Daily Office (Anglican)

Since the English Reformation, the Daily Office in Anglican churches has principally been the two daily services of Morning Prayer and Evening Prayer. These services are celebrated according to set forms contained in the various local editions of the Book of Common Prayer; the Daily Offices may lay people. In many Anglican provinces, clergy are required to pray the two main services daily; the Anglican practice of saying daily morning and evening prayer derives from the pre-Reformation canonical hours, of which seven were required to be said in churches and by clergy daily: Matins, Prime, Sext, None and Compline. This practice derived from the earliest centuries of Christianity, from the pre-Christian hours of prayer observed in the Jewish temple; the first Book of Common Prayer of 1549 radically simplified this arrangement, combining the first three services of the day into a single service called Mattins and the latter two into a single service called Evensong. The rest were abolished; the second edition of the Book of Common Prayer renamed these services to Morning Prayer and Evening Prayer and other made some minor alterations, setting the pattern of daily Anglican worship, unchanged in most cathedrals and other large churches since, continuing to the current edition of the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer of 1662.

In many Anglican provinces, ordained ministers are required to say Evening Prayer daily. Anglican religious communities have made the Daily Office a central part of their communal spiritual life, beginning with the community at Little Gidding established in the 17th century by Nicholas Ferrar. Regular use of the Morning and Evening Prayer of the Book of Common Prayer was a part of the "method" promoted by John Wesley and the early Methodist movement. Since the Oxford and ritualist movements of the 19th century, interest in the pre-Reformation practice of praying the office eight times a day has revived. Before his conversion to Roman Catholicism, the Tractarian priest John Henry Newman wrote in Tracts for the Times number 75 of the Roman Breviary's relation to the Church of England’s daily prayer practices, encouraging its adoption by Anglican priests; the praying of "little hours" Compline but a mid-day prayer office sometimes called Diurnum, in addition to the major services of Morning and Evening Prayer, has become common, is provided for by the current service books of the Episcopal Church in the United States and the Church of England.

The Anglican forms of the Daily Office have spread to other Christian traditions: as mentioned, the Anglican Morning and Evening Prayer services were a central part of the original Methodist practice. The popularity of choral Evensong has led to its adoption by some other churches around the world. In addition, since the Roman Catholic Church established the Pastoral Provision and the Anglican Use in the United States, continuing into the current personal ordinariates for former Anglicans who have joined the Roman Catholic church, forms of Morning and Evening Prayer based on the Anglican pattern have come into use among some Roman Catholics, contained in the Book of Divine Worship and its successor publications. Traditional Anglican worship of the Daily Office follows the patterns first set down in 1549 and 1552. Since the 20th-century liturgical movement, some Anglican churches have introduced new forms which are not based on this historic practice; this section will describe the traditional form, still used throughout the Anglican Communion.

The Book of Common Prayer has been described as "the Bible re-arranged for public worship": the core of the Anglican Daily Office services is entirely based on praying using the words of the Christian Bible itself, hearing readings from it. According to the traditional editions of the Book of Common Prayer since 1552, both Morning and Evening Prayer open with a lengthy prayer of confession and absolution, but many Anglican provinces including the Church of England and the American Episcopal Church now no longer require this at services according to the traditional forms; the traditional forms open with opening responses said between the officiating minister and the people, which are the same at every service throughout the year, taken from the pre-Reformation use: "O Lord, open thou our lips. Follows "O God, make speed to save us" with the response "O Lord, make haste to help us", a loose translation of the Deus, in adjutorium meum intende which begins every service in the pre-Reformation hours, followed by the Gloria Patri in English.

A major aspect of the Daily Office before the Reformation was the saying or singing of the Psalms, this was maintained in the reformed offices of Morning and Evening Prayer. Whereas for hundreds of years the church recited the entire psalter on a weekly basis, the traditional Book of Common Prayer foresees the whole psalter said over the longer time period of one month. At Morning Prayer, the first psalm said every day is Venite, exultemus Domino, Psalm 95, either in its entirety or with a shortened or altered ending. During Easter, the Easter Anthems replace it.

Syrian Americans

Syrian Americans are Americans of Syrian descent or background. Syrian Americans may be members of a number of differing ethnicities, including Arabs, Arameans, Syrian Jews, Syrian Turkmens and Circassians; the first significant wave of Syrian immigrants to arrive in the United States began in the 1880s. Many of the earliest Syrian Americans settled in New York City and Detroit. Immigration from Syria to the United States suffered a long hiatus after the United States Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1924, which restricted immigration. More than 40 years the Immigration Act of 1965, abolished the quotas and immigration from Syria to the United States saw a surge. An estimated 64,600 Syrians immigrated to the United States between 1961 and 2000. Memphis, Tennessee received the most Syrian refugees; the overwhelming majority of Syrian immigrants to the U. S. from 1880 to 1960 were Christian, a minority were Jewish, whereas Muslim Syrians arrived in the United States chiefly after 1965. According to the United States 2016 Census, there were 187,331 Americans who claimed Syrian ancestry, about 12% of the Arab population in the United States.

The first Syrian immigrants arrived in the United States from Ottoman Syria in the period between 1889 and 1914. Most of them came from Christian villages around Mount Lebanon, while around 5-10% were Muslims of different sects. A small number were Palestinians. According to historian Philip Hitti 900,000 "Syrians" arrived in the United States between 1899 and 1919. An estimated 1,000 official entries per year came from the governorates of Damascus and Aleppo, which are governorates in modern-day Syria, in the period between 1900 and 1916. Early immigrants settled in Eastern United States, in the cities of New York and Detroit and the Paterson, New Jersey area; until 1899, all migrants from the Ottoman Empire registered as "Turks" when entering the US. When "Syrian" became available as a designation at the turn of the 20th century. 3,708 migrants from the region registered as Syrians, only 28 as Turks. In the 1920s, the majority of immigrants from Mount Lebanon began to refer to themselves as Lebanese instead of "Syrians".

Syrians, like most immigrants to the United States, were motivated to pursue the American Dream of economic success. Many Christian Syrians had immigrated to the United States seeking religious freedom and an escape from Ottoman hegemony, to escape the massacres and bloody conflicts that targeted Christians in particular, after the 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war and the massacres of 1840 and 1845 and the Assyrian genocide. Thousands of immigrants returned to Syria after making money in the United States. Many settlers sent for their relatives. Although the number of Syrian immigrants was not sizable, the Ottoman government set constraints on emigration in order to maintain its populace in Greater Syria; the United States Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1924, which reduced Syrian immigration to the United States. However, the quotas were annulled by the Immigration Act of 1965, which opened the doors again to Syrian immigrants. 4,600 Syrians immigrated to the United States in the mid-1960s.

Due to the Arab-Israeli and religious conflicts in Syria during this period, many Syrians immigrated to the United States seeking a democratic haven, where they could live in freedom without political suppression. An estimated 64,600 Syrians immigrated to the United States in the period between 1961 and 2000, of which ten percent have been admitted under the refugee acts. According to the United States 2000 Census, there are 142,897 Americans of Syrian ancestry living in the United States. New York City has the highest concentration of Syrian Americans in the United States. Other urban areas, including Paterson, New Jersey, Dearborn, New Orleans, Cedar Rapids, Houston have large Syrian populations. Syrian Americans are numerous in Southern California and Arizona, many are descendants of farm laborers invited with their farm skills to irrigate the deserts in the early 20th century. Nashville has the largest Kurdish population in the United States, with many of them emigrating from Syria.. Many recent Syrian immigrants are medical doctors who studied at Damascus and Aleppo Universities and pursued their residencies and fellowships in the United States.

The traditional clothing of the first Syrian immigrants in the United States, along with their occupation as peddlers, led to some xenophobia. Scholars such as Oswaldo Truzzi have speculated that this work helped Syrian integration into the US by accelerating cultural contact and English language skills, it has been estimated. They and their children were negatively stigmatized as "street Arabs" or inaccurately assumed to be unmarried mothers or prostitutes. In 1907, Congressman John L. Burnett called Syrians “the most undesirable of the undesirable peoples of Asia Minor” and such stigmas appear again in a 1929 survey in Boston that associated Syrians with "lying and deception."In 1890 the writer Jacob Riis wrote How the Other Half Lives, a book focused on Syrian children, representing the children as pitiful but dangerous. In 1899 the National Conference on Charities declared children engaged in the street market to be equivalent to begging, opening the possibility that women street merchants with children could be deported.

However, Syrians reacted to assimilate into their new culture. Immigrants Anglicized their names, adopted the English language and common Christian denominations. Syrians did not congregate in

Westerly (Australian literary magazine)

Westerly is a literary magazine, produced at the University of Western Australia since 1956. It publishes two issues a year, in 2016 released its first online special issues; the journal maintains a specific focus on the Australian and Asian regions, but has published literary and cultural content from international authors. The magazine publishes fiction, cultural and scholarly essays, interviews. In 2015, Westerly ran a campaign called'Word Matters', a response in publication to the funding cuts seen in the arts in federal and state budgets; the campaign published poetry from two young emerging poets, sought reader engagement in the tweeting of responses online. Around that time, Westerly developed a more extensive online presence with a new website and social media engagement; the magazine, with the redesign of their website, broadened their publications to include special issues and regular online pieces. In early 2016, the Magazine ran a successful crowdfunding campaign on exceeding their target funding.

Funding has been received from the Copyright Agency Ltd. to support a forthcoming'Writers Development Program'. The Westerly archives are housed in Special Collections in the University of Western Australia Library, with a complete digital version of the backset available at the website. Notable Westerly writers include Randolph Stow, Dorothy Hewett, T. A. G. Hungerford and Elizabeth Jolley, it has a remit to focus on Western Australian writing, with other interests including the Asia region and Australian literature more generally. The Patricia Hackett Prize has been awarded by the University of Western Australia for the best original contribution to Westerly each year since 1965. List of literary magazines Bennett, Bruce (1993 Westerly looks to Asia: A selection from Westerly 1956-1992 Nedlands, W. A: Indian Ocean Centre for Peace Studies in association with the Centre for Studies in Australian Literature, University of Western Australia, 1993. Monograph. ISBN 1-86342-193-9 Bennett and Peter Cowan, eds..

Westerly 21: An anniversary selection Fremantle: Fremantle Arts Centre Press. ISBN 0-909144-10-9 Bennett, Westerly through the rear-view mirror.. Westerly, Vol. 50, p. 13-17. Website