Jämtland County is a county or län in the middle of Sweden consisting of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, along with minor parts of Hälsingland and Ångermanland, plus two small uninhabited strips of Lapland and Dalarna. Jämtland County constitutes 12 percent of Sweden's total area, 49,443 km2 and is the third largest county in the country; the county capital is Östersund and the county governor, appointed by the Swedish government, is Jöran Hägglund, who leads the administrative board. Jämtland County borders the counties of Dalarna, Gävleborg, Västernorrland, Västerbotten, it shares a border with the Norwegian county of Trøndelag. The county was established in 1810 and its foundation has both domestic and foreign causes. Upon formation it only consisted of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, why the coat of arms is a shield parted per fess with their provincial arms. For History and Culture see: Jämtland and HärjedalenJämtland County consists of the provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen, though minor parts of Hälsingland and Ångermanland are included, along with small uninhabited areas in Lapland and Dalarna.
The main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests and promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case. The County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Jämtland Governors. Jämtland County is sparsely populated and more than one third of the population live on the countryside, making Jämtland County the second largest rural region in Sweden, after Gotland County, though a majority of the population live in the rather densely populated region surrounding lake Storsjön called Storsjöbygden, "the Storsjö district/countryside"; the county is dominated by the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Swedish Rural Centre Party, unique in Sweden, but corresponds to the situation in the bordering Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag. The county is rather contrastive in the political field.
While the municipality association and a majority of the municipalities are governed by liberal-conservative majorities or by coalitions overstepping the bloc border, the county council is red-green and the Social Democrats receive three out of five mandates to the Riksdag. After the Swedish general election in 2014, the Jämtland County council are represented by the following political parties: The County Council of Jämtland or Jämtlands Läns Landsting. In Härjedalen Province: HärjedalenIn Jämtland Province: Berg Bräcke Krokom Ragunda Strömsund Åre Östersund The arms for the County of Jämtland is a combination of the arms of Jämtland, Härjedalen; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Blazon: "Parted per fess, the arms of Jämtland and the arms of Härjedalen." Duke of Jämtland, a title for members of the royal family, born by Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden before his accession to the throne. Jamtlandic Jämtland County Administrative Board Jämtland County Council Jämtlands Official Site Hammarstrands camping
Falun is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, with 37,291 inhabitants in 2010. It is the capital of Dalarna County. Falun forms, together with Borlänge, a metropolitan area with close to 100,000 inhabitants. Falun was famous for its copper mine, is today an important service and industrial city though the mine is closed. Faluån is a river, flowing through the city. Falu copper mine is located on one of the sides which during many centuries was one of Sweden's main business; this side of the river was called "the mining side", where not many plants grew due to the toxic smoke which contaminated the soil. On the other side of the river, where the smoke did not reach, sets a large number of large villas, which made this side to be called "the delightful side"; the centre of Falun consists of classical pedestrian streets with small shops. In 1998, the city reclaimed the award of "the city centre of the year" in Sweden; the year 2001, the city, the copper mine and mining areas of Falun were added to the list of world heritage sites by the United Nations, which means that the city is worth preserving, as it is considered to be of interest for all of humanity.
Dalarna University, with its 18 000 students, has a campus located in Falun - close to the national ski stadium where the ski world championship has taken place a number of times, including the last one in 2015. The name of Falun has influenced the names of some Swedish items associated with the town, such as Falu red, Falu rågrut, Falu ättika and Falukorv; the town of Falun is known to have existed in the 14th century as a market place for the surrounding lands. Mining for copper had been a local business since the mid-13th century, or as early as 1000, the organisation for the extracting of copper and gold from Stora Kopparberget is believed to be the oldest still-existing enterprise in the world, proved active since 1347, when its charter was granted by King Magnus IV of Sweden; the first share in the company is dated as early as 1288. However, an enterprise at that time was nothing more than a cooperative among the owners, each contributing with a share of money for construction, etc. necessary to run the organisation.
Depending on their contributions they could use the facilities and share the profits in proportion to the relative sizes of their individual contributions. The city of Falun received its privileges in 1641. By Falun was one of the largest cities in Sweden, with about 6000 inhabitants. Soon, the importance of the copper mine began to decrease. In 1687, parts of the mine collapsed in a landslide. Though the mine remained in use for the next 300 years, the production diminished, until it closed down in 1992; the mining area of the Great Copper Mountain has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the name of the mining company of Falun, is today a part of Stora Enso. During World War II, Falun was the place where the authorities "interned" British and American airmen who happened to land in Sweden, or reached the country after landing in German-controlled territories. Unlike civilian refugees from Germany, who were kept in internment camps throughout the country and American airmen were placed in hotels and bed and breakfast establishments in the Falun area, enjoyed relative freedom.
Falun has a humid continental climate. Winter is the longest season lasting from mid-November until the end of March, although March daytime temperatures tend to be mild. With an average high temperature of 23 °C, July is the warmest month. However, the all-time heat record was set on August 2014 when 35.1 °C was measured. This was in turn the highest measured temperature of the intense heat wave that summer that affected most of Scandinavia; the climate of Falun is more continental than most of Sweden since it is far from large bodies of waters moderating temperatures. As a result, the highs of July in Falun are warmer than many areas much further south in the country. Winters, are cold but highly variable due to the proximity to some maritime influence that brings mild temperatures above freezing, moderating average temperatures; the most precipitation occurs during the summer months of August. The lowest temperature recorded in Falun is −40.0 °C. The weather station has however, not recorded below −37.2 °C according to the open data.
Stora Gruvstugan was designed by Eric Geisler and built between 1771-1785 in a Rococo Style referred to as Late Baroque. The building is used to be the main office to the copper mine. In 1882 the building was rebuilt into Berslagets museum. In the beginning of 1920, the mining came close to the structure which made it fragile and extensive repairs was made to the building. Västra Skolan was built based on a design by the city architect in Falun, Klas Boman; the building functioned as a school up until 2010. The tower was a replica of Kristine Kyrka. Egnellska Huset was designed by Falun's first city architect, Klas Boman; the building functioned as a modern residential building. The building was a light yellow color and later recolored in a more bright yellow color. After two separate fires in 2007 and 2008, the building was restored to its original appearance. Falugatan is a street in Falun and has since the 15th century functioned as a connection between eastern and western Falun. Thanks to its location by the river, this site became an important commerce site for city.
Hedmark is a county in Norway, bordering Trøndelag to the north, Oppland to the west and Akershus to the south. The county administration is in Hamar. Hedmark makes up the northeastern part of the southeastern part of the country, it has a long border with Dalarna County and Värmland County. The largest lakes are the largest lake in Norway. Parts of Glomma, Norway's longest river, flow through Hedmark. Geographically, Hedmark is traditionally divided into: Hedemarken, east of Mjøsa, Østerdalen, north of Elverum, Glåmdalen, south of Elverum. Hedmark and Oppland are the only Norwegian counties with no coastline. Hedmark hosted some events of the 1994 Winter Olympic Games. Hamar, Kongsvinger and Tynset are cities in the county. Hedmark is one of the less urbanized areas in Norway; the population is concentrated in the rich agricultural district adjoining Mjøsa to the southeast. The county's extensive forests supply much of Norway's timber; the Hedmark municipality of Engerdal has the distinction of marking the current southernmost border in Norway of Sápmi, the traditional region of the Sami people.
The county is divided into three traditional districts. These are Østerdalen and Solør. Hedmark was a part of the large Akershus amt, but in 1757 Oplandenes amt was separated from it; some years in 1781, this was divided into Kristians amt and Hedemarkens amt. Until 1919, the county was called Hedemarkens amt; the Old Norse form of the name was Heiðmǫrk. The first element is heiðnir, the name of an old Germanic tribe and is related to the word heið, which means moorland; the last element is mǫrk'woodland, march'. The coat of arms is from modern times, it shows three barkespader. Every four years the inhabitants of Hedmark elect 33 representatives to Hedmark Fylkesting, the Hedmark County Assembly. After the elections of September 2007 the majority of the seats of the assembly were held by a three-party coalition consisting of the Labour Party, the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party. Eight parties are represented in the assembly, the remaining 5 being the Progress Party, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, the Christian Democratic Party and the Pensioners Party.
The assembly is headed by the county mayor. As of the 2007 elections the county mayor is Arnfinn Nergård, he represents the Centre Party. In 2003 a parliamentary system was established, which means that the county assembly elects a political administration or council to hold executive power; this county council reflects the majority of the county assembly and includes the three parties holding the majority of the assembly seats, i.e. the Labour Party, the Center Party and the Socialist Left Party. The council is led by a member of the Labour Party. Official homepage Media related to Hedmark at Wikimedia Commons Hedmark travel guide from Wikivoyage
Västerås Castle is situated in Västerås, the province of Västmanland, Sweden
Government of Sweden
The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority of Sweden. The short-form name Regeringen is used both in the Fundamental Laws of the Realm and in the vernacular, while the long-form is only used in international treaties; the Government operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister—appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag —and other cabinet ministers and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Government is responsible for its actions to the Riksdag. Following the adoption of the 1974 Instrument of Government on 1 January 1975—the Government in its present constitutional form was constituted—and in consequence thereof the Swedish Monarch is no longer vested any nominal executive powers at all with respect to the governance of the Realm, but continues to serve as a ceremonial head of state. Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1; the Instrument of Government —one of the Fundamental Laws of the Realm—sets out the main responsibilities and duties of the Government and how it relates to other organs of the State.
Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1. Most state administrative authorities, as opposed to local authorities, sorts under the Government, including the Armed Forces, Coast Guard, Customs Service and the Swedish police. While the Judiciary technically sort under the Government in the fiscal sense, Chapter 11 of the Instrument of Government provides safeguards to ensure its independence. In a unique feature of the Swedish constitutional system, individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; the Government of Sweden is the high contracting party when entering treaties with foreign sovereign states and international organisations, as per 10:1 of the Instrument of Government. In most other parliamentary systems this formal function is vested in the head of state but exercised by ministers in such name. Chapter 6, Article 7 prescribes that laws and ordinances are promulgated by the Government, are subsequently published in the Swedish Code of Statutes.
Following a general election, Speaker of the Riksdag begins to hold talks with the leaders of the parties with representation in the Riksdag, the Speaker nominates a candidate for Prime Minister. The nomination is put to a vote in the chamber. Unless an absolute majority of the members votes "no", the nomination is confirmed, otherwise it is rejected; the Speaker must find a new nominee. This means. After being elected the Prime Minister appoints the cabinet ministers and announces them to the Riksdag; the new Government takes office at a special council held at the Royal Palace before the Monarch, at which the Speaker of the Riksdag formally announces to the Monarch that the Riksdag has elected a new Prime Minister and that the Prime Minister has chosen his cabinet ministers. The Riksdag can cast a vote of no confidence against any single cabinet minister, thus forcing a resignation. To succeed a vote of no confidence must be supported by an absolute majority or it has failed. If a vote of no confidence is cast against the Prime Minister this means the entire government is rejected.
A losing government has one week to call for a general election or else the procedure of nominating a new Prime Minister starts anew. Each appointment of a new Prime Minister is considered to result in a new cabinet, irrespective if the Prime Minister is reappointed or not. However, there is no automatic resignation following a defeat in a general election, so an election does not always result in a new cabinet. Known as the Royal Chancery, the name was changed to the Government Offices on 1 January 1975 with the current Instrument of Government entering into effect; the Instrument of Government mentions in Chapter 7, Article 1 that there is a staff organization supporting the Government known as the Government Offices. The present organizational charter for the Government Offices is found in the ordinance named Förordning med instruktion för Regeringskansliet. Since the issuance of that ordinance in 1996, all the ministries are technically entities within the Government Offices, rather than as separate organisations though they operate as such.
Below follows a short summary of the current structure. Only current ministries and offices are listed below: Government Offices Prime Minister's Office Ministry of Justice Ministry for Foreign Affairs Ministry of Defence Ministry of Health and Social Affairs
The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members, elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms; the constitutional functions of the Riksdag are enumerated in the Instrument of Government, its internal workings are specified in greater detail in the Riksdag Act. The seat of the Riksdag is at Parliament House, on the island of Helgeandsholmen in the central parts of Stockholm; the Riksdag has its institutional roots in the feudal Riksdag of the Estates, by tradition thought to have first assembled in Arboga in 1435, in 1866 following reforms of the 1809 Instrument of Government that body was transformed into a bicameral legislature with an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The most recent general election was held on 9 September 2018; the Swedish word riksdag, in definite form riksdagen, is a general term for "parliament" or "assembly", but it is only used for Sweden's legislature and certain related institutions.
In addition to Sweden's parliament, it is used for the Parliament of Finland and the Estonian Riigikogu, as well as the historical German Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdagen. In Swedish use, riksdagen is uncapitalized. Riksdag derives from the genitive of rike, referring to royal power, dag, meaning diet or conference; the Oxford English Dictionary traces English use of the term "Riksdag" in reference to the Swedish assembly back to 1855. The roots of the modern Riksdag can be found in a 1435 meeting of the Swedish nobility in the city of Arboga; this informal organization was modified in 1527 by the first modern Swedish king Gustav I Vasa to include representatives from all the four social estates: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers, the yeomanry. This form of Ständestaat representation lasted until 1865, when representation by estate was abolished and the modern bicameral parliament established. However, it did not become a parliament in the modern sense until parliamentary principles were established in the political system in Sweden, in 1917.
On 22 June 1866, the Riksdag decided to reconstitute itself as a bicameral legislature, consisting of Första kammaren or the First Chamber, with 155 members and Andra kammaren or the Second Chamber with 233 members. The First Chamber was indirectly elected by county and city councillors, while the Second Chamber was directly elected by universal suffrage; this reform was a result of great malcontent with the old Estates, following the changes brought by the beginnings of the industrial revolution, was no longer able to provide representation for large segments of the population. By an amendment to the 1809 Instrument of Government, the general election of 1970 was the first to a unicameral assembly with 350 seats; the following general election to the unicameral Riksdag in 1973 only gave the Government the support of 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members. In a number of cases a tied vote ensued, the final decision had to be determined by lot. To avoid any reccurrence of this unstable situation, the number of seats in the Riksdag was reduced to 349, from 1976 onwards.
The Riksdag performs the normal functions of a legislature in a parliamentary democracy. It amends the constitution and appoints a government. In most parliamentary democracies, the head of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Instrument of Government enacted in 1974, that task was removed from the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Speaker of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Instrument of Government, amendments must be approved twice, in two successive electoral periods with a regular general election held in between. There are 15 parliamentary committees in the Riksdag; as of February 2013, 44.7 percent of the members of the Riksdag are women. This is the world's fourth highest proportion of females in a national legislature—behind only the Parliaments of Rwanda and Cuba – hence the second-highest in the developed world and among parliamentary democracies. Following the 2014 elections, in which the share of Liberal female members of parliament plunged and the Sweden Democrats more than doubled their seats, the figure dropped to 43,5%.
Only the Left Party has a majority of female MPs. Members of the Riksdag are full-time legislators with a salary of 66 900 SEK per month. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Members of the Riksdag have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports; the presidium consists of three deputy speakers. They are elected for a 4-year term. After holding talks with leaders of the various party groups in the Riksdag, the speaker of the Riksdag nominates a Prime Minister; the nomination is put to a vote. The nomination is rejected only if an absolute majority of the members vote "no"; this means the Riksdag can consent to a Prime Min
Västmanland County is a county or län in central Sweden. It borders to the counties of Södermanland, Örebro, Gävleborg and Uppsala; the county has a stretch of shoreline towards Mälaren. For history and culture, see: Västmanland The main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests of the county, to promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case; the County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Västmanland Governors; the County Council of Västmanland or Landstinget Västmanland. Lake at the lower right is Mälaren. Arboga Fagersta Hallstahammar Kungsör Köping Norberg Sala Skinnskatteberg Surahammar Västerås The County of Västmanland inherited its coat of arms from the province of Västmanland; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board.
Football in the county is administered by Västmanlands Fotbollförbund. Bandy is popular, with the most successful Swedish team Västerås SK. Several Bandy World Championship finals have been played in Västerås. Västmanland County Administrative Board Västmanland County Council