click links in text for more info


A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing of animal milk – from cows or buffaloes, but from goats, horses, or camels – for human consumption. A dairy is located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm, concerned with the harvesting of milk. Terminology differs between countries. For example, in the United States, an entire dairy farm is called a "dairy"; the building or farm area where milk is harvested from the cow is called a "milking parlor" or "parlor". Except in the case of smaller dairies, where cows are put on pasture, milked in "stanchion barns"; the farm area where milk is stored in bulk tanks is known as the farm's "milk house". Milk is hauled to a "dairy plant" = referred to as a "dairy" - where raw milk is further processed and prepared for commercial sale of dairy products. In New Zealand, farm areas for milk harvesting are called "milking parlours", are known as "milking sheds"; as in the United States, sometimes milking sheds are referred to by their type, such as "herring bone shed" or "pit parlour".

Parlour design has evolved from simple barns or sheds to large rotary structures in which the workflow is efficiently handled. In some countries those with small numbers of animals being milked, the farm may perform the functions of a dairy plant, processing their own milk into salable dairy products, such as butter, cheese, or yogurt; this on-site processing is a traditional method of producing specialist milk products, common in Europe. In the United States a dairy can be a place that processes and sells dairy products, or a room, building or establishment where milk is stored and processed into milk products, such as butter or cheese. In New Zealand English the singular use of the word dairy exclusively refers to a corner shop, or superette; this usage is historical. As an attributive, the word dairy refers to milk-based products and processes, the animals and workers involved in their production: for example dairy cattle, dairy goat. A dairy farm produces a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products.

These establishments constitute a component of the food industry. Milk producing animals have been domesticated for thousands of years, they were part of the subsistence farming that nomads engaged in. As the community moved about the country, their animals accompanied them. Protecting and feeding the animals were a big part of the symbiotic relationship between the animals and the herders. In the more recent past, people in agricultural societies owned dairy animals that they milked for domestic and local consumption, a typical example of a cottage industry; the animals might serve multiple purposes. In this case, the animals were milked by hand and the herd size was quite small, so that all of the animals could be milked in less than an hour—about 10 per milker; these tasks were performed by a dairyman. The word dairy harkens back to Middle English dayerie, from deye and further back to Old English dæge. With industrialization and urbanization, the supply of milk became a commercial industry, with specialized breeds of cattle being developed for dairy, as distinct from beef or draught animals.

More people were employed as milkers, but it soon turned to mechanization with machines designed to do the milking. The milking and the processing took place close together in space and time: on a dairy farm. People milked the animals by hand. Hand-milking is accomplished by grasping the teats in the hand and expressing milk either by squeezing the fingers progressively, from the udder end to the tip, or by squeezing the teat between thumb and index finger moving the hand downward from udder towards the end of the teat; the action of the hand or fingers is designed to close off the milk duct at the udder end and, by the movement of the fingers, close the duct progressively to the tip to express the trapped milk. Each half or quarter of the udder is emptied one milk-duct capacity at a time; the stripping action is repeated. Both methods result in the milk, trapped in the milk duct being squirted out the end into a bucket, supported between the knees of the milker, who sits on a low stool. Traditionally the cow, or cows, would stand in the paddock while being milked.

Young stock, would have to be trained to remain still to be milked. In many countries, the cows milked. While most countries produce their own milk products, the structure of the dairy industry varies in different parts of the world. In major milk-producing countries most milk is distributed through whole sale markets. In Ireland and Australia, for example, farmers' co-operatives own many of the large-scale processors, while in the United States many farmers and processors do business through individual contracts. In the United States, the country's 196 farmers' cooperatives sold 86% of milk in the U. S. in 2002, with five cooperatives accounting for half that. This was down from 2,300 cooperatives in the 1940s. In developing countries, the past practice of farmers marketing milk in their own neighborhoods is changing rapidly. Notabl


Forcalquier is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France. Forcalquier is located between the Lure and Luberon mountain ranges, about 30 km south of Sisteron and 10 km west of the Durance river. During the Middle Ages it was the capital of Haute-Provence. Furnus Calcarius was the Latin name, from the lime kilns used in Roman times, its Provençal name is Fourcauquié. At the end of the 11th century, a family of the counts of Provence created the county of Forcalquier. During this time, the town of Forcalquier was the capital of Haute Provence along the Durance, which included the towns of Manosque, Sisteron and Embrun. Forcalquier minted its own currency, its church was elevated to the status of a "concathedral"; the counts of Forcalquier grew to a power. Rivalry ended in 1195 when Gersende de Sabran, countess of Forcalquier, married Alfonso II, count of Provence, their son, Ramon Bérenger IV, inherited the two counties. The inhabitants are called Forcalquiérens. Forcalquier is built around the slopes of a steep conical hill, crowned by an octagonal chapel, Notre Dame de Provence, where the medieval citadel once stood.

The citadel was destroyed in 1601. It has a carillon; the oldest part of the town is the area around the Place Saint-Michel with its Renaissance fountain and its narrow side-streets. There many doorways dating to the 12th to 16th centuries can be found; the present commercial and social center of town, the Place du Bourget, is located below the Place St. Michel; the 12th century "concathedral" Notre Dame de l'Assomption with its bell towers stands across from the Place du Bourguet. The Cordeliers Convent was built in the 13th century by Franciscans named "cordeliers" because of their rope belts; this convent was occupied by monks continuously until the Revolution. It now houses the Université Européenne des Senteurs & Saveurs; the Port de Cordeliers is all. Monday morning is market day in Forcalquier; the market fills the adjoining streets. Noteworthy is the Musée Municipal with its prehistoric and Gallo-Roman artifacts, glass works, faïence pottery from Mane and Moustiers-Sainte-Marie. Raoul Dufy Garsenda of Forcalquier Charles I of Naples Joan I of Naples Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence Louis III of Naples Guigues VII of Viennois Alfonso II, Count of Provence Jaufre Reforzat de Trets Geoffrey II of Provence Ladislaus of Naples Marguerite of Provence Louis Feuillée Christophe Castaner David Galloway Forcalquier is twinned with: Guastalla, Italy Communes of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department Henri Bardouin INSEE Tourism office website Provence Beyond: Forcalquier Provence Web: Forcalquier Radio Zinzine: Public radio located in Forcalquier

Sallie Fox

Sarah Estelle Fox Allen was a California pioneer and a member of the ill-fated Rose–Baley Party, the first emigrant wagon train to attempt the journey from New Mexico to California via Beale's Wagon Road. A twelve-year-old child when she traveled on the wagon train, she was the subject of the 1995 children's book Sallie Fox: The Story of a Pioneer Girl; the apron that she wore over her dress when she was injured by a Mojave Indian arrow during the 1858 attack on the Rose–Baley wagons is displayed in the Vacaville Museum which holds an annual "Sallie Fox Day". Sallie Fox was born in the second daughter of Aaron Moses and Mary Fox, her father, a farmer in Southeastern Ohio, died. Mary subsequently moved with their two young daughters and Sophia Frances, to Van Buren County, Iowa where her family were living. There, the "Widow Fox", as she was known, married Alpha Brown, himself widowed with two daughters, one of whom was an invalid. Mary and Alpha Brown had a daughter Julia and a son Orrin. In 1858, the Brown's neighbor Leonard Rose, a wealthy businessman, formed an emigrant party to travel to California.

As Rose wrote:... some miners who had just returned from California, so fired my imagination with descriptions of its glorious climate, wealth of flowers and luscious fruits, that I was inspired with an irresistible desire to experience in person the delights to be found in the land of plenty. The Brown family were attracted to a new life in California and decided to join Rose. Mary's brother George and her married sisters were living there. Alpha Brown was taken on as the foreman of Rose's wagon train, he, the five Fox-Brown children began their trek west in late April 1858. Sallie Fox was 12 years old at the time. In mid-May while resting at Cottonwood Creek, near present-day Durham, the Rose wagon train was joined by a party led by Gillum Baley which had left Missouri in April and intended to travel to California via the Santa Fe Trail; the two parties merged, by June they had reached Albuquerque, New Mexico without incident. There, they decided to attempt the final stretch to California via Beale's Wagon Road, at the time little more than a rough trail.

Beale's route crossed the Colorado River into California further north than the established crossing at Fort Yuma and had the potential to shorten the journey considerably. In July the party camped near Inscription Rock in New Mexico. Several members of the party, including Leonard Rose, John Udell, Sallie Fox carved their names into the stone. Although now eroded, their inscriptions can still be seen today. On reaching Zuni Pueblo The Rose–Baley Party headed onto Beale's Wagon Road; as the emigrants were preparing to cross the Colorado River into California on 30 August, they were attacked by Mohave Indians. Sallie Fox had seen some of them approaching and screamed: "The Indians are coming and are going to kill us!". Her screams followed by the Mojave war cries and gunshot brought Alpha Brown and the other cattle herders, further up the trail. Mary Brown put a feather bed against their wagon box, placed the children behind it, covered them with blankets. In the ensuing battle, Alpha Brown was killed and Sallie was wounded when an arrow went through the wagon box and pierced her side.

The Mohave were fought off, leaving twelve emigrants badly wounded and eight dead, including five children from another family. Alpha Brown's body was wrapped in a blanket, weighted with chains, committed to the Colorado River. Having lost most of their livestock and fearful of further attacks, the surviving members of the party had to abandon all but two of their wagons and trek the 500 miles back through the desert to Albuquerque. Apart from the wounded, most of the survivors were on foot. Sallie Fox wrote of the journey back to Albuquerque: All that my bereaved mother took for herself and five children she put into a flour sack, we had to go to bed when our clothes were washed. Mother cut the skirts of our one dress apiece short so as to make us each bonnets out of the extra length. We wended our way back towards civilization, fearful every moment of another attack from the dreaded Indians, suffering from the distressing heat and lack of water and food. My invalid sister and I hourly expected to die, so weak and feeble was she, I, from my wound.

Despite the extreme hardship and deprivation of the journey, most of the remaining Rose–Baley Party made it back to Albuquerque. They were aided by two west-bound wagon trains which they encountered at White Springs, just east of what is now Kingman, Arizona. One of these wagon trains was led by Edward O. Smith who would bring Mary Brown and her surviving children to California. On hearing their story, the wagon trains shared their provisions with the survivors and turned back to accompany them to Albuquerque. In life, Mary Brown recalled that "to keep from going crazy" on the trek back, she would unravel a stocking and re-knit it over and over again, she had carried Orrin, on the family's only surviving horse. When the horse died, she walked, carrying him in her arms until Edward Smith provided them with a wagon from his own train. Orrin became ill and died shortly before their arrival in Albuquerque in November 1858, he was buried in an unmarked grave outside the town. Sallie's half-sister Julia wrote in 1881: We stood around it, watering it with tears, we knew, having once left it, we never should see it again.

We gathered stones and put upon it, to prevent the

Isotropic solid

In condensed matter physics and continuum mechanics, an isotropic solid refers to a solid material for which physical properties are independent of the orientation of the system. While the finite sizes of atoms and bonding considerations ensure that true isotropy of atomic position will not exist in the solid state, it is possible for measurements of a given property to yield isotropic results, either due to the symmetries present within a crystal system, or due to the effects of orientational averaging over a sample. Isotropic solids tend to be of interest when developing models for physical behavior of materials, as they tend to allow for dramatic simplifications of theory. Additionally, cubic crystals are isotropic with respect to thermal expansion and will expand in all directions when heated. Isotropy should not be confused with homogeneity, which characterizes a system’s properties as being independent of position, rather than orientation. Additionally, all crystal structures, including the cubic crystal system, are anisotropic with respect to certain properties, isotropic to others.

The anisotropy of a crystal’s properties depends on the rank of the tensor used to describe the property, as well as the symmetries present within the crystal. The rotational symmetries within cubic crystals, for example, ensure that the dielectric constant will be equal in all directions, whereas the symmetries in hexagonal systems dictate that the measurement will vary depending on whether the measurement is made within the basal plane. Due to the relationship between the dielectric constant and the optical index of refraction, it would be expected for cubic crystals to be optically isotropic, hexagonal crystals to be optically anisotropic. Nearly all single crystal systems are anisotropic with respect to mechanical properties, with Tungsten being a notable exception, as it is a cubic metal with stiffness tensor coefficients that exist in the proper ratio to allow for mechanical isotropy. In general, cubic crystals are not mechanically isotropic. However, many materials, such as structural steel, tend to be encountered and utilized in a polycrystalline state.

Due to random orientation of the grains within the material, measured mechanical properties tend to be averages of the values associated with different crystallographic directions, with the net effect of apparent isotropy. As a result, it is typical for parameters such as the Young's Modulus to be reported independent of crystallographic direction. Treating solids as mechanically isotropic simplifies analysis of deformation and fracture. However, preferential orientation of grains can occur as a result of certain types of deformation and recrystallization processes, which will create anisotropy in mechanical properties of the solid. Liu, I-Shih. Continuum Mechanics. Springer. Pp. 86–88. ISBN 9783540430193. Retrieved 31 January 2014

Global Liberal Arts Alliance

The Global Liberal Arts Alliance is an association of liberal arts colleges around the world. It was established in 2009; the goal of the consortium is to provide an international framework for cooperation among institutions following the American liberal arts college model. The Alliance is administered by the Great Lakes Colleges Association, a consortium of thirteen American liberal arts colleges in the Great Lakes region. Al Akhawayn University, Morocco Albion College, United States Antioch College, United States Allegheny College, United States American College of Greece, Greece American University in Bulgaria, Bulgaria American University in Cairo, Egypt American University of Beirut, Lebanon American University of Nigeria, Nigeria American University of Paris, France Ashesi University, Ghana Bratislava International School of Liberal Arts, Slovakia Denison University, United States DePauw University, United States Earlham College, United States Effat University, Saudi Arabia Flame University, India Forman Christian College, Pakistan Franklin University, Switzerland Hope College, United States International Christian University, Japan John Cabot University, Italy Kalamazoo College, United States Kenyon College, United States Lingnan University, Hong Kong Oberlin College, United States Ohio Wesleyan University, United States Wabash College, United States College of Wooster, United States Liberal arts college Alliance of Asian Liberal Arts Universities List of higher education associations and alliances Official site

Osmonds (album)

Osmonds is the debut album released by The Osmonds, the first under MGM as The Osmonds and the first to feature Donny. The first single from the album, "One Bad Apple", became a number-one hit according to the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart; the second single from the album, "Sweet and Innocent", reached number seven, with the single sleeve crediting group member Donny Osmond as the artist. The album reached number 14 on the Billboard Top Lps chart on February 27, 1971, it was certified Gold by the RIAA on September 13, 1971. Dave Thompson of AllMusic criticised the album's "Motown medley that contrarily ranks among the least soulful excursions you could imagine" and said that the album "nevertheless finds them still putting performance ahead of personality, hinting at the heights they would soon be scaling". Producer: Rick Hall Bass: Bob Wray Guitars: Albert S. Lowe, Jr. Travis Wammack Steel Guitar: Leo LeBlanc Keyboard: Clayton Ivey Baritone Saxophone: Ronnie Eades Tenor Saxophone: Harvey Thompson Trombone: Dale Quillen Trumpets: Harrison Calloway, Jr. Jack Peck Drums: Fred L. Prouty"Think" recorded on November 10, 1970 "One Bad Apple" recorded on October 26, 1970 "Catch Me Baby" recorded on November 10, 1970 "Lonesome They Call Me, Lonesome I Am" recorded on November 10, 1970 "Motown Special" recorded on November 13, 1970 "Sweet and Innocent" recorded on November 10, 1970 "He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother" recorded on November 10, 1970 "Find'em, Fool'em, Forget'em" recorded on November 10, 1970 "Most of All" recorded on November 10, 1970 "Flirtin'" recorded on October 26, 1970 The Osmond Store Official website