Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
FleishmanHillard Inc. is a public relations and marketing agency founded and based in St. Louis, Missouri, it was acquired by Omnicom Group in 1997. The company was founded in 1946 by Bob Hillard. In 1994, the company expanded its operations to the Asia Pacific region with an office in Beijing. In May 2013, the company rebranded its name to FleishmanHillard and launched the slogan "the Power of True"; as of August 2013, the company had 111 offices in 29 countries across the Americas, Asia Pacific, Middle East, Africa. FleishmanHillard website
AIA Guide to New York City
The AIA Guide to New York City by Norval White, Elliot Willensky, Fran Leadon is an extensive catalogue with descriptions and photographs of significant and noteworthy architecture throughout the five boroughs of New York City. Published in 1967, the fifth edition, with new co-author Fran Leadon, was published in 2010. American Institute of Architects Architecture of New York City Notes Fifth edition on Google Books Fourth edition on Google Books
Visiting Nurse Service of New York
Founded in 1893 by nursing pioneer Lillian D. Wald and Mary M. Brewster, the Visiting Nurse Service of New York is one the largest not-for-profit home- and community-based health care organization in the United States, serving the five boroughs of New York City. Lillian Wald, the founder of public health nursing, began her mission on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. At the time, this was the most densely populated area in the world. In 1893 Wald founded the Nurses' Settlement, which changed its name to the Henry Street Settlement. In 1895, banker and philanthropist Jacob Schiff purchased the Federal style townhouse at 265 Henry Street for the new organization to use, expansion continued to adjacent buildings over the next few years. Henry Street Settlement funded the first nurse in the New York City public schools—an innovation that led to the creation of a citywide public school nurse program, the first in the world. By 1940, nearly 300 visiting nurses were providing medical care throughout New York City.
Henry Street Settlement's nurse service became the Visiting Nurse Service of New York. The VNSNY workforce consists of licensed registered nurses. VNSNY has received more than 90 national and regional awards from the American Nurses Association, American Public Health Association, Visiting Nurse Associations of America, New York Academy of Medicine, New York Times Tribute to Nurses, New York University College of Nursing, Home Care Association of New York State, Crain’s New York Business, Public Health Association of New York City, the national associations of Social Workers, Hispanic Nurses, Chinese American Nurses, among many others. Current President and CEO of Visiting Nurse Service of New York is Marki Flannery; the company conducts research to increase the evidence base for health care at home, established the VNSNY Center for Home Care Policy & Research in 1993. Its IT innovations have been the subject of research VNSNY acts as a liaison between patient and government bodies such as the state and federal legislatures, as well as regulatory bodies such as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the New York State Department of Health and the Department of Insurance.
The company paid $35 million to the federal Medicaid program in order to settle a civil suit alleging it enrolled ineligible people into Medicaid plans, is defending allegations it claimed Medicaid and Medicare income for care ordered by doctors but never delivered. Visiting Nurse Association Visiting Nurse Service of New York Partners in Care VNSNY CHOICE
Superman (1978 film)
Superman is a 1978 superhero film directed by Richard Donner starring Christopher Reeve as Superman based on the DC Comics character of the same name. An international co-production between the United Kingdom, Switzerland and the United States, the film stars an ensemble cast featuring Marlon Brando, Gene Hackman, Christopher Reeve, Jeff East, Margot Kidder, Glenn Ford, Phyllis Thaxter, Jackie Cooper, Trevor Howard, Marc McClure, Terence Stamp, Valerie Perrine, Ned Beatty, Jack O'Halloran, Maria Schell, Sarah Douglas, it depicts Superman's origin, including his infancy as Kal-El of Krypton and his youthful years in the rural town of Smallville. Disguised as reporter Clark Kent, he adopts a mild-mannered disposition in Metropolis and develops a romance with Lois Lane, while battling the villainous Lex Luthor. Several directors, most notably Guy Hamilton, screenwriters, were associated with the project before Richard Donner was hired to direct. Tom Mankiewicz was given a "creative consultant" credit.
It was decided to film both Superman and its sequel Superman II with principal photography beginning in March 1977 and ending in October 1978. Tensions arose between Donner and the producers, a decision was made to stop filming the sequel, of which 75 percent had been completed, finish the first film; the most expensive film made up to that point with a budget of $55 million, Superman was released in December 1978 to critical and financial success. It received praise for Reeve's performance, was nominated for three Academy Awards, including Best Film Editing, Best Music, Best Sound, received a Special Achievement Academy Award for Visual Effects. Groundbreaking in its use of special effects and science fiction/fantasy storytelling, the film's legacy presaged the mainstream popularity of Hollywood's superhero film franchises. In 2017, Superman was inducted into the Library of Congress' National Film Registry. On the planet Krypton, Jor-El of the Kryptonian high council discovers the planet will soon be destroyed when its red supergiant sun goes supernova.
Despite his insistence, he fails to convince the other council members. To save his infant son, Kal-El, Jor-El launches him in a spaceship to Earth, a planet with a suitable atmosphere where his dense molecular structure will give him superhuman strength and other powers. Shortly after the launch, Krypton's sun explodes; the ship crash-lands on Earth near Kansas. Kal-El, now three years old, is found by Jonathan and Martha Kent, who are astonished when he lifts their truck, they take him back to their farm and raise him as their own, naming him Clark after Martha's maiden name. At 18, soon after Jonathan's death from a heart attack, Clark hears a psychic "call" and discovers a glowing green crystal in the remains of his spacecraft, it compels him to travel to the Arctic where it builds the Fortress of Solitude, resembling the architecture of Krypton. Inside, a hologram of Jor-El explains Clark's true origins, after 12 further years of educating him on his powers and his reason for being sent to Earth, he leaves the Fortress wearing a blue and red suit with a red cape and the House of El family crest emblazoned on his chest and becomes a reporter at the Daily Planet in Metropolis.
He develops a romantic attraction to coworker Lois Lane. Lois becomes involved in a helicopter accident. Clark uses his powers in public for the first time to save her, to the astonishment of the crowd gathered below, he goes on to thwart a jewel thief attempting to scale the Solow Building, captures robbers fleeing police through the Fulton Market by depositing their cabin cruiser on Wall Street, rescuing a girl's cat from a tree in Brooklyn Heights. He saves Air Force One after a lightning strike destroys the port outboard engine, making the "caped wonder" an instant celebrity. Clark visits Lois at her penthouse apartment the next night and takes her for a flight over the city, allowing her to interview him for an article in which she names him "Superman." Meanwhile, criminal genius Lex Luthor learns of a joint U. S. Army and U. S. Navy nuclear missile test, he buys hundreds of acres of worthless desert land out west and has the test's two 500 megaton missiles reprogrammed, one to detonate inside of the San Andreas Fault, the other, rather unintentionally, to detonate in an undisclosed location.
Knowing Superman could stop his plan, Lex deduces that a meteorite found in Addis Ababa is part of Krypton and is radioactive to Superman. After he and his accomplices Otis and Eve Teschmacher retrieve a piece of it, Luthor lures Superman to his underground lair and reveals his plan to cause everything west of the San Andreas Fault to sink into the Pacific Ocean, leaving Luthor's desert as the new West Coast. Luthor exposes him to a mineral from the meteor piece, that weakens Superman greatly. Luthor further taunts Superman by revealing the other missile is headed in the eastbound direction toward Hackensack, New Jersey. Teschmacher is horrified because her mother lives in Hackensack, but Luthor does not care and leaves Superman to die a slow death. Knowing his reputation for keeping his word, Teschmacher rescues Superman on the condition that he will stop the eastbound missile first. After Teschmacher frees him, Superman diverts the eastbound missile into outer space preventing him from reaching the westbound missile before
Third Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Its southern end is at Astor St. Mark's Place, it transitions into Cooper Square, further south, the Bowery, Chatham Square, Park Row. The Manhattan side ends at East 128th Street. Third Avenue is two-way from Cooper Square to 24th Street, but since July 17, 1960 has carried only northbound traffic while in Manhattan. However, the Third Avenue Bridge carries vehicular traffic in the opposite direction, allowing only southbound vehicular traffic, rendering the avenue non-continuous to motor vehicles between the boroughs; the street leaves Manhattan and continues into the Bronx across the Harlem River over the Third Avenue Bridge north of East 129th Street to East Fordham Road at Fordham Center, where it intersects with U. S. 1. It is one of the four streets that form The Hub, a site of both maximum traffic and architectural density, in the South Bronx. Like most urban streets, Third Avenue was unpaved until the late 19th century.
In May 1861, according to a letter to the editor of The New York Times, the street was the scene of practice marching for the poorly equipped troops in the 7th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment: "The men were not in uniform, but poorly dressed, — in many cases with flip-flap shoes. The business-like air with which they marched through the deep mud of the Third-avenue was the more remarkable." Portions of Third Avenue are served by several routes in Manhattan. Buses serving Third Avenue include the Lexington Avenues Line. Note that southbound M98, M101, M102, M103 service operates on Lexington Avenue north of East 24th Street. M98: between Hunter College and the Harlem River Drive M101 and M103: between Cooper Square and East 125th Street M102: between Cooper Square and East 116th StreetAlong the Bronx's Third Avenue run several bus routes: Bx2: between East 138th Street to East 149th Street Bx15: between East 149th Street and Fordham Plaza Bx21: between East 138th Street and Boston Road Third Avenue was the location of the Third Avenue Railroad, a horsecar line established in 1853 that evolved into one of the largest streetcar systems in Manhattan, the Bronx, Westchester County.
It was served by the Third Avenue elevated line, which operated from 1878 until 1955 in Manhattan, 1973 in the Bronx. The Bx55 replaced the Third Avenue Line in the Bronx in 1973. At the time the El was being torn down in Manhattan, there was a movement to rename the whole of Third Avenue in Manhattan "the Bouwerie", although it had never been part of the Bowery. Today, the Third Avenue – 149th Street station, Third Avenue – 138th Street station, the Third Avenue stations all are served by the New York City Subway. Notes Bibliography Nevius, Michelle & Nevius, Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City, New York: Free Press, ISBN 141658997X Third Avenue Elevated at forgotten-ny.com New York Songlines: Third Avenue
Norval Crawford White was an American architect, architectural historian and professor. He designed buildings throughout the U. S. but he is best known for his writing the AIA Guide to New York City. White was considered to be one of the great figures of New York architecture. White was born in 1926 to surgeon William Crawford White and social worker Caroline White, he went to the Allen-Stevenson School and Exeter. In 1958 he married Joyce L. Lee, they had four sons: William, Thomas and Alastair. Following two years on active duty with the United States Naval Reserve during World War II, White received a B. S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1949. He attended École des Beaux-Arts and earned a Master of Fine Arts from Princeton University School of Architecture in 1955. White resided in the neighborhood of Brooklyn Heights before moving to northwestern Connecticut in the early 1990s, he retired and lived in the commune of Roques in the French department of le Gers with his second wife, Camilla Crowe until his death on December 26, 2009.
In 1962, upon hearing of the imminent demolition of New York City's historic Pennsylvania Station and several other architects, including Willensky, founded AGBANY. They handed out fliers in protest. In 1967, White and Willensky proposed a guide to New York City architecture to the American Institute of Architects; the AIA Guide to New York City, a 464+ page guidebook featuring over 2600 buildings in its first edition The fourth edition of this guide was issued in 1999 without further contributions from Willensky, who had died in 1990. From 1968 to 1973, White worked as a partner-in-charge with Gruzen and Partners, on the development of the New York City Police Headquarters building. White was able to finalize the 5th edition of the AIA Guide before his death, published in 2010; as a professor, White taught architectural history and design, first at Cooper Union and from 1968 at the School of Architecture and Environmental Studies at the City College of New York, where he served as the founding chairman and where he continued to teach until he retired.
AIA Guide to New York City with Elliot Willensky. The Architecture Book New York: A Physical History The Guide to the Architecture of Paris Regarding the AIA Guide to NYC Amazon.com Metropolitan Home article greatbuildings.com quote of White/Willensky on the United States Custom House in NYC Archiplanet.org Architecture Week listing