Fleet Street is a major street in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall and the River Fleet from which the street was named. Having been an important through route since Roman times, businesses were established along the road during the Middle Ages. Senior clergy lived in Fleet Street during this period where there are several churches including Temple Church and St Bride's. Fleet Street became known for printing and publishing at the start of the 16th century and it became the dominant trade so that by the 20th century most British national newspapers operated from here. Much of the industry moved out in the 1980s after News International set up cheaper manufacturing premises in Wapping, but some former newspaper buildings are listed and have been preserved; the term Fleet Street remains a metonym for the British national press, pubs on the street once frequented by journalists remain popular.
Fleet Street has a significant number of monuments and statues along its length, including the dragon at Temple Bar and memorials to a number of figures from the British press, such as Samuel Pepys and Lord Northcliffe. The street is mentioned in several works by Charles Dickens and is where the murderous barber Sweeney Todd lived. Fleet Street is named after the River Fleet, which runs from Hampstead to the River Thames at the western edge of the City of London, it was established by the Middle Ages. In the 13th century, it was known as Fleet Bridge Street, in the early 14th century it became known as Fleet Street; the street runs east from Temple Bar, the boundary between the Cities of London and Westminster, as a continuation of the Strand from Trafalgar Square. It crosses Chancery Fetter Lane to reach Ludgate Circus by the London Wall; the road ahead is Ludgate Hill. The street numbering runs consecutively from west to east south-side and east to west north-side, it links the medieval boundaries of the City after the latter was extended.
The section of Fleet Street between Temple Bar and Fetter Lane is part of the A4, a major road running west through London, although it once ran along the entire street and eastwards past St Paul's Churchyard towards Cannon Street. The nearest London Underground stations are Temple, Chancery Lane, Blackfriars tube/mainline station and the City Thameslink railway station. London Bus routes 4, 11, 15, 23, 26, 76 and 172 run along the full length of Fleet Street, while route 341 runs between Temple Bar and Fetter Lane. Fleet Street was established as a thoroughfare in Roman London and there is evidence that a route led west from Ludgate by 200 AD. Local excavations revealed remains of a Roman amphitheatre near Ludgate on what was Fleet Prison, but other accounts suggest the area was too marshy for regular inhabitation by the Romans; the Saxons did not occupy the Roman city but established Lundenwic further west around what is now Aldwych and the Strand. Many prelates lived around the street during the Middle Ages, including the Bishops of Salisbury and St Davids and the Abbots of Faversham, Tewkesbury and Cirencester.
Tanning of animal hides became established on Fleet Street owing to the nearby river, though this increased pollution leading to a ban on dumping rubbish by the mid-14th century. Many taverns and brothels were established along Fleet Street and have been documented as early as the 14th century. Records show that Geoffrey Chaucer was fined two shillings for attacking a friar in Fleet Street, though modern historians believe this is apocryphal. An important landmark in Fleet Street during the late Middle Ages was a conduit, the main water supply for the area; when Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen following her marriage to Henry VIII in 1533, the conduit flowed wine instead of water. By the 16th century, Fleet Street, along with much of the City, was chronically overcrowded, a Royal proclamation in 1580 banned any further building on the street; this had little effect, construction continued timber. Prince Henry's Room over the Inner Temple gate dates from 1610 and is named after Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of James I, who did not survive to succeed his father.
The eastern part of the street was destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666, despite attempts to use the River Fleet to preserve it. Fire damage reached to about Fetter Lane, the special tribunal of the'Fire Courts' was held at Clifford's Inn, an inn of Chancery at the edge of the extent of the fire, to arbitrate on claimants' rights. Properties were rebuilt in the same style as before the fire. During the early-18th century, a notorious upper-class gang known as the Mohocks operated on the street causing regular violence and vandalism. Mrs Salmon's Waxworks was established at Prince Henry's Room in 1711, it had a display of macabre and black-humoured exhibits, including the execution of Charles I. The waxworks were a favourite haunt of William Hogarth, survived into the 19th century; the Apollo Society, a music club, was established in 1733 at the Devil Tavern on Fleet Street by composer Maurice Greene. In 1763, supporters of John Wilkes, arrested for libel against the Earl of Bute, burned a jackboot in the centre of the street in protest against Bute.
It led to violent demonstrations and rioting in 1769 and 1794. Tanning and other industries declined after the River Fleet was routed underground in 1766; the street was widened during the late-19th century, when Temple Bar was demolished and Ludgate Circus was constructed. The headquarters of the Anti-C
James Douglas (journalist)
James Douglas was a British critic, newspaper editor and author. Douglas edited The Star from 1908 to 1920 the Sunday Express until 1931, he was a supporter of censorship, called for several books to be banned, most notably The Well of Loneliness. Works by James Douglas at Project Gutenberg Works by or about James Douglas at Internet Archive
Owen Williams (engineer)
Sir Evan Owen Williams was an English engineer and architect, known for being the principal engineer for Gravelly Hill Interchange as well as a number of key modernist buildings, including the Express Building in Manchester and Boots D10 Building in Nottingham. An engineer, he was not classically trained as an architect but showed an exceptional degree of proficiency with both flair and functionality in his buildings which were considered far ahead of their time during the 1930s. Williams believed architecture and engineering must be inseparable. Williams born at 16 Caroline Terrace in Tottenham, England, on 20 March 1890, he was the son of a Welsh-born grocer and Mary Roberts. Both farmers, they moved to London some years before Owen was born. Williams had two brothers. Mary Kate died young. Owen had an older brother, Robert Osian, a successful banker and came out of retirement to manage the finances of his brother's engineering practice, launched in 1940. Williams excelled in mathematics, he was apprenticed to the Electrical Tramways Co. in London in 1907 and at the same time did an engineering degree at the University of London.
In 1912 Williams assumed a position as designer with the Trussed Concrete Company. Seven years he started his own consulting firm, Williams Concrete Structures, he was appointed chief consulting civil engineer to the British Empire Exhibition which included the old Wembley Stadium. The commission included the Palace of Industry building in Brent, the first building in the United Kingdom to use concrete as the exterior; the building was listed in 1997 in recognition of this but was delisted in 2004 after an appeal by a property developer. Williams was recognised for his achievements and received a knighthood in 1924. Through the exhibition, Williams met its architect, Maxwell Ayrton, they worked together on the design of Williams's bridges in Scotland. Williams designed his buildings as functional structures sheathed in decorative facades. More an engineer than an architect, he produced a series of reinforced concrete buildings during the period between the wars. After World War II he worked on developing the first plan for Britain's motorway system.
His other works include the Dorchester Hotel, the Boots pharmaceutical factory in Beeston, the M1 motorway and the Pioneer Health Centre in Peckham, south London. In the 1940s the company became Sir Owen Williams and Partners; this followed the building of the Daily Express Building, which Williams designed. Contrary to popular belief, the Manchester building was the only one of the three Express Buildings which Williams designed – the others in Glasgow and London were designed by Ellis and Clark. Although Williams was more of an engineer than an architect, the Express Building in Manchester was lauded for its architecture and demonstrated his proficiency as an architect, his nephew is quoted as saying "Just fancy Taid taking all that time over the trip to Barnet, when 60 years his Grandson was head of Civil Engineering for the M1....."Owen Williams' grandson, Richard Williams, was chief executive of the Owen Williams Group until its acquisition by Amey in 2006. 1913–14 – Resident engineer for Trussed Concrete Steel Company at Patent Fuel Works, Swansea Docks 1914–16 – Chief estimating engineer, Trussed Concrete Steel Company 1916–17 – Assistant aeroplane designer, Wells Aviation 1917–18 – Various ships and slipways, Dorset 1921–24 – British Empire Exhibition buildings at Wembley Park with Maxwell Aryton 1921–24 – Wembley Stadium with Maxwell Aryton 1924–25 – Lea Valley Viaduct and Bridge with Maxwell Aryton 1924–25 – Parc des Attractions, Paris 1924–26 – Findhorn Bridge with Maxwell Aryton 1924–27 – Road Bridge, Shepherd Leys Wood 1924–29 – Bournemouth Pavilion with Home & Knight 1925–26 – Spey Bridge, Newtonmore... architect: Maxwell Aryton 1925–26 – Crubenmore and Loch Alvie Bridges... architect: Maxwell Aryton 1925–26 – Duntocher Bridge... architect: Maxwell Aryton 1925–26 – Belfast Water Tower, Northern Ireland 1925–26 – Wansford Bridge, Huntingdonshire with Maxwell Aryton 1926–28 – Dalnamein Bridge with Maxwell Aryton 1926–28 – Carr Bridge with Maxwell Aryton 1926–28 – Lochy Bridge with Maxwell Aryton 1927–28 – Brora Bridge 1927-28 – Clapton Stadium 1927–30 – Montrose Bridge 1928–29 – Pont-Rhyd-Owen Bridge 1928–30 – Wadham Road Viaduct 1928–30 – Harnham Bridge, Wiltshire 1928–30 – Pilkington's Warehouse, London 1929–30 – The Dorchester Hotel proposal 1929–31 – Wakefield Bridge 1929–31 – Llechryd Bridge proposal 1929–31 – Daily Express, London as engineer with architects H. O. Ellis & Clarke 1930–32 – Boots Packed Wet Goods Factory 1931–33 – Sainsburys Factory and warehouse 1932–34 – Cumberland Garage and Car Park 1933–34 – Empire Pool, Wembley Park 1933–35 – Pioneer Health Centre, London 1933–36 – Residential flats, Stanmore 1935–37 – Provincial Newspaper office, London 1935–38 – Odhams Printing Works 1935–38 – Boots Packed Dry Goods Factory 1935–39 – Daily Express Building, Manchester 1936–37 – Lilley & Skinner office and warehouse extension 1936–38 – Dollis Hill Synagogue 1936–39 – Scottish Daily Express Building, Glasgow 1938–39 – Daily News Garage, London 1939–41 – Vickers-Armstrong Aircraft Factory completed by Oscar Faber & Partners 1944–45 – Wilvan Houses 1944–45 – Mobile home 1945–67 – Newport By-pass 1950–55 – BOAC Maintenance Headquarters, Heathrow 1951–59 – M1 Motorway phase one 1953–66 – Port Tal
A lobby is a room in a building used for entry from the outside. Sometimes referred to as a foyer, reception or an entrance hall, it is a large, vast room or complex of rooms adjacent to the auditorium, it is a repose area for spectators and place of venues used before performance and during intermissions but as a place of celebrations or festivities after performance. Since the mid-1980s, there has been a growing trend to think of lobbies as more than just ways to get from the door to the elevator but instead as social spaces and places of commerce; some research has been done to develop scales to measure lobby atmosphere to improve hotel lobby design. Many office buildings and skyscrapers go to great lengths to decorate their lobbies to create the right impression and convey an image. Supertall skyscrapers can have one or more of what is known as a sky lobby, an intermediate floor where people can change from an express elevator that stops only at the sky lobby to a local elevator which stops at every floor within a segment of the building.
A foyer in a house is a small entry area or room by the front door. Other public rooms such as the living room, dining room, family room attach to it, along with any main stairway, it was intended as an "airlock", separating the fireplace-heated rooms from the front entrance, where cold air infiltration made for cold drafts and low temperatures. It is used for outer garment and umbrella storage for both residents and guests. Atrium Door Entryway The dictionary definition of foyer at Wiktionary Media related to Lobbies at Wikimedia Commons
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Lubyanka is the popular name for the headquarters of the FSB and affiliated prison on Lubyanka Square in Meshchansky District of Moscow, Russia. It is a large Neo-Baroque building with a facade of yellow brick designed by Alexander V. Ivanov in 1897 and augmented by Aleksey Shchusev from 1940 to 1947, it was the national headquarters of the KGB. Lubyanka was built in 1898 as the headquarters of the All-Russia Insurance Company, it is noted for its beautiful parquet floors and pale green walls. Belying its massiveness, the edifice avoids an impression of heroic scale: isolated Palladian and Baroque details, such as the minute pediments over the corner bays and the central loggia, are lost in an endlessly repeating palace facade where three bands of cornices emphasize the horizontal lines. A clock is centered in the uppermost band of the facade. Following the Bolshevik Revolution, the structure was seized by the government for the headquarters of the secret police called the Cheka. In Soviet Russian jokes, it was referred to as the tallest building in Moscow, since Siberia could be seen from its basement.
During the Great Purge, the offices became cramped due to staff numbers. In 1940, Aleksey Shchusev was commissioned to enlarge the building, his new design doubled the Lubyanka's size horizontally, with the original structure taking up the left half of the facade. In addition he added another storey and extended the structure by incorporating backstreet buildings. Shchusev's design accentuated Neo-Renaissance detailing, but only the right part of the facade was constructed under his direction in the 1940s, due to the war and other hindrances; this asymmetric facade survived intact until 1983, when the original structure was reconstructed to match the new build, at the urging of Communist Party General Secretary and former KGB Director Yuri Andropov in accordance with Shchusev's plans. Although the Soviet secret police changed its name many times, its headquarters remained in this building. Secret police chiefs from Lavrenty Beria to Yuri Andropov used the same office on the third floor, which looked down on the statue of Cheka founder Felix Dzerzhinsky.
A prison at the ground floor of the building figures prominently in Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's classic study of the Soviet police state, The Gulag Archipelago. Famous inmates held and interrogated there include Sidney Reilly, Raoul Wallenberg, Ion Antonescu, Genrikh Yagoda, János Esterházy, Alexander Dolgun, Rochus Misch and Walter Ciszek. After the dissolution of the KGB in 1991, Lubyanka became the headquarters of the Border Guard Service of Russia, houses the Lubyanka prison, is one directorate of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation. In addition, a museum of the KGB was opened to the public. In 1990, the Solovetsky Stone was erected across from Lubyanka to commemorate the victims of political repression. In 2015, the Lubyanka's front door was set on fire by a performance artist. Media related to KGB headquarters, Moscow at Wikimedia Commons KGB/FSB museum – Historically-demonstrative Hall
Sir James William Alexander Burnet, known as Alastair Burnet, was a British journalist and broadcaster, best known for his work in news and current affairs programmes, including a long career with ITN as chief presenter of the flagship News at Ten for eighteen years. Burnet was a prominent print journalist who edited The Economist and Daily Express. Burnet was born in Sheffield, West Riding of Yorkshire, to Scottish parents on 12 July 1928, he was educated at the Leys School, a boys' independent school in Cambridge, before reading history at Worcester College, Oxford. Upon graduating, Burnet began work as a reporter for The Glasgow Herald, before joining The Economist in 1958 as a sub-editor, leader writer, subsequently, associate editor, he switched to television in 1963, becoming political editor for ITN. While reporting, Burnet became a relief newscaster and worked on ITN's current affairs programmes including Roving Report and Dateline Westminster, he was the main anchor for the ITV network's coverage of the 1964, 1966 and 1970 General Elections and the Apollo 11 Moon landing in 1969.
Burnet left ITN in 1965 to rejoin The Economist as editor, but continued broadcasting as a reporter and interviewer for Associated-Rediffusion's weekly current affairs programme This Week. He returned part-time to ITN in 1967 to launch News at Ten, presenting the first programme on 3 July alongside Andrew Gardner, presented the short lived topical interview series Man in the News in 1970, he switched to the BBC in 1972 to report and present for Panorama and Midweek and to anchor coverage of the February and October 1974 General Election programmes covering the wedding of Princess Anne and Mark Phillips. He continued to edit The Economist until 1974, where he raised the circulation by 60%, he joined the Daily Express as editor, but resigned 18 months later. He rejoined ITN in June 1976 as the main presenter for the newly relaunched early evening bulletin News at 5:45, before returning to News at Ten in March 1978. Four years Burnet became an associate editor for the programme and joined the ITN board of directors.
He continued to present coverage of political events including the 1979, 1983 and 1987 General Elections, by-elections and American presidential elections. Burnet presented coverage of the royal family, commentating on the weddings of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer in 1981, Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson in 1986 and other state occasions, he wrote and presented several Royal documentaries including In Person: The Prince and Princess of Wales, A Royal Day and The Royal Family in Scotland. Outside of ITN, he was a presenter and interviewer for Thames Television's TV Eye. In February 1990, Burnet resigned from the ITN board amid a dispute over the future ownership of the company, during which his own proposals to restructure the organisation were rejected, he retired from ITN as newscaster and associate editor 18 months presenting his final edition of News at Ten on 29 August 1991. Following his retirement, he did not make any further appearances on television or write for the press. In part, this was because of his being diagnosed with senile dementia, following which the requirement for twenty four hour nursing resulted in his having to reside in the Beatrice Place Nursing Home in Kensington, London.
His condition meant that he felt comfortable only with close friends, including his wife, former ITN News director, Diana Edwards-Jones. Burnet died peacefully in the early hours of 20 July 2012, at his nursing home in Kensington, where he had been living following a series of strokes. Paying tribute, Andrew Neil referred to Burnet as "Britain's greatest broadcaster". In his will he left £2 million, the majority of, bequeathed to his wife; the satirical TV puppet show Spitting Image portrayed Burnet as a cringing, fawning royalist, forever trying to suck up to the nearest available member of the Royal Family. The satirical magazine Private Eye referred to him as "Arslicker Burnet". Burnet was a supporter of Scottish football clubs Partick Thistle. Burnet was knighted in the 1984 New Year Honours "for services to journalism and broadcasting", he won numerous awards, including the BAFTA Richard Dimbleby award three times in 1966, 1970 and 1979. ITV launches court bid over news BBC News, 27 July 2000 "My mentor: Newsreader Alastair Stewart on the anchor that steadied his career", The Guardian, 2 February 2008 Alastair Burnet on IMDb Andrew Neil's eulogy for Burnet, November 2012