Partition of India
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions and Pakistan. The Dominion of India became, as of 1950, the Republic of India, the Dominion of Pakistan became, as of 1956, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan In 1971, the People's Republic of Bangladesh came into being after Bangladesh Liberation War; the partition involved the division of three provinces, Assam and Punjab, based on district-wide Hindu or Muslim majorities. The boundary demarcating India and Pakistan came to be known as the Radcliffe Line, it involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, as the British government there was called; the two self-governing countries of Pakistan and India came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.
The partition displaced over 14 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions. The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to the present; the term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma and Ceylon from the administration of British India. The term does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition, it does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Bhutan and the Maldives were unaffected by the partition.
In 1905, the viceroy, Lord Curzon, in his second term, divided the largest administrative subdivision in British India, the Bengal Presidency, into the Muslim-majority province of East Bengal and Assam and the Hindu-majority province of Bengal. Curzon's act, the Partition of Bengal—which some considered administratively felicitous, contemplated by various colonial administrations since the time of Lord William Bentinck, but never acted upon—was to transform nationalist politics as nothing else before it; the Hindu elite of Bengal, among them many who owned land in East Bengal, leased out to Muslim peasants, protested fervidly. The large Bengali Hindu middle-class, upset at the prospect of Bengalis being outnumbered in the new Bengal province by Biharis and Oriyas, felt that Curzon's act was punishment for their political assertiveness; the pervasive protests against Curzon's decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi campaign and involved a boycott of British goods. Sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians.
The violence, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed. The rallying cry for both types of protest was the slogan Bande Mataram, the title of a song by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, which invoked a mother goddess, who stood variously for Bengal and the Hindu goddess Kali; the unrest spread from Calcutta to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcutta's English-educated students returned home to their villages and towns. The religious stirrings of the slogan and the political outrage over the partition were combined as young men, in groups such as Jugantar, took to bombing public buildings, staging armed robberies, assassinating British officials. Since Calcutta was the imperial capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known; the overwhelming, but predominantly Hindu, protest against the partition of Bengal and the fear, in its wake, of reforms favouring the Hindu majority, now led the Muslim elite in India, in 1906, to meet with the new viceroy, Lord Minto, to ask for separate electorates for Muslims.
In conjunction, they demanded proportional legislative representation reflecting both their status as former rulers and their record of cooperating with the British. This led, to the founding of the All-India Muslim League in Dacca. Although Curzon, by now, had resigned his position over a dispute with his military chief Lord Kitchener and returned to England, the League was in favour of his partition plan; the Muslim elite's position, reflected in the League's position, had crystallized over the previous three decades, beginning with the 1871 Census of British India, which had first estimated the populations in regions of Muslim majority. In the three decades since that census, Muslim leaders across northern India, had intermittently experienced public animosity from some of the new Hindu p
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh. Its land borders were with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal. East Pakistan was renamed from East Bengal by the One Unit scheme of Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra; the Constitution of Pakistan of 1956 replaced the British monarchy with an Islamic republic. Bengali politician H. S. Suhrawardy served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan between 1956 and 1957 and a Bengali bureaucrat Iskandar Mirza became the first President of Pakistan; the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état brought general Ayub Khan to power. Khan launched a crackdown against pro-democracy leaders. Khan enacted the Constitution of Pakistan of 1962. By 1966, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman emerged as the preeminent opposition leader in Pakistan and launched the six point movement for autonomy and democracy; the 1969 uprising in East Pakistan contributed to Ayub Khan's overthrow. Another general, Yahya Khan, enacted martial law.
In 1970, Yahya Khan organized Pakistan's first federal general election. The Awami League emerged as the single largest party, followed by the Pakistan Peoples Party; the military junta stalled in accepting the results, leading to civil disobedience, the Bangladesh Liberation War and the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. East Pakistan seceded with the help of India; the East Pakistan Provincial Assembly was the legislative body of the territory. Due to the strategic importance of East Pakistan, the Pakistani union was a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization; the economy of East Pakistan grew at an average of 2.6% between 1960 and 1965. The federal government invested more funds and foreign aid in West Pakistan though East Pakistan generated a major share of exports. However, President Ayub Khan did implement significant industrialization in East Pakistan; the Kaptai Dam was built in 1965. The Eastern Refinery was established in Chittagong. Dacca was declared as the second capital of Pakistan and planned as the home of the national parliament.
The government recruited American architect Louis Kahn to design the national assembly complex in Dacca. In 1955, Prime Minister Mohammad Ali Bogra implemented the One Unit scheme which merged the four western provinces into a single unit called West Pakistan while East Bengal was renamed as East Pakistan. Pakistan ended its dominion status and adopted a republican constitution in 1956, which proclaimed an Islamic republic; the populist leader H. S. Suhrawardy of East Pakistan was appointed prime minister of Pakistan; as soon as he became the prime minister, Suhrawardy initiated a legal work reviving the joint electorate system. There was a strong resentment to the joint electorate system in West Pakistan; the Muslim League had taken the cause to the public and began calling for implementation of separate electorate system. In contrast to West Pakistan, the joint electorate was popular in East Pakistan; the tug of war with the Muslim League to establish the appropriate electorate caused problems for his government.
The constitutionally obliged National Finance Commission Program was suspended by Prime Minister Suhrawardy despite the reserves of the four provinces of the West Pakistan in 1956. Suhrawardy advocated for the USSR-based Five-Year Plans to centralize the national economy. In this view, the East Pakistan's economy was centralized and all major economic planning shifted to West Pakistan. Efforts leading to centralizing the economy was met with great resistance in West Pakistan when the elite monopolist and the business community angrily refused to oblige to his policies; the business community in Karachi began its political struggle to undermine any attempts of financial distribution of the US$10 million ICA aid to the better part of the East Pakistan and to set up a consolidated national shipping corporation. In the financial cities of West Pakistan, such as Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar, there were series of major labour strikes against the economic policies of Suhrawardy supported by the elite business community and the private sector.
Furthermore, in order to divert attention from the controversial One Unit Program, Prime Minister Suhrawardy tried to end the crises by calling a small group of investors to set up small business in the country. Despite many initiatives and holding off the NFC Award Program, Suhrawardy's political position and image deteriorated in the four provinces in West Pakistan. Many nationalist leaders and activists of the Muslim League were dismayed with the suspension of the constitutionally obliged NFC Program, his critics and Muslim League leaders observed that with the suspension of NFC Award Program, Suhrawardy tried to give more financial allocations, aids and opportunity to East-Pakistan than West Pakistan, including West Pakistan's four provinces. During the last days of his Prime ministerial years, Suhrawardy tried to remove the economic disparity between the Eastern and Western wings of the country but to no avail, he tried unsuccessfully to alleviate the food shortage in the country. Suhrawardy strengthened relations with the United States by reinforcing Pakistani membership in the Central Treaty Organization and Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
Suhrawardy promoted relations with the People’s Republic of China. His contribution in formulating the 1956 constitution of Pakistan was substantial as he played a vital role in incorporating provisions for civil liberties and universal adult franchise in line with his adherence to parliamentary form of liberal democracy. In 1958, President Iskandar Mirza enacted martial law as part of a military coup by the Pakistan Army's chief Ayub Khan. Af
Jamuna River (Bangladesh)
The Jamuna River is one of the three main rivers of Bangladesh. It is the lower stream of the Brahmaputra River, which originates in Tibet as Yarlung Tsangpo, before flowing into India and southwest into Bangladesh; the Jamuna flows south and joins the Padma River, near Goalundo Ghat, before meeting the Meghna River near Chandpur. It flows into the Bay of Bengal as the Meghna River; the Brahmaputra-Jamuna is a classic example of a braided river and is susceptible to channel migration and avulsion. It is characterised by a network of interlacing channels with numerous sandbars enclosed between them; the sandbars, known in Bengali as chars, do not occupy a permanent position. The river deposits them in one year often to be destroyed and redeposits them in the next rainy season; the process of bank and deposit erosion together with redeposition has been going on continuously, making it difficult to demarcate the boundary between the district of Pabna on one side and the districts of Mymensingh Tangail and Dhaka on the other.
The breaking of a char or the emergence of a new one is a cause of much violence and litigation. The confluence of the Jamuna River and Padma River is unusually unstable and has been shown to have migrated southeast by over fourteen kilometres between 1972 and 2014. In Bangladesh, the Brahmaputra is joined by one of its largest tributaries; the Teesta earlier ran due south from Jalpaiguri in three channels, the Karatoya to the east, the Punarbhaba in the west and the Atrai in the centre. The three channels gave the name to the river as Trisrota "possessed of three streams", shortened and corrupted to Teesta. Of these three, the Punarbhaba joined the Mahananda; the Atrai passing through a vast marshy area known as Chalan Beel joined the Karatoya and the united stream joined the Padma near Jafarganj. In the destructive floods of 1787, the Teesta river forsook its old channel and rushing south-east it joined the Brahmaputra. James Rennell made a survey between 1764 and 1777 and his maps are one of the earliest authentic maps of Bengal in existence.
In these maps Teesta is shown as flowing through North Bengal in several branches — Punarbhaba, Karatoya, etc. All these streams combined lower down with the Mahananda, now the westernmost river in North Bengal, taking the name of Hoorsagar discharged into the Ganges at Jafarganj, near modern Goalundo; the Hoorsagar river is still in existence, being the combined outfall of the Baral, a spill channel of the Ganges, the Atrai, the Jamuna or Jamuneswari, the Karatoya, but instead of falling into the Ganges, it falls into the main Jamuna, a few miles above its confluence with the Padma at Goalundo. Below the Teesta, the Brahmaputra splits into two distributary branches; the western branch, which contains the majority of the river's flow, continues due south as the Jamuna to merge with the lower Ganges, called the Padma River. The eastern branch the larger but now much smaller, is called the lower or Old Brahmaputra, it curves southeast to join the Meghna River near Dhaka. The Padma and Meghna flow out into the Bay of Bengal.
This final part of the river is called Meghna. In the past the course of the lower Brahmaputra was different and passed through the Jamalpur and Mymensingh districts. In a major magnitude earthquake on April 2, 1762, the main channel of the Brahmaputra at Bhahadurabad point was switched southwards and opened as Jamuna due to the result of tectonic uplift of the Madhupur tract; the Jamuna is a wide river. During the rains it is about 5–8 miles from bank to bank. During the dry season when the waters subside, the breadth is hardly less than 2–3 miles; the Jamuna was a barrier in establishing a direct road link between capital Dhaka and northern part of Bangladesh, better known as Rajshahi Division, until 1996. This was mitigated by the completion of the Jamuna Multi-purpose Bridge, it is a important waterway. It is navigable all year round by large passenger steamers. Before the Partition of Bengal in 1947, passenger steamers used to ply up to Dibrugarh in the state of Assam in the Indian Union. At present two steamer ferry services link the district of Pabna with the districts of Mymensingh and Dhaka.
The Bangladesh Railway maintains a ferry service between Serajganj in Pabna and Jagannathganj in Mymensingh. The other ferry service between Nagarbari in Pabna and Aricha in Dhaka is run by the C & B Department. List of rivers in Bangladesh Masud Hasan Chowdhury, "Jamuna River", in Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal, Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of BangladeshCS1 maint: Uses authors parameter
Malda district spelt Maldah or Maldaha (Bengali:, often. It lies 347 km north of the capital of West Bengal. Mango and silk are the most notable products of this district; the special variety of mango, Fazli produced in this region, popularly known by the name of the district, is exported across the world and is acclaimed internationally. The folk culture of gombhira is a feature of the district, being a unique way of representation of joy and sorrow of daily life of the common people, as well as the unique medium of presentation on national and international matters. According to the National Investigation Agency Malda is believed to be a hub of a fake currency racket, it is reported. District headquarters is English Bazar known as Malda, once the capital of Bengal; the district maintains the traditions of the past in education. Old Malda, the town which lies just east of the confluence of the Mahananda and Kalindi rivers, is part of the English Bazar metropolitan city; the town rose to prominence as the river port of the old capital of Pandua.
During the 18th century it was the seat of prosperous silk industries. It remains an important distributing centre for rice and wheat; the area between the historical monument of Jame Masjid and the landmark of Nimasarai tower across the river Mahananda, constituted a municipality in 1867. Rice, jute and oilseed are the chief crops in the surrounding area. Malda is the largest producer of excellent quality of jute in India. Mulberry plantations and mango orchards occupy large areas; the Independence Day of Malda is 17 August 1947. Pāṇini mentioned a city named Gourpura, which by strong reason may be identified as the city of Gouda, ruins of which are situated in this district. Examples are legion of the relics of a predecessor kingdom being used in the monuments of the successor kingdoms, it had been within the limits of ancient Pandua. These two cities had been the capital of Bengal in ancient and medieval ages and are equidistant and south, from English Bazar town; the boundary of Gour was changed in different ages since the 5th century BC, its name can be found in Puranic texts.
Pundranagara was the provincial capital of the Maurya Empire. Gour and Pundravardhana formed parts of the Mourya empire as is evinced from the inscriptions, Brahmi script on a seal discovered from the ruins of Mahasthangarh in the Bogra District of Bangladesh. Xuanzang saw many Ashokan stupas at Pundravardhana; the inscriptions discovered in the district of undivided Dinajpur and other parts of North Bengal, along with the Allahabad pillar inscriptions of Samudragupta indicate that the whole of North Bengal as far east as Kamrup formed a part of the Gupta Empire. After the Guptas in the beginning of 7th century AD Sasanka, the king of Karnasubarna as well as the king of Gauda ruled independently for more than three decades. From the middle of the 8th century to the end of the 11th century the Pala dynasty ruled Bengal, the kings were devoted to Buddhism, it was during their reign that the Jagadalla Vihara in Barindri flourished paralleling with Nalanda and Devikot. The Pala empire yielded to the emergence of Sen Dynasty, the Sen rulers were orthodox Hindus, in the habit of moving from place to place within their kingdom.
During this time, Buddhism went on the defensive. It disappeared from the demographic map of Bengal. At the time of Lakshman Sen Goud was known as Lakshmanabati; the Sen kings ruled Bengal till Bakhtiyar Khalji conquered Bengal in 1204 AD. Thereafter the Muslim rule started; the name Mal Daha was coined. Sultan Ilyas Shah, Firuz Shah, Sikandar Shah, Raja Ganesha, Alauddin Hussain Shah and Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah are the notable rulers of medieval age. Afghan warrior Sher Shah Suri was repelled by Mughal emperor Humayun. Humayun, loving the mango of Gour, named the place as Jannatabad. Firuz Shah Tughlaq and Mughal army invaded Gour to suppress rebellion several time. Relics of Muslim structures are present as Adina Mosque, Qutwali gate etc.. During the Mughal rule, the capital was removed to Dhaka due to a course change of the river Ganges. Muslim rule ended in 1757. Koch army invasion increased during the downfall of Gour. After the war of Palassy, the British rule started in 1757; the English traders settled in the southern bank of the river Mahananda.
Some indigo plant chambers, trade centre and offices were established. William Carey worked here, but the glorious days were gone. This district was formed out of some portions of outlying areas of Purnia and Rajshahi districts in 1813. At the time of Dr. B. Hamilton, the present thanas of Gazole, Malda and part of Habibpur were included in the district of Dinajpur and the thanas of Harischandrapur, Ratua and Kaliachak were included in the district of Purnia. In 1813, in consequence of the prevalence of serious crimes in the Kaliachak and Sahebganj thanas and on the rivers, a Joint Magistrate and Deputy Collector was appointed at English Bazar, with jurisdiction over a number of police stations centring that place and taken from the two districts, thus the district of Malda was born. The year 1832 saw the establishment of separate treasury and the year 1859 the posting of a full-fledged magistrate and collector. Up to 1876, this district formed part of Rajshahi Division and bet
The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis
Ministry of Panchayati Raj
The Ministry of Panchayati Raj is a branch of the Government of India looking after the ongoing process of decentralisation and local governance in the States. In a federation the powers and functions of the government are divided among two governments. In India it is the various State Governments. However, with the passage of 73rd and 74th amendment act of the Constitution of India, in 1993 the division of powers and functions have been further trickled down to Local Self Governments; as such India now has not two but three tier of Governments in its federal setup. Ministry of Panchayati Raj looks into all matters relating to the Panchayati Raj and Panchayati Raj Institutions, it was created in May 2004. The ministry is headed by a minister of cabinet rank; the ministry is now headed by Narendra Singh Tomar. Ministry of Panchayati Raj is responsible for the work of advocacy for and monitoring of the implementation of Constitution 73rd Amendment Act the Provisions of the Panchayats Act 1996. A New Ministry of Panchayati Raj has been created w.e.f.
27 May 2004. As per the amended allocation of Business Rules, "all matters relating to Panchayati Raj and Panchayati Raj Institutions" will be looked after by the newly created Ministry; the State governments/Union Territory Administrations, at present, are at varying degrees of the implementation of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts. The Ministry, inter-alia, would ensure that they hold timely elections, set up State Finance Commissions and implement their recommendations, constitute District Planning Committees and empower them suitably to ensure grass-root level planning to feed into State and Central level Planning effectively. One major task of the Ministry will be to ensure that the State Governments/UT Administrations devolve funds and functionaries on the Panchayati Raj Institutions in the spirit of the Constitutional provisions; the Ministry of Panchayati Raj will be responsible for formulation and implementation of an Action Plan for seeing PRIs to emerge as "Institutions of Local-Self Government" securing economic development and social justice in their respective areas.
Empowerment of Gram Sabhas by holding regular Meetings and social audit through Gram Sabhas so as to enable them to emerge as foundation of Panchayati Raj will be pursued vigorously with States/UT Administrations. Depending upon the local situation, States/UT Administrations will be encouraged to institute Ward Sabhas and Mahila Sabhas and make them functional; the Ministry attaches great importance to the capacity building of elected representatives and officials of PRIs as well as functionaries involved in the Rural Development Programmes. It is estimated that about 3 million elected Members and the Staff assigned to the Elected Bodies needs training to enable them to discharge their functions effectively; the Ministry will be funding research studies and seminars for development of Panchayats. The Ministry will implement the scheme of "National Awards for Best Panchayats" to encourage PR Institutions in discharging their role of "Institutions of Self-government" to be able to enforce economic development and social justice at the local level.
E-PANCHAYAT As per the World Bank, "E-Government refers to the use by government agencies of information technologies that have the ability to transform relations with citizens and other arms of government." Government of India, with an intention to transform the governance landscape by ensuring participation of citizens in policy making and providing ease of access to information to the citizens, introduced the National e-Governance Plan in 2006. The vision of the NeGP was to "Make all Government services accessible to the common man in his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency & reliability of such services at affordable costs to realise the basic needs of the common man." E- Panchayat is one of the Mission Mode Project being implemented with a vision to empower and transform rural India. As a first step towards formulating the project, the Ministry of Panchayati Raj constituted an Expert Group in June, 2007 under the Chairmanship of Dr. B.
K. Gairola, Director General, NIC, Government of India; the Expert Group was entrusted with the task of assessing the IT Programmes of Ministry of Panchayati Raj and recommending cost effective solutions along with the cost implications. Adopting a consultative approach, the Committee interacted with the States/UTs to assess the existing status of computerisation up to the Gram Panchayat level, including the initiatives undertaken by the State Governments. In order to understand the ground realities, the Committee conducted field visits to some of the Gram Panchayats in the selected rural areas where some IT initiatives had been undertaken. Inputs from eminent experts in the public and private sector were taken into account as part of the consultative process. In essence, it found that while some computerisation efforts had been made at Panchayat level by States like Gujarat, West Bengal, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Goa, these attempts were limited as they were driven by short term goals and were unable to transform Panchayats due to lack of a holistic perspective.
It was felt that a more comprehensive approach was required to make a cognisable impact on the functioning of the Panchayats for the benefit of the citizens. These recommendations formed the basis for the conceptualisation of ePanchayat MMP; the e-Panchayat project holds great promise for the rural masses as it aims to transform the Panchayat
Gangarampur subdivision is an administrative subdivision of the Dakshin Dinajpur district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Dakshin Dinajpur district is divided into two administrative subdivisions:.*2011 Gangarampur subdivision has 4 police stations, 4 community development blocks, 4 panchayat samitis, 30 gram panchayats, 750 mouzas, 730 inhabited villages, 2 municipalities and 2 census towns. The municipalities are at Buniadpur; the census towns are: Harirampur. The subdivision has its headquarters at Buniadpur. Police stations in Balurghat subdivision have the following features and jurisdiction: Community development blocks in Balurghat subdivision are: The subdivision contains 30 gram panchayats under 4 community development blocks: Gangarampur block consists of 11 gram panchayats, viz. Ashokegram, Belbari–II, Sukdevpur, Chaloon, Uday, Belbari–I, Damdama and 4no. Nandanpur. Banshihari block consists of 4 gram panchayats, viz. Ellahabad, Ganguria,Brajaballavpur and Mahabari. Harirampur block consists of 6 gram panchayats, viz. Bagichapur, Saiyadpur, Bairhatta and Shirshi.
Kushmandi block consists of 8 gram panchayats, viz. Akcha, Karanji, Beroil, Kalikamora and Udaypur. Dakshin Dinajpur district had a literacy rate of 72.82% as per the census of India 2011. Balurghat subdivision had a literacy rate of 75.78%, Gangarampur subdivision 69.24%. Given in the table below is a comprehensive picture of the education scenario in Dakshin district for the year 2013-14: Note: Primary schools include junior basic schools. Special and non-formal education centres include sishu siksha kendras, madhyamik siksha kendras, centres of Rabindra mukta vidyalaya, recognised Sanskrit tols, institutions for the blind and other handicapped persons, Anganwadi centres, reformatory schools etc; the following institutions are in Gangarampur subdivision: Gangarampur College was established in 1981 at Gangarampur. Buniadpur Mahavidyalaya was established at Buniadpur in 2007. Dewan Abdul Gani College was established at Harirampur in 1994. Kushmandi Government College was established at Kushmandi in 2015.
The table below presents an overview of the medical facilities available and patients treated in the hospitals, health centres and sub-centres in 2014 in Dakshin Dinajpur district..* Excluding nursing homes Medical facilities available in Gangarampur subdivision are as follows: Hospitals: Gangarampur subdivisional hospital, Gangarampur, 250 bedsRural Hospitals: Harirampur Rural Hospital, Harirampur CD Block, Harirampur, 30 beds Rashidpur Rural Hospital, Bansihari CD Block, Rashidpur, 30 beds Kushmandi Rural Hospital, Kushmandi CD Block, Dakshin Dinajpur, 30 bedsBlock Primary Health Centre: Mathurapur BPHC, Gangarampur CD Block, PO Bansagar, 10 bedsPrimary Health Centres: Gangarampur CD Block: Sarbamangala Harirampur CD Block: Balihara Bansihari CD Block: Badalpur Kushmandi CD Block: Sehail, Aminpur Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha constituencies in Gangarampur subdivision were as follows