts compiled by the Official Charts Company that calculates the best-selling singles of the week in the United Kingdom. Before 2004, the chart was only based on the sales of physical singles; this list shows singles that peaked in the Top 10 of the UK Singles Chart during 1971, as well as singles which peaked in 1970 and 1972 but were in the top 10 in 1971. The entry date is. One-hundred and six singles were in the top ten in 1971. Ten singles from 1970 remained in the top 10 for several weeks at the beginning of the year, while "Something Tells Me" by Cilla Black was released in 1971 but did not reach its peak until 1972. "Grandad" by Clive Dunn, "I'll Be There" by The Jackson 5 and "Ride a White Swan" by T. Rex were the singles from 1970 to reach their peak in 1971. Seventeen artists scored multiple entries in the top 10 in 1971. Bay City Rollers, Elton John, The New Seekers, Rod Stewart and Slade were among the many artists who achieved their first UK charting top 10 single in 1971.

The 1970 Christmas number-one, "I Hear You Knocking" by Dave Edmunds, remained at number-one for the first week of 1971. The first new number-one single of the year was "Grandad" by Clive Dunn. Overall, thirteen different singles peaked at number-one in 1971, with T. Rex having the most singles hit that position. One-hundred and six singles charted in the top 10 in 1971, with one-hundred and two singles reaching their peak this year. Seventeen artists scored multiple entries in the top 10 in 1971. Elvis Presley and T. Rex shared the record for most top 10 hits in 1971 with four hit singles each. George Harrison was one of a number of artists with two top-ten entries, including the number-one single "My Sweet Lord". Andy Williams and Ansell Collins, Gilbert O'Sullivan, Mungo Jerry and The Supremes were among the other artists who had multiple top 10 entries in 1971. Forty-three artists achieved their first top 10 single as a lead or featured artist. Of these, five went on to record another hit single that year: C.

C. S. Dave and Ansell Collins, John Kongos, Middle of the Road and Olivia Newton-John. Dawn had two other entries in their breakthrough year; the following table does not include acts who had charted as part of a group and secured their first top 10 solo single. NotesGeorge Harrison started his post-Beatles career with his debut solo single in 1971, "My Sweet Lord", topping the chart. A second single, "Bangla-Desh" charted at number 10 this year. Fellow bandmate Paul McCartney began life away from The Beatles with his first solo top 10 hit, "Another Day", which reached number two. With John Lennon having charted with Plastic Ono Band and a debut solo single the previous year, Ringo Starr became the final member to go it alone in 1971, his first release was the number 4 hit "It Don't Come Easy". Before finding success as lead singer with Dawn, Tony Orlando had achieved a solo UK top 10 entry in 1961 with "Bless You", which reached number 5. Original songs from various films entered the top 10 throughout the year.

These included " Love Story" and "Theme from "Shaft"". George Harrison released the single "Bangla Desh" as a follow-up to debut solo single "My Sweet Lord"; the single highlighted the plight of refugees in Bangladesh after the country was hit by the 1970 Bhola cyclone. The song was performed by Harrison at The Concert for Bangladesh, a benefit concert to aid victims and survivors; the single charted in the UK at number ten on 28 August 1971. George Harrison had the best-selling single of the year with "My Sweet Lord"; the single spent ten weeks in the top 10, sold over 890,000 copies and was certified silver by the BPI. "Maggie May"/"Reason to Believe" by Rod Stewart came in second place, selling more than 615,000 copies and losing out by around 275,000 sales. Middle of the Road's "Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep", "Knock Three Times" from Dawn and "Hot Love" by T. Rex made up the top five. Singles by The Mixtures, The New Seekers, Diana Ross, The Tams and T. Rex were in the top ten best-selling singles of the year.

Key The following table shows artists who achieved two or more top 10 entries in 1971, including singles that reached their peak in 1970. The figures include both main artists and featured artists, while appearances on ensemble charity records are counted for each artist; the total number of weeks an artist spent in the top ten in 1971 is shown. 1971 in British music List of number-one singles from the 1970s General "Six decades of singles charts". The Official Charts Company. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2018. Specific 1971 singles chart archive at the Official Charts Company