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The Kingdom of Dahomey was an African kingdom that existed from about 1600 until 1904, when the last king, Béhanzin, was defeated by the French, the country was annexed into the French colonial empire. Dahomey developed on the Abomey Plateau amongst the Fon people in the early 17th century and became a regional power in the 18th century by conquering key cities on the Atlantic coast. For much of the 18th and 19th centuries, the Kingdom of Dahomey was a key regional state ending tributary status to the Oyo Empire; the Kingdom of Dahomey was an important regional power that had an organized domestic economy built on conquest and slave labor, significant international trade with Europeans, a centralized administration, taxation systems, an organized military. Notable in the kingdom were significant artwork, an all-female military unit called the Dahomey Amazons by European observers, the elaborate religious practices of Vodun with the large festival of the Annual Customs of Dahomey which involved large scale human sacrifice.

They traded prisoners, which they captured during wars and raids, exchanged them with Europeans for goods such as knives, firearms and spirits. The Kingdom of Dahomey was referred to by many different names and has been written in a variety of ways, including Danxome and Fon; the name Fon relates to the dominant ethnic and language group, the Fon people, of the royal families of the kingdom and is how the kingdom first became known to Europeans. The names Dahomey and Danhome all have a similar origin story, which historian Edna Bay says may be a false etymology; the story goes that Dakodonu, considered the second king in modern kings lists, was granted permission by the Gedevi chiefs, the local rulers, to settle in the Abomey plateau. Dakodonu requested additional land from a prominent chief named Dan to which the chief responded sarcastically "Should I open up my belly and build you a house in it?" For this insult, Dakodonu began the construction of his palace on the spot. The name of the kingdom was derived from the incident: Dan=chief dan, xo=Belly, me=Inside of.

The Kingdom of Dahomey was established around 1600 by the Fon people who had settled in the area. The foundational king for Dahomey is considered to be Houegbadja, who built the Royal Palaces of Abomey and began raiding and taking over towns outside of the Abomey plateau. King Agaja, Houegbadja's grandson, came to the throne in 1708 and began significant expansion of the Kingdom of Dahomey; this expansion was made possible by the superior military force of King Agaja's Dahomey. In contrast to surrounding regions, Dahomey employed a professional standing army numbering around ten thousand. What the Dahomey lacked in numbers, they made up for in superior arms. In 1724, Agaja conquered Allada, the origin for the royal family according to oral tradition, in 1727 he conquered Whydah; this increased size of the kingdom along the Atlantic coast, increased power made Dahomey into a regional power. The result was near constant warfare with the main regional state, the Oyo Empire, from 1728 until 1740; the warfare with the Oyo empire resulted in Dahomey assuming a tributary status to the Oyo empire.

Tegbesu spelled as Tegbessou, was King of Dahomey, in present-day Benin, from 1740 until 1774. Tegbesu was not the oldest son of King Agaja, but was selected following his father's death after winning a succession struggle with a brother. King Agaja had expanded the Kingdom of Dahomey during his reign, notably conquering Whydah in 1727; this increased both domestic dissent and regional opposition. Tegbessou ruled over Dahomey at a point where it needed to increase its legitimacy over those who it had conquered; as a result, Tegbesu is credited with a number of administrative changes in the kingdom in order to establish the legitimacy of the kingdom. The slave trade increased during Tegbessou's reign and began to provide the largest part of the income for the king. In addition, Tegbesu's rule is the one with the first significant kpojito or mother of the leopard with Hwanjile in that role; the kpojito became a prominently important person in Dahomey royalty. Hwanjile, in particular, is said to have changed the religious practices of Dahomey by creating two new deities and more tying worship to that of the king.

According to one oral tradition, as part of the tribute owed by Dahomey to Oyo, Agaja had to give to Oyo one of his sons. The story claims that only Hwanjile, of all of Agaja's wives, was willing to allow her son to go to Oyo; this act of sacrifice, according to the oral tradition made Tegbesu, was favored by Agaja. Agaja told Tegbesu that he was the future king, but his brother Zinga was still the official heir; the kingdom fought Second Franco-Dahomean War with France. The kingdom was reduced and made a French protectorate in 1894. In 1904 the area became part of French Dahomey. In 1958 French Dahomey became the self-governing colony called the Republic of Dahomey and gained full independence in 1960, it was renamed in 1991 the Republic of Benin. The Dahomey kingship exists as a ceremonial role to this day. Early writings, predominantly written by European slave traders presented the kingdom as an absolute monarchy led by a despotic king. However, these depictions were deployed as arguments by different sides in the slave trade debates in the United Kingdom, an

Michael Collica

Michael Collica is a former Australian rules footballer who played with Hawthorn and the West Coast Eagles in the Australian Football League. Playing with East Fremantle in the WAFL, Collica was hampered by hamstring problems early in his career but had a good 1998 season when he was a half back flanker in their premiership winning team. Hawthorn picked him up with the 20th selection of the 1998 AFL Draft and he played every game in his debut season matching up against taller forwards, he found himself out of favour with new coach Peter Schwab in 2000 and at the end of the year was traded to West Coast along with Richard Taylor, in return for pick 21 in the draft, which Hawthorn used on Nick Ries. Under coach Ken Judge, in charge of Hawthorn when he started his league career, Collica proved a durable player at half back, he was a consistent contributor in his first season in gold. He finished runner-up to Ben Cousins in the club champion award; the following year he again played every game, including an elimination final against Essendon.

He did not miss any of the 45 games which West Coast played in 2001 and 2002. After an injury-interrupted start to 2003 Collica added only 5 more games to his total, with his 50th game for West Coast coming in a late-season win over Melbourne, he was not able to force his way into the side. After being delisted following an injury plagued 2004 season, Collica continued his career at East Fremantle before retiring in 2006. Collica played a total of 76 games and kicked 18 goals for East Fremantle between 1996 and 2006

List of villages in China

This is a list of villages in China. A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. In China, an administrative village is a type fifth-level administrative division, underneath a township, county and province. There are more than six hundred thousand administrative villages in China; some villages are not administrative villages but natural villages, which are not administrative divisions. The below list is divided by province, ideally lists the name of the village followed by the three higher-administrative divisions to which it belongs administratively. Cuandixia, Mentougou Huanghuacheng, Huairou Taitou, former village in Gaocun, Wuqing List of village-level divisions of Hebei Donglü, Donglü, Baoding Shengyou, Baoding Taizicheng, Chongli, Zhangjiakou List of village-level divisions of Shanxi Daiyang village, Dingxiang, Xinzhou Dingcun, Xiangfen, Linfen Xinguangwu, Shanyin, Shuozhou In addition to villages, a gaqa is another type of fifth-level administrative division, found only in Inner Mongolia.

Hanggai, Tumot Left Banner, Hohhot Former Pingdingshan, Fushun Fangchuan, Hunchun, Yanbian Sanjiazi, Fuyu, Qiqihar Huaxi, Wuxi Wangtan, Sihong, Suqian Zhufan, Donghai, Lianyungang Fujiang, Changshan, Quzhou Huangnitang, Tianma, Quzhou Shangjing, Wucheng, Jinhua Xinye Village, Jiande, Hangzhou Yuanjia'ao, Fenghua, Ningbo Zhuge, Lanxi, Jinhua Hongcun, Hongcun, Yi, Huangshan Xidi, Xidi, Yi, Huangshan Xiaogang, Chuzhou Qiaodou, Licheng, Putian Sanji, Shaowu, Nanping Xiaori, Xiuyu, Putian List of village-level divisions of Shandong Nanjusi, Laizhou, Yantai Shui Dong, Luohe, Ju County, Rizhao Xia Tun, Guozhuang, Ju County, Rizhao Zhuangjiashan, Ju, Rizhao Zhujiayu, Zhangqiu, Jinan Dingzhai, Luoning, Luoyang Nanjie, Linying, Luohe Shangfeng, Biyang, Zhumadian List of village-level divisions of Hubei Changqi, Hongjiang, Huaihua Ganzi Village, Hanpu Subdistrict, Yuelu District, Changsha Guoliang Village, Wangcheng, Changsha Paibi, Huayuan, Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Zhangguying Village, Yueyang, Yueyang Boshe, Lufeng, Shanwei Cuiheng, Zhongshan Dongzhou, Shanwei Fengjian, Shunde, Foshan Shangba, Wengyuan, Shaoguan Taishi, Nansha, Guangzhou Wangtang, Sihui, Zhaoqing Wukan, Lufeng, Shanwei Xiqi, Taishan, Jiangmen Wangtang, Lingchuan, Guilin Most counties in Hainan are not subordinate to a prefecture-level subdivision, so some entries below list only the town and county-level divisions to which the village belongs.

Luokan, Qiongzhong Tianweiban, Wenchang Tree Island, Yongxing Dao, Sansha Yagong Island, Yongxing Dao, Sansha List of village-level divisions of Chongqing Zhongdong, Anshun Baishuitai, Bamê, Foshan, Dêqên, Dêqên Mijiazhuang, Baoxiu, Honghe Dangjia, Hancheng, Weinan Hongliutan, Yuyang, Yulin Tai'an, Jingyuan, Baiyin Zhelaizhai, Jinchang Taktser, Ping'an, Haidong Yanglingang Ethnic villages of the People's Republic of China Index of China-related articles List of cities in China List of cities in China by population Outline of China Villages of the People's Republic of China


Mapledurwell is a village in Hampshire, England located south east of Basingstoke. The name Mapledurwell means'maple tree spring.' Recorded in the Domesday Book, the land was held by Anschill for Edward the Confessor. From 1086 it became the sole Hampshire estate of Hugh de Port, covering the parishes of Newnham, Kent, Up Nately and Andwell. Forfeited by Adam de Port in 1172, after the King gave the manor to Alan Basset, it was transferred to Hugh de Despenser in 1306, hanged by Queen Isabel in 1326. Returned to the Despenser family in 1337, it remained in their possession for two centuries. In 1528 William Frost of Avington granted the manor to Corpus Christi College, which remained the major land owner until 1839; this long period of ownership resulted in the continuation of small tenant farm holdings, hence the late enclosure of the farmlands, retention of an open land setting and older "twisty" road layout. The present area of allotment land was awarded to the village under and Enclosure act of June 1863.

The opening of the Basingstoke Canal from 1778, which ran through the northern half of Up Nateley, the expansion of the nearby brickworks brought many industrial jobs to the area. The village of Mapledurwell is part of the civil parish of Mapledurwell and Up Nately and is part of the Basing ward of Basingstoke and Deane borough council; the borough council is a Non-metropolitan district of Hampshire County Council. John Hare, Jean Morrin and Stan Wright The Victoria History of Hampshire: Mapledurwell Institute of Historical Research, 2012 ISBN 1905165897 ISBN 978-1905165896 Mapledurwell parish council History of Mapledurwell Mapledurwell Map Conservation Area Appraisal: Mapledurwell Hampshire Treasures: Volume 2 pages 177, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185St MarySt Mary, Mapledurwell MAPLEDURWELL, St. Mary Hampshire Stained Glass Windows at St. Mary, Hampshire

Matrix Chernoff bound

For certain applications in linear algebra, it is useful to know properties of the probability distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a finite sum of random matrices. Suppose is a finite sequence of random matrices. Analogous to the well-known Chernoff bound for sums of scalars, a bound on the following is sought for a given parameter t: Pr The following theorems answer this general question under various assumptions. All of these theorems can be found in, as the specific application of a general result, derived below. A summary of related works is given. Consider a finite sequence of fixed, self-adjoint matrices with dimension d, let be a finite sequence of independent standard normal or independent Rademacher random variables. For all t ≥ 0, Pr ≤ d ⋅ e − t 2 / 2 σ 2 where σ 2 = ‖ ∑ k A k 2 ‖. Consider a finite sequence of fixed, self-adjoint matrices with dimension d 1 × d 2, let be a finite sequence of independent standard normal or independent Rademacher random variables. Define the variance parameter σ 2 = max.

For all t ≥ 0, Pr ≤ ⋅ e − t 2 / 2 σ 2. The classical Chernoff bounds concern the sum of independent and uniformly bounded random variables. In the matrix setting, the analogous theorem concerns a sum of positive-semidefinite random matrices subjected to a uniform eigenvalue bound. Consider a finite sequence of independent, self-adjoint matrices with dimension d. Assume that each random matrix satisfies X k ⪰ 0 and λ max ≤ R surely. Define μ min = λ min and μ max = λ max. Pr ≤ d ⋅ [ e − δ

Kaviyoor Ponnamma

Kaviyoor Ponnamma is an Indian film actress who appears in Malayalam films and television. She began her career performing in theatre dramas before foraying into cinema, she has acted in TV serials and commercials and has playback singing credits in few films. Ponnamma is a four-time Kerala State Film Award for Second Best Actress winner, her sister Kaviyoor Renuka was an actress. As a five-year-old, she used to sing in stage shows, she did not see many movies. She started acting in dramas when she was 14 years old, starting off with Mooladhanam of Thoppil Bhasi. After five years, came her first movie Kudumbini, in which she did the title role of the mother of two kids, she was born to T. P. Damodharan and Gauri, as the eldest of seven children, on 4 January 1945 in Kaviyoor, Travancore, she has six siblings in which Kaviyoor Renuka, her younger sister, was an actress. Ponnamma was married to film producer Maniswami; the couple has a daughter Bindhu, settled in the United States. Her husband Maniswami died in 2011.

The roles of Kaviyoor Ponnamma-Mohanlal duo as mother and son are popular in Malayalam movies. Kerala State Film Awards: Second Best Actress – 1971 – Different films Second Best Actress – 1972 – Theertha Yathra Second Best Actress – 1973 – Different films Second Best Actress – 1994 – Thenmavin KombathuFilm City Magazine- Chalachitra Ratnam' Title - 2006 Pappanamkode Lakshmanan Award - 2006 O Madhavan Award - 2009 Bharath Murali Award - 2012 Kala Ratna award - EV Kala Mandalam - 2013 PK Rosy Award - 2015 Good Knight Film and Business Awards - 2017 Gurupranam - Honour by Malayalam Cine Technicians’ Association - 2013 Honour by KSFDC - 2015 Honour by Kerala State Film Awards - 2016 Felicitation by Kerala State Film Awards - 2017 Kausalya Vandanam programme Honour - 2017 Kalaiselvam Award - Government of Tamil Nadu Honour by Kaviyoor Panchayat DLSA Honour 1963 - "Kaavilamme Karinkali" - Kaattumaina 1968 - "Methikkalathile" - Velutha Kathreena 1972 - "Ambike Jagadambike" - Theerthayaathra 1973 - "Mangalaam Kaavile" - Dharmayudham 1982 - "Thushaaramanikal" - Illakkangal 1982 - "Palathum Paranju" - Chiriyo Chiri 1999 - "Unknown" - Pallavur Devanarayanan 2001 - "Unnikkanna - Kakkakuyil Gauri Amme Mahamayee Thatteem Mutteem - Cameo appearance Ramayanam Kathayile Rajakumari Gajarajan Guruvayoor Kesavan Sree Ayappanum Vavarum Vishudha thomasleeha Chandrettanum Shobedathiyum Krishnakripaasaagaram Pakal Mazha Manthrakodi Alilathali Swantham Malootty Manassariyathe Dambathya geethangal Sthree 2 Ponnunjal Black and White Meera Akkarappacha Mandan Kunju Kalanum Kandakashani Guruvayoor Sree Krishna Darsanam - Devotional show Mooladhanam Puthiya Akasham Puthiya Bhoomi Janani Janmbhoomi Doctor "Vellilam Kaattilolichu Kalikkuvan" "Pookkaara Pootharumo" "Onappooviliyil" "Kaalchilambil" "Oru vazhithaarayil" "Pottichirichu" "Mannil Piranna" "Mulchedikkaattil" "Vala Vala" Ente Malayalam Sreeramajapam Makam - Ellam Ente Chottanikkara Amma - Krishna Krishna Hare Hare - Home Sweet Home JB Junction News Hour Movies Comedy Super Nite Comedy Super Nite 2 Kathayillithu Jeevitham Kayyoppu Ponnamma Manssu THurakkunnu Malayalee House On Record Mukhamukham Samagamam FM Rainbow Badayi Bungalow Female Film Festival Women in Action programm Onam Cooking Show Thiranottam Top Talk CN Vlogs Onam 2019 Kayyur Film Nithyaharitham Book release Ee Vazhitharayil Charithram Enniloode International Children’s Film Festival of Kerala Mathrusparsham KSFDC Valthsallyam Mothers’ Day programme K.

G. Jayan Felicitation Aanachamayam Thombil Palace Samrakshana Samiti Programme Lohithadas Award Function 65th Hindu Religious Meet Interview Onam Thoughts Ammakkorumma Amma Ponnamma Cinemayile Amma Ponnamma Mohanam 2016 Limelight Anjaloonjal Attukal festival Oru Vattam Koodi Stall at Desam Children's day Magic Show Prem Nazir film festival Media Award Presentation Swantham Gramam Sundara Gramam Amruthageethangal Film Supporting Artistes’ Welfare Association Good Knight Film and Business Awards 2017 Annorikkal Nere Chovve Lal Salam Madhuram Madhuram Onam Comedy Stars Onathammamar Star Singer Red FM Malayalam Music Awards Thanima Cultural Festival Ormayile Ponnonam JC Daniel Award - Jury Katha Ithuvare Amma Nakshathram Reporter Live Prem Nazir Foundation Award 50 years of Vellithirayile Perunthachan Janaseva Sisu Bhavan Snehaveedu Honour to IV Sasi Minnalai Television Award Night Velicham Intensive Educational Development Project Vishu Interview Run Kerala, Run Golden Jubilee celebrations of the formation of the State Krishna Jayanthi Hiroshima Day Programme Jubilee Fete of the Neeravil Prakash Kala Kendram Bharathan’s 10th death anniversary Kaviyoor Ponnamma on IMDb Kaviyoor Ponnamma at MSI