click links in text for more info


According to Hindu mythology, Dakṣa is one of the sons of Lord Brahma, after creating the ten Manas Putras, created Daksha, Dharma and Agni from his right thumb, chest and eyebrows, respectively. Artwork shows him as an obese man with a stocky body, protruding belly, the head of an ibex-like creature with spiral horns. See also: Daughters of Daksha According to Vishnu Purana and Padma Purana and his wife Prasuti had 24 daughters; the names of these 24 daughters are: Sraddha Bhakti Dhriti Thushti Pushti Medha Kriya Buddhika Lajja Gauri Vapu Santi Siddhika Kirtti Khyati Sati Sambhuti Smriti Priti Kshama Sannati Anasuya Urjja Swaha Swadha. Of these, the 13 married to Dharma are: Sraddha, Dhriti, Pushti, Kriya, Lajja, Santi, Kirtti; the other 11 are: Khyati married to Bhrigu Sati to Shiva, Sambhuti to Marichi, Smriti to Angiras, Priti to Pulastya, Kshama to Pulaha, Sannati to Kratu, Anasuya to Atri, Urjja to Vasishtha, Swaha to Agni Swadha to Pitris. According to Matsya Purana and his wife Panchajani had 62 daughters, not one of whom resembled their father: 10 of those daughters were married to Dharma, 13 to sage Kashyapa, 27 to Chandra, 4 to Arishtanemi, 1 to Kama, 1 to lord Shiva, 2 to sons of sage Bhrigu, 2 to sage Angiras, 2 to Krisasva.

According to Padma Purana, when Daksha felt the number of women are still not sufficient, he decided to have 60 more daughters. Sati was the daughter married to Shiva; the 10 daughters married to Dharma are: Maruvati, Jami Lamba, Urjja, Mahurath and Vishva. The 13 daughters married to sage Kashyapa are: Aditi, Danu Arishta, Surabhi, Tamra, Ira, Vishva, Muni; the 27 daughters married to Chandra are: Ashvinī, Bharanī, Kṛttikā, Rohinī, Mrigashīra, Ārdrā, Pushya, Maghā, Pūrvaphalgunī, Uttaraphalgunī, Chitrā, Svātī, Vishākhā, Anurādhā or Rādha, Jyeshtha, Mūla, Purbashādha or Pūrvashādhā, Shravana, Dhanistha, Shatabhisha, Pūrva Bhādrapadā, Revatī. These 27 wives of Chandra are 27 Nakshatras. One of the daughters of Daksha was Sati. Daksha forbade it, but Sati disobeyed him and did so anyway, finding in Shiva a doting and loving husband. Daksha Yagna was an important turning point in the development of sects in Hinduism, it is the story behind the'Stala Purana' of Shakti Peethas. There are 51 Shakti Peethas shrines all over South Asia.

The story replaced goddess Sati by Shree Parvati as Shiva's consort, lead to the story of Lord Ganesha and Lord Kartikeya. Daksha intentionally avoided Shiva and Sati. Though discouraged by Shiva, who told her not to go to a ceremony performed by Daksha where she and her husband were not invited. Sati went to the ceremony alone, she was insulted by him in front of the guests. Sati, unable to bear further insult, immolated herself. Shiva, upon learning about the terrible incident, in his wrath invoked Virabhadra and Bhadrakali by plucking a lock of hair and thrashing it on the ground. Virabhadra and Bhoota ganas destroyed all the premises. Daksha was decapitated and the yagnja shaala was devastated in the rampage; the Bhutaganas' celebrated victory by plucking the beard of'Presiding Master' of the yagnja, Sage Bhrigu as a war souvenir. Daksha was forgiven and given life by fixing a ram's head and the yagna was allowed to complete, in all the divinities' presence; the story continues with the act of Vishnu pacifying Shiva, in deep grief in seeing the half burned corpse of his beloved wife.

Vishnu embraced Shiva to pacify him. Shiva unable to part with Sati wandered. Vishnu helped him get rid of this attachment by severing the corpse with his divine discus; the body parts of the corpse of Sati Devi fell in the places Shiva travelled. The places where the body parts Sati Devi's corpse fell came to be known as Shakti Peethas. Prajapati Kottiyoor, Draksharama Dakshayagnam Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend by Anna Dhallapiccola Lineage of Daksha, The Mahabharata/Book 1: Adi Parva/Section LXV

Appleby (UK Parliament constituency)

Appleby was a parliamentary constituency in the former county of Westmorland in England. It existed for two separate periods: from 1295 to 1832, from 1885 to 1918. Appleby was enfranchised as parliamentary borough in 1295, abolished by the Great Reform Act of 1832, it returned two Members of Parliament using the bloc vote system. It was represented in the House of Commons of England until 1707, in the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832, its best-known MP was William Pitt the Younger who became Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24. For the 1885 general election the Redistribution of Seats Act created a county constituency of the same name, which returned a single MP elected by the first-past-the-post system; the county constituency was abolished at the 1918 general election. The parliamentary borough of Appleby consisted of the town of Appleby, the county town of Westmorland, was represented in the House of Commons from the Model Parliament of 1295 until the Reform Act.

The right to vote rested with the occupiers of around a hundred burgage tenements. By the 18th century, the majority of the burgages were owned by the Lowther and Tufton families, which enabled them to put in reliable tenants at election time and ensure their complete control of, elected; the seats were kept for members of those families, but Appleby's other representatives included William Pitt the younger, MP for Appleby when he became Prime Minister in 1783. A member for Appleby was Viscount Howick, subsequently the Prime Minister whose administration passed the Great Reform Act of 1832. Appleby was regarded as a classic example of a pocket borough in the control of its owners who were the major local landowners, with a population of only 1,233 at the 1831 census unlikely to be freed from their influence by widening the franchise; as the only county town to be disfranchised, Appleby was one of the more controversial cases in the debates on the reform bill, the opposition making unsuccessful attempts to amend the bill so as to save at least one of its MPs.

After abolition the borough was absorbed into the Westmorland county constituency. The Appleby constituency created for the 1885 election was, in full, "The Appleby or Northern Division of Westmorland", was sometimes referred to as Westmorland North, it consisted of the whole of the northern half of the county, including the towns of Ambleside and Kirkby Stephen. It was abolished at the 1918 general election, the whole county henceforth being united in a single Westmorland constituency. Figures are those following a recount General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. Death of SandfordSuccession of Tufton as 7th Earl of ThanetDodington chose to sit for Bridgwater Michael Brock, The Great Reform Act D Brunton & D H Pennington, “Members of the Long Parliament” Maija Jansson, Proceedings in Parliament, 1614 J Holladay Philbin, "Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales" Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "A"

Duquesne University Tamburitzans

The Tamburitzans are the longest-running multicultural song and dance company in the United States. Headquartered in Pittsburgh, the company's members are full-time students who receive scholarships for their activities; the Tamburitzans are dedicated to perpetuating international cultural heritage through entertaining performance - while awarding scholarships to talented and deserving students attending a Pittsburgh-based school. The Tamburitzans were created in 1937 by Dr. A. Lester Pierce, who brought his "Slavonic Tamburitza Orchestra" from St. Edward's University of Austin, Texas to Pittsburgh, where the group was well received by the region's diverse ethnic communities. Dr. Pierce negotiated an arrangement with Duquesne University, involving a work scholarship program, the tradition of The Tamburitzans began. Over the years, The Tamburitzans have recorded albums and have toured extensively performing music and dance from Eastern Europe and its neighboring folk cultures; the Tamburitzans are affectionately known as "the Tammies" in some circles.

The Tamburitzans headquarters at 1801 Boulevard of the Allies was built as the Warner Bros. film exchange building in the 1920s and served the studio until the 1960s. In September 2014, Duquesne University announced that the Tamburitzans would become an independent nonprofit over the subsequent two to three years; as of July 1, 2016, The Tamburitzans ensemble is supported by PIFAI - Pittsburgh International Folk Arts Institute - a 501 non-profit corporation headquartered in Pittsburgh. List of folk dance performance groups List of music organizations in the United States Official website

Richard Kaplan (film producer)

Richard James Kaplan was an American documentary film and television writer and producer. He was born in Manhattan to Benjamin Kaplan and Natalie Kaplan, was raised in the Rockaways in Queens. Kaplan enrolled at Antioch College at the age of 16, he was drafted into the United States Army during World War II, interrupting his studies for three years. He graduated from Antioch after his discharge and studied filmmaking at the University of Southern California; the producer worked with nonfiction film-making for around 60 years. He began making films in the 1950s, commissioned by clients such as the United States Air Force and the Indian Handicrafts Commission. Kaplan directed the 1965 biographical documentary The Eleanor Roosevelt Story, produced by Sidney Glazier, which won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, he produced the 1970 Oscar-nominated documentary King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis in collaboration with Ely Landau two years after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Kaplan worked as a college professor and media consultant.

Kaplan died on September 29, 2018, in Manhattan, aged 93. Richard Kaplan on IMDb

Three Pieces in the Shape of a Pear

Three Pieces in the Shape of a Pear is a 1903 suite for piano four hands by French composer Erik Satie. A lyrical compendium of his early music, it is one of Satie's most famous compositions, second in popular recognition only to the Gymnopédies; the score was not published until 1911. In performance it lasts around 14 minutes, it is typical of Satie's eccentric humor that the suite consists of not three. Satie composed the Trois morceaux en forme de poire in Paris between August and November 1903, during a period of creative crisis, he was unhappy earning a meager living writing cabaret music, had abandoned his recent "serious" musical projects - the piano piece The Dreamy Fish and the orchestral tone poem The Angora Ox - as failures. And the shock of hearing his friend Claude Debussy's landmark opera Pelléas et Mélisande led to him to realize that experimenting with musical Impressionism was a dead end: "Nothing more can be done in this direction. Legend has it the Trois morceaux was Satie's tongue-in-cheek response to Debussy's advice that he should "pay more attention to form" in his music.

Conductor Vladimir Golschmann recalled Satie telling him that "All I did...was to write Pieces in the form of a pear. I brought them to Debussy, who asked,'Why such a title?' Why? My dear friend, because you cannot criticize my Pieces in the shape of a pear. If they are en forme de poire they cannot be shapeless." However the probity of this anecdote has been disputed in light of a letter Satie wrote to Debussy on August 17, 1903, when the suite was still in its early stages: "I am working at the present time on a delightful work entitled Deux morceaux en forme de poire. Monsieur Erik Satie is crazy about this new invention of his mind, he talks about it a lot and says good things about it. He believes it superior to everything. Morceaux I is the only piece in the set consisting of new music. To the core group of Morceaux I-III Satie added two introductory and two concluding pieces, with headings that spoofed academic teaching of the kind he loathed during his studies at the Paris Conservatoire in the 1880s.

The title Trois morceaux en forme de poire prefigures those of Satie's humoristic piano suites of the 1910s and reflects his fondness for puns and ironic ambiguity. The word "poire" was time-honored French slang for "head", meaning "fool" or "simpleton". In the 1830s caricaturist Honoré Daumier satirically defined the reign of French King Louis Philippe by drawing the monarch with a pear-shaped head, the insult became entrenched in the popular lexicon; this subversive meaning is cited by Satie biographers and researchers, with differing opinions over whether the composer intended it to mock Debussy, himself, or both. "Poire" was a nickname for a child's spinning top, the oscillating, repetitive material of the outer pieces of the Trois morceaux has been likened to the toy's movement. The suite was Satie's first composition for piano four hands, a genre he would subsequently enrich with original works and arrangements. Keyboard duets were a popular form of home music-making in the years before World War I, but as Satie made no immediate attempt to publish the Trois morceaux it is possible he chose this form because it provided him and Debussy with an opportunity to play together.

What Debussy thought of the work is not known, though he retained enough interest to help Satie correct the proofs for its initial publication eight years later. In a bizarre, self-aggrandizing text scribbled on the verso of the manuscript, Satie heralded the Trois morceaux as "a prestigious turning point in the History of My Life." But beneath the braggadocio and jesting over matters of form was Satie's growing sense that his technique was inadequate, hindering his progress as a composer. Robert Orledge noted that the sheer amount of self-borrowing in the Trois morceaux was "not a healthy sign" for a musician dedicated to looking towards the future. Satie admitted to his brother Conrad that he grew "tired of being reproached with an ignorance of which I thought I must be guilty, since competent people pointed it out in my works." The Trois morceaux en forme de poire would be his last important composition for nearly a decade. In 1905, at the age of 39, Satie humbly enrolled as a student at the Schola Cantorum in Paris, where for the next seven years he studied counterpoint with Albert Roussel and orchestration with Vincent d'Indy.

It was a move that profoundly influenced the rest of his career, giving him the technical foundation to develop his mature style. The Trois morceaux is an unorthodox retrospective of Satie's early creative evolution. Dispensing with a chronological scheme, Satie variously dips into the music of his youthful Chat Noir days, his "Rosicrucian" phase, his gradual embrace of popular influences, culminating in his "café-concert" style of the early 1900s. Although the prevailing tone is that of melancholy, the work is tuneful lively, easy to listen to; these are seven separate pieces, musically unrelated to each other but given a semblance of formal cohesion by Satie's less-than-serious headings. Steven Moore Whiting noted that "The core pieces of the morceaux each present a distinctive synthesis of Satie's various styles", while the framing numbers are straightforward presentations of earlier materi

Al Fahlain

Al Fahlain is the name of a suburb of the city of Ras Al Khaimah in the United Arab Emirates, traditionally settled by members of the Naqbiyin tribe. Together with the village of Khatt, adjacent to the south, the village of Fahlain formed part of the Sheikhdom of the 19th century Al Qasimi ruler of Ras Al Khaimah, Hassan bin Rahmah who signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 with the British. In the 1819 expedition from Bombay, British forces sacked Ras Al Khaimah and Hassan Bin Rahmah signed a preliminary agreement to cede Ras Al Khaimah town, which became the British garrison, he signed the 1820 treaty as "Sheikh of Hatt and Falna of Ras Al Khaimah". Hatt is modern Khatt; the mosque at Fahlain has been compared to that of Al Badiyah and is said to be the oldest in Ras Al Khaimah. Contemporary accounts date it to before the 18th Century. In 1903, Lorimer noted the village consisted of 60 Naqbiyin houses and 2,000 date palms