Appomattox Court House National Historical Park
The Appomattox Court House is a National Historical Park of original and reconstructed 19th century buildings in Appomattox County, Virginia. The village is famous as the site of the Battle of Appomattox Court House and containing the house of Wilmer McLean, where the surrender of the Confederate army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant took place on April 9, 1865 ending the American Civil War; the McLean House was the site of the surrender conference, but the village itself is named for the presence nearby of what is now preserved as the Old Appomattox Court House. The park was established August 3, 1935; the village was made a national monument in 1940 and a national historical park in 1954. It is located about three miles east of Appomattox, the location of the Appomattox Station and the "new" Appomattox Court House, it is in the center of the state about 25 miles east of Virginia. The historical park was described in 1989 as having an area of 1,325 acres; the antebellum village started out as "Clover Hill" named after its oldest existing structure, the Clover Hill Tavern.
The village was a stagecoach stop along the Richmond-Lynchburg stage road. The activity in Clover Hill centered around Clover Hill Tavern; the tavern provided lodging to travelers. Fresh horses for the stage line were provided at the stop, done since the tavern was built, it was the site of organizational meetings and so when Appomattox County was established by an Act on February 8, 1845, Clover Hill village became the county seat. It was parts of Buckingham, Prince Edward and Campbell Counties; the jurisdiction took its name from the headwaters, the Appomattox River. Early Virginians believed. From about 1842, Hugh Raine owned most of the Clover Hill area, he obtained it from his brother John Raine. He sold the property to a Colonel Samuel D. McDearmon. Since his acquisition, it became the county seat and he surveyed 30 acres of the hamlet, he designated 2 acres to be used by the new county to build a courthouse and other government buildings. The courthouse was to be built across the Stage Road from the Clover Hill Tavern.
The jail was to be built behind the courthouse. McDearmon divided the remaining land surrounding the courthouse into 1-acre lots, he felt that with Clover Hill's new status as a county seat he would find professional people ready and willing to purchase the lots. His hopes were dashed in 1854 as the train depot stopped three miles west in Appomattox, Virginia; the American Civil War put the final nails in the coffin. The district once known as Clover Hill and renamed to Appomattox Court House continued to decline as businesses moved to the area of the Appomattox Station; the village contained 30 acres of the original Patteson's Clover Hill Tavern property of some 200 acres. Raine provided the Clover Hill Tavern for meeting space for the organization of the new county in May 1845 and naming the township "Clover Hill."The county records show: "And be it further enacted, that not exceeding thirthy acres of land, now occupied by Captain John Raine, in the now county of Prince Edward, lying on the stage road leading from or through said county to the town of Lynchburg, at the place called and known as Clover Hill, the proposed seat of justice for the said new county, so soon as the same shall be laid off into lots, with convenient streets and alleys, with back and cross streets if necessary, shall be and the same is hereby established a town by the name of Clover Hill."According to a Union writer at the time of the American Civil War the village consisted of about "five houses, a tavern, a courthouse — all on one street, boarded up at one end to keep the cows out."
There were more dwellings in this obscure hamlet, some of which were off the main village street. There were a large number of out-buildings; the hamlet had two stores, law offices, a saddler, three blacksmiths, other businesses. A tavern had been built by John Raine in 1848. Many rural counties in the Southern States had county seats whose names were formed by adding court house to the name of the county, hence the village name became Appomattox Court House, it presently has a couple of dozen restored buildings. Some of the notable buildings are the Peers House, McLean House, New County Jail, Jones Law Office, Clover Hill Tavern, Woodson Law Office, Bocock-Isbell House, Mariah Wright House, Plunkett-Meeks Store, Sweeney-Conner Cabin, Charles Sweeney Cabin, Sweeney Prizery and the Old Appomattox Court House. There are various ruins and cemeteries within the village. At the time of the Act of Congress that authorized the Appomattox Court House National Historical Park in 1935, the existing buildings were the Clover Hill Tavern, the Tavern guest house and kitchen, the Woodson Law office structure, the Plunkett-Meeks Store, the Bocock-Isbell House, several residences outside the village limits.
There are several markers throughout the field of the village that show points of interest within the Park. Some of these are General Grant's headquarters. There is a monument and two tablets that were erected by the state of N
Ozark is a city in and the county seat of Dale County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 14,907. Ozark is the principal city of the Ozark Micropolitan Statistical Area, as well as a part of the Dothan-Enterprise-Ozark Combined Statistical Area. Fort Rucker, the primary flight training base for Army Aviation, abuts Ozark; the Ozark area was inhabited by the Muscogee people. It is said that Ozark received its name after a traveler visited and was reminded of the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas; the first known European settler in Ozark was John Merrick, Sr. a veteran of the Revolutionary War, in 1822. In honor of him, the town was named Merricks, it was changed to Woodshop, its name when the town received its post office. The first appearance of the name Ozark was in 1855; the county seat was moved from Newton to Ozark 1870. Ozark is home to three sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places: the Claybank Log Church, the Samuel Lawson Dowling House, the J. D. Holman House.
Ozark is located at 31°26′53″N 85°38′31″W. It is part of the Wiregrass Region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.5 square miles of which 34.2 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 15,119 people, 6,126 households, 4,233 families residing in the city; the population density was 441.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,955 housing units at an average density of 203.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.28% White, 28.30% Black or African American, 0.67% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 1.53% from two or more races. 2.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,126 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.9% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,330, the median income for a family was $38,633. Males had a median income of $30,236 versus $19,564 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,984. About 14.8% of families and 19.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.0% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 14,907 people, 6,209 households, 4,064 families residing in the city; the population density was 440 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,920 housing units at an average density of 201.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 64.8% White, 30.2% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races.
3.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,209 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.3% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 28.2% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,079, the median income for a family was $52,061. Males had a median income of $41,513 versus $28,227 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,103. About 13.6% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.2% of those under age 18 and 14.4% of those age 65 or over.
Ozark is served by the Ozark City Schools. Schools located in the city are Carroll High School, Carroll Career Center, D. A. Smith Middle School, Harry N. Mixon Intermediate School, Joseph W. Lisenby Primary School There two private schools in Ozark – Harvest Christian School, Dale County Christian School. Both. Post-secondary education is available at Enterprise State Community College's Alabama Aviation Center at Ozark. Programs are offered in Aviation maintenance technology. WDBT 103.9 FM WOAB 104.9 FM WOZK 900 AM WQLS 1210 AM The Southern Star- weekly Steve Clouse, state representative Larry Donnell, tight end for the New York Giants Wilbur Jackson, National Football League Meg McGuffin, Miss Alabama 2015 Steve McLendon, nose tackle/defensive end, Pittsburgh Steelers Byron Mitchell, former super middleweight boxing champion Marc Ronan, Major League Baseball catcher Naseeb Saliba, co-founder of Tutor-Saliba Corporation Josh Savage, professional football player Ozark Civic Center Official city website
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Little Round Top
Little Round Top is the smaller of two rocky hills south of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania—the companion to the adjacent, taller hill named Big Round Top. It was the site of an unsuccessful assault by Confederate troops against the Union left flank on July 2, 1863, the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg. Little Round Top was arguably the decisive terrain in the Battle of Gettysburg as it’s capture by the Confederates would have allowed Lee to enfilade the Union lines with cannon fire leading to their defeat. Confederate victory at Gettysburg would have opened the way to Washington for the Confederate Army and potential victory in the Civil War. Little Round Top was defended by the brigade of Col. Strong Vincent; the 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment, commanded by Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, fought the most famous engagement there, culminating in a dramatic downhill bayonet charge, one of the most well-known actions at Gettysburg and in the American Civil War. Little Round Top is a large diabase spur of Big Round Top with an oval crest that forms a short ridgeline with a summit of 63 ft prominence above the saddle point to Big Round Top to the south.
Located in Cumberland Township two miles south of Gettysburg, with a rugged, steep slope rising 150 feet above nearby Plum Run to the west, strewn with large boulders. The western slope was free from vegetation, while the summit and eastern and southern slopes were wooded. Directly to the south was its companion hill, Big Round Top, 130 feet higher and densely wooded. There is no evidence that the name "Little Round Top" was used by soldiers or civilians during the battle. Although the larger hill was known before the battle as Round Top, Round Top Mountain, sometimes Round Hill, accounts written in 1863 referred to the smaller hill with a variety of names: Rock Hill, High Knob, Sugar Loaf Hill, Broad Top Summit, granite spur of Round Top. Historian John B. Bachelder, who had an enormous influence on the preservation of the Gettysburg battlefield favored the name "Weed's Hill," in honor of Brig. Gen. Stephen H. Weed, mortally wounded on Little Round Top. Bachelder abandoned that name by 1873.
One of the first public uses of "Little Round Top" was by Edward Everett in his oration at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery on November 19, 1863. The igneous landform was created 200 million years ago when the "outcrop of the Gettysburg sill" intruded through the Triassic "Gettysburg plain". Subsequent periglacial frost wedging during the Pleistocene formed the hill's extensive boulders. About 4 p.m. on July 2, 1863, Confederate Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's First Corps began an attack ordered by General Robert E. Lee, intended to drive northeast up the Emmitsburg Road in the direction of Cemetery Hill, rolling up the Union left flank. Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood's division was assigned to attack up the eastern side of the road, Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws's division the western side. Hood's division stepped off first, but instead of guiding on the road, elements began to swing directly to the east in the direction of the Round Tops. Instead of driving the entire division up the spine of Houck's Ridge, parts of Hood's division detoured over Round Top and approached the southern slope of Little Round Top.
There were four probable reasons for the deviation in the division's direction: first, regiments from the Union III Corps were unexpectedly in the Devil's Den area and they would threaten Hood's right flank if they were not dealt with. S. Sharpshooters at Slyder's farm drew the attention of lead elements of Brig. Gen. Evander M. Law's brigade, moving in pursuit and drawing his brigade to the right. In the meantime, Little Round Top was undefended by Union troops. Maj. Gen. George Meade, commander of the Army of the Potomac, had ordered Maj. Gen. Daniel Sickles's III Corps to defend the southern end of Cemetery Ridge, which would have just included Little Round Top. Sickles, defying Meade's orders, moved his corps a few hundred yards west to the Emmitsburg Road and the Peach Orchard; this caused a large salient in the line, too long to defend properly. His left flank was anchored in Devil's Den; when Meade discovered this situation, he dispatched his chief engineer, Brig. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, to attempt to deal with the situation south of Sickles's position.
Climbing Little Round Top, Warren found only a small Signal Corps station there. He saw the glint of bayonets in the sun to the southwest and realized that a Confederate assault into the Union flank was imminent, he hurriedly sent staff officers, including Washington Roebling, to find help from any available units in the vicinity. The response to this request for help came from Maj. Gen. George Sykes, commander of the Union V Corps. Sykes dispatched a messenger to order his 1st Division, commanded by Brig. Gen. James Barnes, to Little Round Top. Before the messenger could reach Barnes, he encountered Col. Strong Vincent, commander of the third brigade, who seized the initiative and directed his four regiments to Little Round Top without waiting for permission from Barnes, he and Oliver W. Norton, the brigade bugler, galloped ahead to reconnoiter and guide his four regiments into position. Upon arrival on Little Round Top and Norton received fire from Confederate batteries immediately. On the western slope he placed th
Battle of Franklin (1864)
The Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864, in Franklin, Tennessee, as part of the Franklin–Nashville Campaign of the American Civil War. It was one of the worst disasters of the war for the Confederate States Army. Confederate Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood's Army of Tennessee conducted numerous frontal assaults against fortified positions occupied by the Union forces under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield and was unable to break through or to prevent Schofield from executing a planned, orderly withdrawal to Nashville; the Confederate assault of six infantry divisions containing eighteen brigades with 100 regiments numbering 20,000 men, sometimes called the "Pickett's Charge of the West", resulted in devastating losses to the men and the leadership of the Army of Tennessee—fourteen Confederate generals and 55 regimental commanders were casualties. After its defeat against Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas in the subsequent Battle of Nashville, the Army of Tennessee retreated with half the men with which it had begun the short offensive, was destroyed as a fighting force for the remainder of the war.
The 1864 Battle of Franklin was the second military action in the vicinity. Following his defeat in the Atlanta Campaign, Hood had hoped to lure Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman into battle by disrupting his railroad supply line from Chattanooga to Atlanta. After a brief period in which he pursued Hood, Sherman decided instead to cut his main army off from these lines and "live off the land" in his famed March to the Sea from Atlanta to Savannah. By doing so, he would avoid having to defend hundreds of miles of supply lines against constant raids, through which he predicted he would lose "a thousand men monthly and gain no result" against Hood's army. Sherman's march left the aggressive Hood unoccupied, his Army of Tennessee had several options in attacking Sherman or falling upon his rear lines; the task of defending Tennessee and the rearguard against Hood fell to Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, commander of the Army of the Cumberland; the principal forces available in Middle Tennessee were IV Corps of the Army of the Cumberland, commanded by Maj. Gen. David S. Stanley, XXIII Corps of the Army of the Ohio, commanded by Maj. Gen. John Schofield, with a total strength of about 30,000.
Another 30,000 troops under Thomas's command were in or moving toward Nashville. Rather than trying to chase Sherman in Georgia, Hood decided that he would attempt a major offensive northward though his invading force of 39,000 would be outnumbered by the 60,000 Union troops in Tennessee, he would move north into Tennessee and try to defeat portions of Thomas's army in detail before they could concentrate, seize the important manufacturing and supply center of Nashville, continue north into Kentucky as far as the Ohio River. Hood expected to pick up 20,000 recruits from Tennessee and Kentucky in his path of victory and join up with Robert E. Lee's army in Virginia, a plan that historian James M. McPherson describes as "scripted in never-never land." It should be noted here that Hood had recovered from but was affected by a couple of serious physical battle wounds to a leg and arm, which caused him pain and limited his mobility. Hood spent the first three weeks of November supplying the Army of Tennessee in northern Alabama in preparation for his offensive.
The Army of Tennessee marched north from Florence, Alabama, on November 21, indeed managed to surprise the Union forces, the two halves of which were 75 miles apart at Pulaski and Nashville. With a series of fast marches that covered 70 miles in three days, Hood tried to maneuver between the two armies to destroy each in detail, but Union general Schofield, commanding Stanley's IV Corps as well as his own XXIII Corps, reacted with a rapid retreat from Pulaski to Columbia, which held an important bridge over the Duck River on the turnpike north. Despite suffering losses from Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry along the way, the Federals were able to reach Columbia and erect fortifications just hours before the Confederates arrived on November 24. From November 24 to 29, Schofield managed to block Hood at this crossing, the "Battle of Columbia" was a series of bloodless skirmishes and artillery bombardments while both sides re-gathered their armies. On November 28, Thomas directed Schofield to begin preparations for a withdrawal north to Franklin.
He was incorrectly expecting that Maj. Gen. A. J. Smith's XVI Corps arrival from Missouri was imminent and he wanted the combined force to defend against Hood on the line of the Harpeth River at Franklin instead of the Duck River at Columbia. Meanwhile, early on the morning of November 29, Hood sent Cheatham's and Stewart's corps north on a flanking march, they crossed the Duck River at Davis's Ford east of Columbia, while two divisions of Lee's corps and most of the army's artillery remained on the southern bank to deceive Schofield into thinking a general assault was planned against Columbia. Now that Hood had outflanked him by noon on November 29, Schofield's army was in critical danger, his command was split at that time between his supply wagons and artillery and part of the IV Corps, which he had sent to Spring Hill nearly ten miles north of Columbia, the rest of the IV and XXIII corps marching from Columbia to join them. In the Battle of Spring Hill that afternoon and night, Hood had a golden opportunity to intercept and destroy the Union troops and their supply wagons, as his forces had reached the turnpike separating the Union forces by nightfall.
However, because of a series of command fa
Newton is a town in Dale County, United States. At the 2010 census its population was 1,511. Once the county seat of Dale County, Newton lost this distinction to nearby Ozark in 1870, is now a small farming community, it incorporated in 1887. The city forms a part of the Ozark micropolitan statistical area. Newton is located at 31°21′N 85°36′W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 14.3 square miles, of which 14.3 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The Choctawhatchee River flows just to the west of Newton. At one time this waterway was navigable by steamboat from its mouth in Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida all the way to Newton. Alabama State Route 123 and Alabama State Route 134 both pass through Newton. Newton was founded in 1843 after the formation of Coffee County from Dale County's western half, which rendered the original county seat of Daleville off-center; the town was a scene for Confederate recruiting during the Civil War, was the site of a battle in March 1865 between local Home Guard troops and elements of the 1st Florida Cavalry operating out of Florida.
The Federals were led by Joseph Sanders, a Dale County resident, a captain in the 31st Georgia Infantry, but had switched sides and joined the Federals. Seeking to burn the county courthouse, the attackers were repulsed when local troops ambushed their column as they entered the town; this event is commemorated by a monument located in downtown Newton, by annual re-enactments. On December 3, 1864, a local Methodist minister named Bill Sketoe was lynched just north of Newton by local Home Guardsmen led by Captain Joseph Brear. Since Sketoe was tall, a hole had to be dug beneath his feet to accommodate his large frame. Local legend insists that "the hole that won't stay filled" never vanished—even after being filled in numerous times during the years that followed. Though covered in 1979 by a new bridge and tons of rip-rap, "Sketoe's hole" remains a local attraction, was documented by Alabama writer Kathryn Tucker Windham in her 13 Alabama Ghosts and Jeffrey. A monument to Sketoe was dedicated near the hanging site in 2006, the local museum displays items of Sketoe memorabilia.
Following a fire which destroyed the courthouse in March 1869, the formation of Geneva County in 1870 from the southern third of Dale and Coffee Counties, voters relocated the county seat to Ozark, more centralized. The Southern Star, one of the oldest newspapers in the Wiregrass area, was first published in Newton in 1867, it relocated to Ozark, where it continues to be published today. Newton remained a port for river boats on the nearby Choctawhatchee, until the railroad arrived in 1890; the Baptist Collegiate Institute operated in the city from 1898 to 1929. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,708 people, 693 households, 510 families residing in the town; the population density was 119.5 people per square mile. There were 790 housing units at an average density of 55.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 82.20% White, 15.52% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. 1.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 693 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.4% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.93. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,021, the median income for a family was $35,795. Males had a median income of $28,924 versus $19,559 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,263. About 13.3% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.8% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 1,511 people, 650 households, 439 families residing in the town. The population density was 105.7 people per square mile. There were 738 housing units at an average density of 51.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 83.6% White, 13.0% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.0% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. 1.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 650 households out of which 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.84. In the town, the population was spread out with 20.3% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 22.6% from 25 to 44, 32.6% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,750, the median income for a family was $47
Battle of Ringgold Gap
The Battle of Ringgold Gap was fought November 27, 1863, in northwest Georgia during the Chattanooga Campaign of the American Civil War. The Confederate victory by Maj. Gen. Patrick Cleburne gave the artillery and wagon trains of the Army of Tennessee safe passage to retreat through the "Ringgold Gap" mountain pass and caused high Federal casualties; the disastrous Confederate rout at Missionary Ridge on November 25 forced the Army of Tennessee to retreat into northwest Georgia. The army soon came upon the mountain pass known as the Ringgold Gap. To give time for his artillery and wagon trains to get through the gap, Confederate General Braxton Bragg decided to send Maj. Gen. Patrick Cleburne to defend the pass from the Union army. While Cleburne expressed doubt he could defend the gap adequately with his single division, Bragg refused to send any further troops to assist Cleburne. Cleburne deployed his men at the gap before dawn of November 27; the remainder of the division was deployed in the gap itself as a reserve.
The Union commander at Chattanooga, Ulysses S. Grant, had ordered a pursuit of the retreating Confederate army on the morning of November 26, but confusion over the orders prevented the Union forces from getting an early start; the Confederate rear guard had burned the bridges over South Chickamauga Creek, which further delayed the Union forces. Joseph Hooker was given command of divisions from the IV Corps, XI Corps, XII Corps, XV Corps and ordered to cut the Western and Atlantic Railroad near Graysville. However, he decided to concentrate his forces near the town of Ringgold, thinking that he would have a better chance of cutting off the Confederate rear guard. Hooker halted two and a half miles from Ringgold Gap during the night of November 26–27; the two forces met at 8 a.m. on November 27, when the XV Corps division of Peter Osterhaus attacked Granbury's brigade. The Confederates held their fire; the initial volley disorganized Osterhaus's division and halted his attack, while a Union attack on the Confederate right flank was routed.
John Geary's XII Corps division was the next to arrive. Charles Cruft's IV Corps division was defeated. After holding his position for five hours, Cleburne was ordered about noon to start falling back towards the main Confederate army. Leaving skirmishers along his front to hide his withdrawal, he pulled back from the gap about 2 p.m. and burned the bridge on the eastern side of the gap. Cleburne had lost 201 wounded during the battle. Grant arrived near the gap at this time and, due to the scattered position of his army, decided to return to Chattanooga. Union casualties totaled 509 wounded. Although Hooker was criticized for his conduct of the battle by Union Assistant Secretary of War Dana and several of Hooker's men, Grant choose to retain Hooker temporarily. A small park in Ringgold Gap commemorates the battle. A monument to soldiers from New York who sustained heavy casualties stands near Tiger Creek at the Ringgold Water Treatment Plant, while a monument in honor of Major General Patrick Cleburne and his men is located in the park.
The nearby Western and Atlantic Depot still shows scars from the damage it received from artillery fire during the battle. The Ringgold Gap Battlefield was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011. Broome, Doyle D. Jr. "Daring Rear-Guard Defense." America's Civil War 6, no. 5: 34–40. Cozzens, Peter; the Shipwreck of Their Hopes: The Battles for Chattanooga. Urbanna: University of Illinois Press, 1994. ISBN 0-252-01922-9. Kennedy, Frances H. ed. The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1998. ISBN 0-395-74012-6. McDonough, James Lee. Chattanooga—A Death Grip on the Confederacy. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984. ISBN 0-87049-425-2. National Park Service battle description "Battle of Ringgold Gap" at www.us-civilwar.com Civil War Historic Markers Across Georgia Battle of Ringgold Gap US Civil War Battle of Ringgold Gap About North Georgia The Battle of Ringgold Gap The Wild Geese Cleburne: The Defense of Ringgold Gap