A county-level municipality, county-level city, or county city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions. Known as prefecture-controlled city. Most county-level cities were created in the 1990s by replacing counties. A county-level city is a "city" and "county"; as such it is a city, a municipal entity, a county, an administrative division of a prefecture. County-level cities are not "cities" in the strictest sense of the word, since they contain rural areas many times the size of their urban, built-up area; this is because the counties that county-level cities have replaced are themselves large administrative units containing towns and farmland. To distinguish a "county-level city" from its actual urban area, the term "市区", or "urban area", is used. In France, an equivalent of a county-level city is an agglomeration community. While the idea of a "city" being a unit consisting of several "towns" is not a common one in English-speaking world, a somewhat similar naming convention is used for local government areas in some parts of Australia.
For example, in New South Wales such a unit may be called a "city", consist of "towns". E.g. City of Blue Mountains is made of a number of towns. Another example would be "municipal government" in the Canadian province of Ontario. Small municipalities and towns, along with urban, sub-urban and rural areas were merged or integrated into a "super" area, in part to obtain economies in administrative overhead by not having for each city and town individual library commissions, fire fighting units, health care, other social services common to all areas. So for example, there has been for less than 10 years the "Municipality of Chatham-Kent" wherein the Corporation of the City of Chatham serves as the "seat" for the newly Chatham-Kent merged municipality; this agglomeration includes all of the "townships" in the county of Kent, with cities and towns like Wallaceberg, Dresden, Wheatley. This "amalgamation" as it is referred to, was controversial when it was "forced" upon the constituents through provincial legislation.
Today, instead of each city having its own mayor and city councillors, there is a council with representatives from the various areas surrounding Chatham city. As of September 2018, there are 375 county-level cities in total: A sub-prefecture-level city is a county-level city with powers approaching those of prefecture-level cities. Examples include, Qianjiang and Jiyuan. Administrative divisions of China Counties of the People's Republic of China Prefecture-level city List of cities in China
The Hui people are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of ethnically Sinitic adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region. According to the 2011 census, China is home to 10.5 million Hui people, the majority of whom are Chinese-speaking practitioners of Islam, though some may practise other religions. The 110,000 Dungan people of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are considered part of the Hui ethnicity, their culture has distinct differences. For example, as Muslims, they follow Islamic dietary laws and reject the consumption of pork, the most common meat consumed in China and have given rise to their own variation of Chinese cuisine. Traditional Hui clothing differs from that of the Han in that some men wear white caps and some women wear headscarves, as is the case in many Islamic cultures. However, since the industrialization and modernization of China, most of the young Hui people wear the same clothes as mainstream fashion trends.
The Hui people are one of 56 ethnic groups recognized by China. The government defines the Hui people to include all Muslim communities not included in China's other ethnic groups; the Hui predominantly speak Chinese, while maintaining some Arabic phrases. In fact, the Hui ethnic group is unique among Chinese ethnic minorities in that it associates with no non-Sinitic language; the Hui people are more concentrated in Northwestern China, but communities exist across the country, e.g. Beijing, Xi'an, Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Yunnan. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the term "Hui" was applied by the Chinese government to one of China's ten Islamic minorities. Earlier, the term referred to Chinese-speaking groups with Muslim ancestry. Practising Islam was not a criterion. Use of the Hui category to describe foreign Muslims moving into China dates back to the Song dynasty. Pan-Turkic Uyghur activist, Masud Sabri, viewed the Hui people as Muslim Han Chinese and separate from his own people, noting that with the exception of religion, their customs and language were identical to those of the Han.
Hui people are of varied ancestry, many directly descending from Silk Road travellers and expatriates. Their ancestors include Central Asians, Middle Eastern ethnic groups such as the Arabs who intermarried with the local Han Chinese. West Eurasian DNA is prevalent—6.7% of Hui people's maternal genetics have a Central Asian and Middle Eastern origin. Several medieval Chinese dynasties the Tang and Mongol Yuan Dynasties, encouraged immigration from predominantly Muslim Central Asia, with both dynasties welcoming traders from these regions and appointing Central Asian officials. In subsequent centuries, the immigrants mixed with the Han Chinese forming the Hui. Nonetheless, included among Huis in Chinese census statistics are members of a few small non-Chinese speaking communities; these include several thousand Utsuls in southern Hainan Province, who speak an Austronesian language related to that of the Vietnamese Cham Muslim minority, said to descend from Chams who migrated to Hainan. A small Muslim minority among Yunnan's Bai people are classified as Hui as well, as are some groups of Tibetan Muslims.
The East Asian O3-M122 Y chromosome Haplogroup is found in large quantities in other Muslims close to the Hui like Dongxiang, Bo'an and Salar. The majority of Tibeto-Burmans, Han Chinese, Ningxia and Liaoning Hui share paternal Y chromosomes of East Asian origin which are unrelated to Middle Easterners and Europeans. In contrast to distant Middle Easterners and Europeans with whom the Muslims of China are not related, East Asians, Han Chinese, most of the Hui and Dongxiang of Linxia share more genes with each other; this indicates that native East Asian populations converted to Islam and were culturally assimilated and that the Chinese Muslim populations are not descendants of foreigners as claimed by some accounts while only a small minority of them are. Huihui was the usual generic term for China's Muslims during the Qing Dynasties, it is thought to have its origin in the earlier Huihe or Huihu, the name for the Uyghur State of the 8th and 9th centuries. Although the ancient Uyghurs were not Muslims the name Huihui came to refer to foreigners, regardless of language or origin, by the time of the Yuan. and Ming Dynasties.
During the Yuan Dynasty, large numbers of Muslims came from the west, since the Uyghur land was in the west, this led the Chinese to call foreigners of all religions, including Muslims, Nestorian Christians and Jews, as Huihui. Kublai Khan called both foreign Jews and Muslims in China Huihui when he forced them to stop halal and kosher methods of preparing food: "Among all the alien peoples only the Hui-hui say "we do not eat Mongol food". "By the aid of heaven we have pacified you. Yet you do not eat our drink. How can this be right?" He thereupon made. "If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime." He issued a regulation to that effect... all the Muslims say: "if someone else slaughters we do not eat". Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman Huihui and Zhuhu Huihui, no matter who kills will eat and must cease s
Dali Town is a township-level division in Dali City, in the northwest of Yunnan province, China. The town contains the historic centre of the county-level city of Dali and is commonly known as Dali Old Town; the modern centre of Dali City, however, is 10 km south of the old town at Xiaguan. Being the county seat of Dali City, Xiaguan is labelled as Dali on maps and is sometimes referred to as Dali New Town to distinguish it from Dali Town; the old town has become well-known as a tourist site in part thanks to its picturesque location and historic Bai architecture. Dali has long been a regional centre of commerce, being located at a crossroads of trade routes between Tibet, China and Southeast Asia; the Bai people first settled the region 3000 years ago. Dali first emerged as the capital of the Nanzhao Kingdom in the 8th century; the town served as the capital of the Kingdom of Dali until its conquest by the Yuan conquest of the area. The old town of Dali has been preserved in a 1.5 by 1.5 km wide townsite surrounded by its ancient walls.
Due to its well-preserved architecture, the town has developed as a major tourist attraction in recent decades. Major sites of interest include the Three Pagodas, Dali Museum, the ancient city gates, an artificial town built as the set for Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils, the Cang Mountain Range to the west. Dali Town is located in a depression at the southern end of the Yun Mountains, part of the greater Hengduan Mountains at the southeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau; this depression, an extension of the Red River Fault, is filled by Erhai, a lake, part of the Mekong River basin. The old town of Dali is located on a plain between Erhai on the east and the Cang Mountains to the west. Dali is served by local public transit buses in Dali City connecting with Xiaguan; the town has some long-distance bus services that run to Kunming and Lijiang. Highway 214 runs through the town connecting with Tibet Autonomous Region in the north and Xishuangbanna in the south; the nearest train station and airport are both in Xiaguan
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
The Dali Kingdom known as the Dali State, was a kingdom situated in modern Yunnan province, China from 937 until 1253 when it was conquered by the Mongols. Its kings continued to administer the area as Mongol vassals until the Ming conquest of Yunnan. Nanzhao was overthrown in 902 and three dynasties followed in quick succession before Duan Siping seized power in 937, establishing himself at Dali; the Duan clan professed to have Han ancestry. Dali's relationship with the Song was cordial throughout its entire existence. Dali congratulated the Song dynasty on the conquest of Later Shu in 965 and voluntarily established tribute relations in 982, it was however an independent state. At times the Song declined offers of tribute. Dali's primary importance to the Song dynasty was its horses, which were prized and sought after as military assets after the fall of the Northern Song, they were described by a Song official in the following passage: These horses possess a shape quite magnificent. They stand low with a muscular front similar to the shape of a chicken.
The diaphragm is broad, shoulders thick, waist flat, back round. They are trained to squat on their rear ends like a dog, they climb steep terrain on command and possess both speed and agility in chase. They have been raised on bitter buckwheat, so they require little to maintain. How could a horse like this not be considered a good horse? In 1094, the former prime minister Gao Shengtai forced King Duan Zhengming to relinquish the throne to him and renamed the Dali Kingdom to "Dazhong Kingdom". Gao Shengtai ruled until his death in 1096, after which the throne was returned to the Duan family. Duan Zhengming's younger brother, Duan Zhengchun, became the new ruler and restored the kingdom's former name. In 1252 Möngke Khan placed his brother Kublai in charge of invading Dali. In 1253 Kublai's army crossed the Jinsha River and received the surrender of Duan Xingzhi, who presented to Möngke in 1256 maps of Yunnan. Duan Xingzhi of Dali was enfieffed as Maharaja by Kublai Khan, the Duan royal family continued to hold the title of Maharaja in Yunnan as vassals to the Mongols under the supervision of Mongolian imperial princes and Muslim governors.
The Duan family reigned in Dali. After the Ming conquest of Yunnan, The Duan royals were scattered in various distant areas of China by the Hongwu Emperor; the Duan family governed Yunnan's various indigenous peoples for 11 generations until the end of Mongol rule. They willing contributed soldiers to the Mongol campaign against the Song dynasty. In 1271, they aided the Yuan dynasty in putting down a Mongol rebellion in Yunnan. In 1274 Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar was assigned by Kublai to stabilize Yunnan, he instituted a native chieftain system that came to be known as tusi which assigned ranks and posts to native chieftains. Under this institution of "rule based on native customs" the locals retained much of their autonomy with the exception of three obligations. One, they would provide surrendered troops to the Yuan government. Two, local chieftains would provide tribute to the Yuan court. Three, they would follow the rules of appointment, promotion, degradation and punishment of native chieftains created by the Yuan court.
Yuan rule introduced a significant Muslim influence into Yunnan. In 1381, the Ming dynasty dispatched 300,000 troops to crush the Yuan remnants in Yunnan; the House of Duan, who helped the Mongols against a Red Turban Rebellion attack from Sichuan fought against the Ming army. The ruler Duan Gong refused to surrender by writing to Fu Youdeㄛ, making it clear that Dali could only be a tributary to the Ming. Fu Youdei crushed Duan Gong's realm after a fierce battle; the Duan brothers were escorted back to the Ming capital. A version of Buddhism known as Azhali existed in Yunnan since the 9th century; the last king of Nanzhao established Buddhism as a state religion and many Dali kings continued the tradition. Ten of Dali's 22 kings retired to become monks. Bryson, Goddess on the Frontier: Religion and Gender in Southwest China, Stanford University Press Herman, John E. Amid the Clouds and Mist China's Colonization of Guizhou, 1200–1700, Harvard University Asia Center, ISBN 978-0-674-02591-2 Yang, Bin, "Chapter 3: Military Campaigns against Yunnan: A Cross-Regional Analysis", Between Winds and Clouds: The Making of Yunnan, Columbia University Press Yang, Bin, "Chapter 4: Rule Based on Native Customs", Between Winds and Clouds: The Making of Yunnan, Columbia University Press Yang, Bin, "Chapter 5: Sinicization and Indigenization: The Emergence of the Yunnanese", Between Winds and Clouds: The Making of Yunnan, Columbia University Press Media related to Kingdom of Dali at Wikimedia Commons
The Panthay rebellion, known to Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion, was a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other ethnic minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest. The name "Panthay" is a Burmese word, said to be identical with the Shan word Pang hse, it was the name by which the Burmese called the Chinese Muslims who came with caravans to Burma from the Chinese province of Yunnan. The name was not known in Yunnan itself. Discrimination by China's imperial administration against the Hui caused their rebellions. Although some sources suggest that the Panthay Rebellion originated as a conflict between Han and Hui miners in 1853, Han-Hui tensions had existed for decades prior to the event including a three-day massacre of Hui by Han and Qing officials in 1845. Hui and Han were regarded and classified by Qing as two different ethnic groups, with Hui not regarded as an religious classification. Volume 8 of the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics states that the Panthay Revolt by the Muslims was set off by racial antagonism and class warfare, rather than the mistaken assumption that it was all due to Islam and religion.
In 1856, a massacre of Muslims organized by a Qing Manchu official responsible for suppressing the revolt in the provincial capital of Kunming sparked a province-wide multi-ethnic insurgency. In Dali City in western Yunnan, an independent kingdom was established by Du Wenxiu, born in Yongchang to a Han Chinese family, which had converted to Islam; the revolt was not religious in nature, since the Muslims were joined by non-Muslim Shan and Kakhyen and other hill tribes. A British officer testified that the Muslims did not rebel for religious reasons, that the Chinese were tolerant of different religions and were unlikely to have caused the revolt by interfering with the practising of Islam. In addition, loyalist Muslim forces helped Qing crush the rebel Muslims. Du Wenxiu was not aiming his rebellion at Han, but was anti-Qing and wanted to destroy the Manchu government. During the revolt Hui from provinces which were not in rebellion, like Sichuan and Zhejiang, served as negotiators between rebel Hui and the Qing government.
One of Du Wenxiu's banners said "Deprive the Manchu Qing of their Mandate to Rule", he called on Han to assist Hui to overthrow the Manchu regime and drive them out of China. Du's forces led multiple non-Muslim forces, including Han Chinese, Li, Hani. Du Wenxiu called for unity between Muslim Hui and Han, he was quoted as saying "our army has three tasks: to drive out the Manchus, unite with the Chinese, drive out traitors."Du Wenxiu did not blame Han for the massacres of Hui, but blamed the tensions on the Manchu regime, saying that they were foreign to China and alienated the Chinese and other minorities. Du Wenxiu called for the complete expulsion of Manchus from all of China in order for China to once again come under Chinese rule. Total war was waged against Manchu rule. Du Wenxiu refused to surrender, unlike Ma Rulong; this may have had something to do with the sects of Islam practiced among the rebels. The Gedimu Hanafi Sunni Muslims under Ma Rulong defected to Qing, while the Jahriyya Sufi Muslims did not surrender.
Some of the Jahriyya rebels in the Panthay Rebellion like Ma Shenglin were related to the Dungan revolt Jahriyya leader Ma Hualong and maintained contact with them. The rebellion started. Du used anti-Manchu rhetoric in his rebellion against the Qing, calling for Han to join the Hui to overthrow the Manchu Qing after 200 years of their rule. Du invited the fellow Hui Muslim leader Ma Rulong to join him in driving the Manchu Qing out and "recover China". For his war against Manchu "oppression", Du "became a Muslim hero", while Ma Rulong defected to the Qing. On multiple occasions Kunming sacked by Du Wenxiu's forces, his capital was Dali. The revolt ended in 1873. Du Wenxiu is regarded as a hero by the present day government of China. Du Wenxiu wore Chinese clothing, mandated the use of the Arabic language in his regime. Du banned pork. Ma Rulong banned pork in areas under his control after he surrendered and joined the Qing forces. In Kunming, there was a slaughter of 3,000 Muslims on the instigation of the judicial commissioner, a Manchu, in 1856.
De Wenxiu was of Han Chinese origin despite being a Muslim and he led both Hui Muslims and Han Chinese in his civil and military bureaucracy. Du Wenxiu was fought against by the defector to the Qing Ma Rulong; the Muslim scholar Ma Dexin, who said that Neo-Confucianism was reconcilable with Islam, approved of Ma Rulong defecting to the Qing and he assisted other Muslims in defecting. Tribal pagan animism and Islam were all legalized and "honoured" with a "Chinese-style bureaucracy" in Du Wenxiu's Sultanate. A third of the Sultanate's military posts were filled with Han Chinese, who filled the majority of civil posts. Peace negotiations were held by Zhejiang and Sichuan Hui Muslims who were invited by the Qing to Yunnan in 1858 and they were not involved in the revolt; the rebellion started as widespread local uprisings in every region of the province. It was the rebels in western Yunnan under the leadership of Du Wenxiu who, by gaining control of Dali in 1856, became the major military and political center of opposition to the Qing government.
They turned their fury on the local mandarins and ended up challenging the central government in Beijing. The Imperial government was handicapped by a profusion of problems in various
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – known as the Great Ming Empire – for 276 years following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683; the Hongwu Emperor attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy's dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. He took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through the Huang-Ming Zuxun, a set of published dynastic instructions; this failed when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402.
The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, restored the Grand Canal and the primacy of the imperial examinations in official appointments. He rewarded his eunuch supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the eastern coasts of Africa; the rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor constructed the Liaodong palisade and connected and fortified the Great Wall of China into its modern form. Wide-ranging censuses of the entire empire were conducted decennially, but the desire to avoid labor and taxes and the difficulty of storing and reviewing the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million, but necessary revenues were squeezed out of smaller and smaller numbers of farmers as more disappeared from the official records or "donated" their lands to tax-exempt eunuchs or temples.
Haijin laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves. By the 16th century, the expansion of European trade – albeit restricted to islands near Guangzhou like Macau – spread the Columbian Exchange of crops and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and productive corn and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth; the growth of Portuguese and Dutch trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese and American silver. This abundance of specie remonetized the Ming economy, whose paper money had suffered repeated hyperinflation and was no longer trusted. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude. Zhang Juzheng's successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age joined changes in Japanese and Spanish policy that cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes.
Combined with crop failure and epidemic, the dynasty collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng, defeated by the Manchu-led Eight Banner armies who founded the Qing dynasty. The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty ruled before the establishment of the Ming dynasty. Explanations for the demise of the Yuan include institutionalized ethnic discrimination against Han Chinese that stirred resentment and rebellion, overtaxation of areas hard-hit by inflation, massive flooding of the Yellow River as a result of the abandonment of irrigation projects. Agriculture and the economy were in shambles, rebellion broke out among the hundreds of thousands of peasants called upon to work on repairing the dykes of the Yellow River. A number of Han Chinese groups revolted, including the Red Turbans in 1351; the Red Turbans were affiliated with a Buddhist secret society. Zhu Yuanzhang was a penniless peasant and Buddhist monk who joined the Red Turbans in 1352. In 1356, Zhu's rebel force captured the city of Nanjing, which he would establish as the capital of the Ming dynasty.
With the Yuan dynasty crumbling, competing rebel groups began fighting for control of the country and thus the right to establish a new dynasty. In 1363, Zhu Yuanzhang eliminated his archrival and leader of the rebel Han faction, Chen Youliang, in the Battle of Lake Poyang, arguably the largest naval battle in history. Known for its ambitious use of fire ships, Zhu's force of 200,000 Ming sailors were able to defeat a Han rebel force over triple their size, claimed to be 650,000-strong; the victory destroyed the last opposing rebel faction, leaving Zhu Yuanzhang in uncontested control of the bountiful Yangtze River Valley and cementing his power in the south. After the dynastic head of the Red Turbans suspiciously died in 1367 while a guest of Zhu, there was no one left, remotely capable of contesting his march to the throne, he made his imperial ambitions known by sending an army toward the Yuan capital Dadu in 1368; the las