Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Port Douglas is a town and a locality in the Shire of Douglas, Australia 70 km north of Cairns. In the 2016 census, Port Douglas had a population of 3,504 people; the town's population can double, with the influx of tourists during the peak tourism season from May to September. The town is named in honour of a former Premier of John Douglas. Port Douglas developed based on the mining industry. Other parts of the area were established with timber cutting occurring in the area surrounding the Daintree River and with settlement starting to occur on lots around the Mossman River by 1880. Previous names for the town included Island Point, Port Owen and Salisbury; the town is situated adjacent to two World Heritage areas, the Great Barrier Reef and the Daintree Rainforest. Port Douglas was No. 3 on Australian Traveller magazine's list of 100 Best Towns In Australia. The town is within the federal electorate of Leichhardt, within the state electorate of Cook. At the local level, it is in the local government area of Shire of Douglas.
The Port Douglas township was established in 1877 after the discovery of gold at Hodgkinson River by James Venture Mulligan. Port Douglas Post Office opened on 1 September 1877, it grew and at its peak Port Douglas had a population of 12,000 and 27 hotels. With the construction of the Mulligan Highway it serviced towns as far away as Herberton. Port Douglas State School opened on 11 November 1879, but closed in 1962, it was reopened on 23 January 1989. When the Kuranda Railway from Cairns to Kuranda was completed in 1891, the importance of Port Douglas dwindled along with its population. A cyclone in 1911 which demolished all but two buildings in the town had a significant impact. At its nadir in 1960 the town, by little more than a fishing village, had a population of 100; the Port Douglas War Memorial was unveiled on 10 February 1923 by Mrs Tresize. In the late-1980s, tourism boomed in the region after investor Christopher Skase financed the construction of the Sheraton Mirage Port Douglas Resort.
Its permanent population was 3,205 at the time of the 2011 census. Port Douglas has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Macrossan Street: FDA Carstens Memorial Wharf Street: St Mary's by the Sea 6 Dixie Street: Port Douglas Wharf 25 Wharf Street: Port Douglas Court House Museum In the 2016 Census, there were 3,504 people in Port Douglas. 56.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 6.3% and New Zealand 5.9%. 76.6% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion, so described 41.1% and Catholic 17.4%. On 5 July 1943, a RAAF Vultee Vengeance crash landed on the beach near Port Douglas. In November 1996 United States President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Clinton chose the town as their only holiday stop on their historic visit to Australia; when dining at a local restaurant they witnessed a couple's wedding certificate. On a return visit on 11 September 2001, Clinton was again dining at a local restaurant, when he was advised of the September 11 attacks.
He returned to the United States the following day. On 4 September 2006, television personality and conservationist Steve Irwin died at Batt Reef, off Port Douglas, after a stingray barb pierced his heart during filming of a documentary called The Ocean's Deadliest. Irwin was filmed snorkelling directly above the stingray when it lashed him with its tail, killing him immediately; the event was reported in Australia and overseas. The annual Port Douglas Carnivale is held in May and runs for 10 days over two weekends, beginning with a parade attracting over 10,000 people. In October Porttoberfest is held; the Great Barrier Reef Marathon Festival is held during October. Port Douglas was a popular location to view the 14 November 2012 solar eclipse that occurred at 6:38 am. Thousands travelled to Port Douglas to see the phenomenon; the music video for Kylie Minogue's 1988 single "It's No Secret" was filmed in Port Douglas. Port Douglas has a tropical monsoon climate according to Köppen climate classification, with hot summers and warm winters, with heavy rainfall occurring from January–March, the wettest month of the year being February.
The average temperature of the sea ranges from 23.7 °C in July to 29.5 °C in January. Kitesurfing is popular at the southern end of Four Mile Beach during the winter months when trade winds blow from the South. Port Douglas is near the Great Barrier Reef. Numerous companies run daily trips from the marina to the outer reef and the Low Isles for scuba diving and snorkelling. Port Douglas is well known for its many restaurants, golf courses, five star resorts; the Port Douglas Community Hall houses the Port Douglas Library, 11-29 Mowbray Street, operated by the Douglas Shire Council. The Library opened in 2010. Another branch library is located in Mossman; the Port Douglas branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall at 8 Blake Street. Port Douglas State School is a government primary school for girls at Endeavour Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 281 students with 12 non-teaching staff. For secondary school, Port Douglas is within the catchment of Mossman State High School.
Port Douglas Tourism Information Port Douglas News Port Douglas Visitors Guide Port Douglas Webcam Tourism Port Douglas & Daintree University of Queensland: Queensland Places:Port Douglas
Mossman is a town and a locality in Far North Queensland, Australia, on the Mossman River. It is within the local government area of Shire of Douglas. In the 2016 census, Mossman had a population of 1,937 people. Mossman is located on the Captain Cook Highway 75 kilometres north of the regional city of Cairns, 15 kilometres east of the Mount Carbine Tableland. Mossman Gorge, a popular attraction within Daintree National Park, is located west of town. Sugar cane farming is an important aspect of the local economy, with Mossman Central Mill, the only sugar mill in the district, processing the cane before sending it to Cairns for shipping domestically and internationally; the district was known as Mossman River after the river which flows through it. The Mossman River, in turn, was named by the explorer George Dalrymple on 6 December 1873 after Hugh Mosman who discovered gold in Charters Towers. Dalrymple wrote "I named this river the Mossman River, after Mossman, an explorer and mining man, member of a prominent mining family".
The town was known for a brief time as Hartsville after Daniel Hart, an early settler. The name was simplified to Mossman. Mossman Central Sugar Mill commenced crushing on 23 August 1897. Mossman River Post Office opened by 1895 and was renamed Mossman in 1899. Mossman River State School opened on 31 January 1898 under head teacher Thomas Garland, it was renamed Mossman State School in 1910. A secondary department was opened on 1 February 1955, which operated until a separate Mossman State High School opened on 30 January 1973; the establishment and subsequent growth of Cairns and the completion of the Cairns Railway up through the Barron Gorge in 1891, gave a more direct gateway to the hinterland but, at this period, it was found that the Mossman district contained suitable land for sugar-growing. The establishment of the sugar mill at Mossman formed the nucleus of the town, which grew at the expense of Port Douglas; the district was served by two separate 2-foot gauge tramway systems. Both at one time handled general goods, as well as sugar cane.
Mossman district owes its present prosperity to these tramways which pioneered the first reasonable transport in the neighbourhood, for trafficable roads followed later. During World War II, Mossman was attacked in a Japanese air raid on 31 July 1942. A single flying boat dropped a bomb that injured a child. Mossman State High School opened on 30 January 1973. Mossman Library opened in 1977. Mossman Central Mill Company Limited started life as a grower owned co-operative sugar mill back in 1894. On 23 August 1897, the sugarcane from Bonnie Doon was the first to be crushed at the Mossman Sugar Mill. Mrs Annie Rose fed the first sugarcane into the mill, with the mill producing its first sugar after crushing 27,905 tonnes of cane for the initial season. In 1906, Mossman Mill became the first Queensland mill to crush over 100,000 tonnes of cane; that season lasted just under 8 months, extending from June 1906 to late January 1907. Sugar was shipped from Port Douglas, however road transport came to the forefront and became the preferred mode of transport for sugar to the bulk sugar terminal in Cairns.
Louis John Frederick Prince pioneered the use of computers for cane payment accounting and, in 1971, Mossman purchased the first process control computer used in the world sugar industry. Mossman State School is a government primary school for girls at 30-34 Front Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 213 students with 16 teachers and 22 non-teaching staff. Mossman State High School is a government secondary school for girls at 46-62 Front Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 611 students with 62 teachers and 41 non-teaching staff, it includes a special education program. St Augustine's School is a Catholic primary school for girls at Grogan Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 217 students with 13 non-teaching staff. Douglas Shire Council operates Mossman Library at Mossman; the Mossman branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 28 Front Street. Prior to 2008, Mossman was the seat of the Shire of Douglas. In 2008, the Shire of Douglas was amalgamated into the Cairns Region, administered from both Cairns and Mossman.
In 2014, the Shire of Douglas was de-amalgamated from Cairns Region and reinstated as Shire of Douglas. Mossman is rich in sporting clubs such as the Mossman Sharks rugby league club, Coral Coast Judo Club, Douglas United Dragons Football Club, A Basketball League run out of the high school Indoor Sport Centre, the Port Douglas Crocs AFL club, Mossman Gymnastics, Port Douglas and Mossman Rugby Union club, Lady Dragons Indigenous Rugby League Football Club and much, much more. A young 9 year old Jermaine Ryan broke the world record for the fastest 9 year old 100m track and field in 2016. Jove Thompson an 11-year who has broken the world record for catching the worlds biggest jungle perch and the fastest time for a 100m, 200m and 800m track and field time. Jermaine's time of 100m was 14.59 seconds and Jove's time for the 100m was 12.62 seconds, 200m 21.47 seconds and 800m 1.54 minutes. Mossman has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Johnston Road: Mossman District
Diwan is a coastal locality in the Shire of Douglas, Australia. In the 2016 census, Diwan had a population of 153 people; the locality is bounded by Cape Tribulation Road to the north, by Alexandra Bay to the east, by Hutchinson Creek to the south. Most of Diwan is within the Daintree National Park. Alexandra Bay State School opened on 1 June 1986; the locality was named and bounded on 8 September 2000. Alexandra Bay State School is a government primary school for boys and girls at Lot 1 Cape Tribulation Road. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 31 students with 6 non-teaching staff. Media related to Diwan, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Cape Tribulation, Queensland
Cape Tribulation is a headland and locality in the Shire of Douglas in northern Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 census, Cape Tribulation had a population of 330, yet during holiday period this can rise to 800 The locality is 110 km north of Cairns, it is within the Wet Tropics World Heritage area. It is within the local government area of Shire of Douglas; the locality contains a small number of bed and breakfast eco lodges, tourism resorts and backpacker hostels. A few rare plants can be found on Cape Tribulation. Cape Tribulation was named by British navigator Lieutenant James Cook on 10 June 1770 after his ship scraped a reef north east of the cape, whilst passing over it, at 6pm. Cook steered away from the coast into deeper water but at 10.30pm the ship ran aground, on what is now named Endeavour Reef. The ship stuck fast and was badly damaged, desperate measures being needed to prevent it foundering until it was refloated the next day. Cook recorded "...the north point Cape Tribulation because "here begun all our troubles".
In the 1930s some European settlers started arriving in Cape Tribulation, but they found the rainforest environment an challenging one within which to establish a settlement. Various ventures such as fruit and vegetable farming, fishing and timber cutting were started and abandoned over the years, having weekly barges as the only transport in and out was another limitation. In the 1960s a rough track was bulldozed and the first vehicle access created, although the road remained a four-wheel drive track until the early 1990s. In 2002, the road was sealed all the way to Cape Tribulation and in early 2011 the last bridge was built creating year round all weather access to Cape Tribulation for the first time. In 1983, Cape Tribulation became known because of the blockade on the Bloomfield Track. Local government had decided to bulldoze a road through the rainforest north of Cape Tribulation to complete the coastal road to Cooktown. Protesters tried to stop occupied trees to prevent their destruction.
While wild scenes with a large police and media presence ensued at the southern end, the road was completed in three short weeks as the road builders approached from northern end and flanked the protestors. By now the state and federal governments had started to realise the value of this ancient rainforest and despite protests from the local council the forests surrounding Cape Tribulation were given World Heritage Listing in 1988. From the mid-1980s the first backpackers hostels started getting built, in the 1990s some more resorts for the more upmarket tourists. Nowadays there are several small owner operated Bed and Breakfast eco lodges hidden away in the rainforest. Compared to a lot of famous tourist destinations along coastal Queensland, Cape Tribulation is still an off the beaten track destination. Most people visit the area during the dry season between November. During the wet season marine stingers are prevalent causing locals and visitors to swim in the many creeks that are not home to estuary crocodiles.
There are four main resorts in the area catering to backpackers and more upmarket tourists, some unique rainforest bed and breakfasts. The average annual rainfall for Cape Tribulation is 3,900 mm. In 2006, the rainfall recorded was over 6.5 m and in 2010 it reached 8 metres. A sealed road provides access to the area from the south via the Daintree River Ferry and with the completion of the Cooper Creek bridge access is now year round all weather. North from Cape Tribulation Beach House, a four-wheel drive unsealed road, known as the Bloomfield Track, continues to the Bloomfield River, Wujal Wujal, Bloomfield Falls and Cooktown and is closed during the wet season; the Great Barrier Reef is some 19 km due east. Other activities available are 4WD tours, horse-riding, jungle surfing, exotic fruit tasting tours, electric mountain bike tours, guided nightwalks and crocodile cruises; the Daintree Entomological Museum showcasing the butterfly and beetle collection of lifelong collector Steve Lamond is located 15 kilometres south of Cape Tribulation.
Cape Tribulation has the only Conspiracy Museum in the world, where a local residents has compiled evidence and historical documents showing how for decades various governments and other individuals and organisations have made life hard for the Daintree community to discourage settlement and tried to drive them off their land. The museum is located in the Rainforest Hideaway B&B which has an interesting rain forest sculpture trail; the area has a number of walking tracks ranging from easy to difficult. The Dubuji Boardwalk is a walking trail from the main highway to the beach that has toilet and picnic facilities, it leads through swampland with many mangroves. A characteristic of this walk are the tree trunks; the Mount Sorrow ridge trail is a seven-hour return walk which leads to a lookout with expansive views. Tourism in Australia Cape Tribulation Movies of Cape Tribulation and cassowaries
Government of Queensland
The Government of Queensland referred to as the Queensland Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Queensland. The Government of Queensland, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1859 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Queensland has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Queensland ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Key state government offices are located at 1 William Street in the Brisbane central business district; the Government of Queensland operates under the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. The Governor of Queensland, as the representative of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, holds nominal power, although in practice only performs ceremonial duties.
The Parliament of Queensland holds legislative power, while executive power lies with the Premier and Cabinet, judicial power is exercised by a system of courts and tribunals. The Parliament of Queensland is the state's legislature, it consists of Her Majesty The Queen, a single chamber. Queensland is the only Australian state with a unicameral parliament after a second chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly has 93 members. Elections for the Legislative Assembly are held every four years; the Cabinet of Queensland is the government's chief policy-making organ, consists of the Premier and all ministers. The Queensland Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility; each portfolio is led by a government minister, a member of the Parliament. As of April 2016 there were nineteen lead agencies, called government departments, that consist of: Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services Department of Education and Training Department of Energy and Water Supply Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland Health Department of Housing and Public Works Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning Department of Justice and Attorney-General Department of National Parks and Racing Department of Natural Resources and Mines Queensland Police Service and Queensland Fire and Emergency Services Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation Department of State Development Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland Treasury Department of Tourism, Major Events, Small Business and the Commonwealth GamesA range of other agencies support the functions of these departments.
The judiciary of Queensland consists of the Magistrates Court, the District Court, the Supreme Court, as well as a number of smaller courts and tribunals. The Chief Justice of Queensland is the state's most senior judicial officer; the Magistrates Court is the lowest tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland. The court's criminal jurisdiction covers summary offences, indictable offences which may be heard summarily, but all criminal proceedings in Queensland begin in the Magistrates Court if they are not within this jurisdiction. For charges beyond its jurisdiction, the court conducts committal hearings in which the presiding magistrate decides, based on the strength of the evidence, whether to refer the matter to a higher court or dismiss it; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is less than or equal to $150,000. Appeals against decisions by the Magistrates Court are heard by the District Court; the District Court is the middle tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland.
The court has jurisdiction to hear all appeals from decisions made in the Magistrates Court. Its criminal jurisdiction covers serious indictable offences; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is more than $150,000 but less than or equal to $750,000. Appeals against decisions by the District Court are heard by the Court of Appeal, a division of the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court is the highest tier of the judicial hierarchy Queensland. The court has two divisions; the Trial Division's jurisdiction covers serious criminal offences, civil matters involving claims of more than $750,000. The Court of Appeal's jurisdiction allows it to hear cases on appeal from the Trial Division, the District Court, a number of other judicial tribunals in Queensland. Appeals against decisions by the Court of Appeal are heard by the High Court of Australia. There are several factors; the legislature has no upper house. For a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that favoured rural electorates.
This, combined with the decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South Wales operated a balloting system known as Optional Preferential Voting for state elections; this is different from the predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting system, in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot, which some say is to the