Ein HaShofet is a kibbutz in northern Israel. Located in the Menashe Heights region around 30 km from the city of Haifa, close to Yokneam, it falls under the jurisdiction of Megiddo Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 841. Ein HaShofet was established by two groups of Hashomer Hatzair graduates from Poland and Highland Mills, New York, they first settled the hill of Jo'ara in 1937 and settled in the kibbutz' current location in 1938. "Ein HaShofet," Judge's Spring, was named in honor of United States Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis, who played a leading role in the American Zionist movement. There is a flowing spring nearby the kibbutz; the kibbutz owns three industrial companies which produce metal parts for vehicles, lighting products on a global scale. Ein HaShofet is located on the Menashe Heights, 5 kilometers south of the city of Yokneam Illit. Other places near Ein HaShofet include the kibbutzim of Ramat HaShofet and the hill of Jo'ara; the kibbutz is accessed through the 6954 and 6953 roads, connected to Highway 66 and regional route 672.
The founders of the kibbutz came from two groups. The first group was consisted of Hashomer Hatzair graduates from Poland; the group formed in 1931 in Częstochowa and arrived to Mandatory Palestine in 1935. It received training in Ein HaHoresh; the other group consisted of Hashomer Hatzair graduates from Highland Mills, New York. The group formed in 1922 and arrived to Mishmar HaEmek in 1931, where it received agricultural training, their number was 17 in 1931 and it rose to 30 in 1933. In 1934 they moved to Hadera. In May 1934 both groups united in Hadera under the name "Banir-America" and worked together in the town; the initial location of the kibbutz was the hill of Jo'ara, about one kilometer from the current location of the kibbutz. It was owned by an Effendi from a family called Salah, residing in Haifa, was populated by Arab tenant farmers. In 1936, the Jewish National Fund bought the land from the effendi and paid each sharecropper for their evacuation; the funds for the deal were raised by Louis D. Brandeis, a United States Supreme Court Justice lawyer, a prominent Zionist figure.
The Americans donated 70,000 USD for the cause. The kibbutz was named in his honor. On 5 July 1937 some of the members departed from Mishmar HaEmek, escorted by the Haganah and arrived to the hill of Jo'ara; the kibbutz's foundation was a part of the stockade settlement drive. Built on JNF land with the help of the Keren Hayesod company, it was the first Jewish settlement on the Menashe Heights, their departure was celebrated in Mishmar HaEmek, from which they brought dismantled structures, equipment for the establishment of a wall and trees for planting. The climb was done on foot. During the following winter the way to the hill was blocked and the members paved a new access road; the members stayed on the hill for one year before moving to the final and current location of the kibbutz. They left the hill of Jo'ara after realizing, it was handed to the Haganah militia. The construction of the first permanent building took place in June 1938 and in October the rest of the members from Hadera and Jo'ara joined the kibbutz in its final location.
Many members joined the Notrim Jewish police force. In 1945, Ein HaShofet had a population of all Jews, it was noted that it was the village named Ji'ara. Despite a lack of water and hilly difficult reclamation, in 1948, with a population of 450, they "were a successful mixed hill farm with orchards, dry cereals, dairy products, sheep herding and chicken farming."During the Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, Ein HaShofet housed a factory for explosives used by the Jewish militia against the British. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli war the Ein HaShofet villagers helped to defeat Fawzi al-Qawuqji's forces after their April 1948 attack on Mishmar HaEmek; until 1962, the kibbutz absorbed five other groups. Two of them were made of Holocaust survivors and the other are youth groups from Israel; the primary component of Ein HaShofet's economy is its industry with three working factories in the kibbutz. According to the 2008 national census, 43% of the workers in the kibbutz in the industrial sector.
The secondary component and the center of the kibbutz life is the agriculture, which employs 20 members of the kibbutz in five different sectors. The kibbutz owns three industrial companies through the Ein-Hashofet Industries Group. Mivrag Cold Forming Technology is a company. In the local market, Mivrag supplies agriculture, high-tech and wholesale companies. In the worldwide market, Mivrag supplies automative companies. With the establishment of the factory in 1952, Mivrag manufactured wooden screws. In the 1960s and 1970s the factory moved to use metals. In 1987 the factory moved to its current facility; the company began expanding its sales to Asia, North America and Europe. Eltam is a company. MAG Ltd. produces assemblies for the automotive industry. Dairy farming is the first agriculture sector of the kibbutz, beginning in 1938 with the move to the kibbutz's current location; the dairy produces trillions of litres of milk a year. Cattle farming began in the 1950s; the cattle sector is owned in partnership with kibbutz Mishmar HaEmek.
The sector struggles to exist due to low profits. In additio
The Yiftach Brigade was an Israeli infantry brigade. It included two Palmach battalions, also the 2nd, transferred from the Negev Brigade; the Palmach memorial website records 274 of its members being killed whilst in the Yiftach Brigade. The Yiftach Brigade participated in the following Israeli military operations: Operation Yiftach Operation Yoram Operation Danny Operation Yoav Metzudat Koach The memorial for the fallen soldiers of the Yiftach Brigade is situated in the northern Negev north of Rahat near zomet and kibbutz Beit Kama at Road 40. List of battles and operations in the 1948 Palestine war
Regional council (Israel)
Regional councils are one of the three types of Israel's local government entities, with the other two being cities and local councils. As of 2019, there were 54 regional councils responsible for governing a number of settlements spread across rural areas. Regional councils include representation of anywhere between 3 and 54 communities spread over a large area within geographical vicinity of each other; each community within a regional council does not exceed 2000 in population and is managed by a local committee. This committee sends representatives to the administering regional council proportionate to their size of membership and according to an index, fixed before each election; those settlements without an administrative council do not send any representatives to the regional council, instead being dealt by it directly. Representatives from those settlements which are represented directly are either chosen directly or through an election; the predominant form of communities represented on regional councils are moshavim.
The following sortable table lists all 53 regional councils by name, the district or area according to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. The list includes the regional councils in the Golan Heights and the West Bank, areas considered occupied territories under international law, although the Israeli government disputes this. City council Local council List of Israeli cities Local Government in Israel; the Knesset Lexicon of Terms. 2009
Aliyah is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel. Defined as "the act of going up"—that is, towards Jerusalem—"making Aliyah" by moving to the Land of Israel is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism; the opposite action, emigration from the Land of Israel, is referred to in Hebrew as yerida. The State of Israel's Law of Return gives Jews and their descendants automatic rights regarding residency and Israeli citizenship. For much of Jewish history, most Jews have lived in the diaspora where aliyah was developed as a national aspiration for the Jewish people, although it was not fulfilled until the development of the Zionist movement in the late nineteenth century; the large-scale immigration of Jews to Palestine began in 1882. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, more than 3 million Jews have moved to Israel; as of 2014, Israel and adjacent territories contain 42.9% of the world's Jewish population. Throughout the 2,000 years of dispersion, a small-scale return migration of Diaspora Jews to the Land of Israel is characterized as the Pre-Modern Aliyah.
Successive waves of Jewish settlement are an important aspect of the history of Jewish life in Israel. The'Land of Israel' is the Hebrew name for the region known in English as Israel; this traditional Hebrew toponym, in turn, has lent its name to the modern State of Israel. Since the birth of Zionism in the late 19th century, the advocates of Aliyah have striven to facilitate the settlement of Jewish refugees in Ottoman Palestine, Mandatory Palestine, the sovereign State of Israel; the following waves of migration have been identified: the First Aliyah and the Second Aliyah to Ottoman Palestine. Today, most aliyah consists of voluntary migration for ideological, economic, or family reunification purposes. Aliyah in Hebrew means "ascent" or "going up". Jewish tradition views traveling to the land of Israel as an ascent, both geographically and metaphysically. Anyone traveling to Eretz Israel from Egypt, Babylonia or the Mediterranean basin, where many Jews lived in early rabbinic times, climbed to a higher altitude.
Visiting Jerusalem, situated 2,700 feet above sea level involved an "ascent". Aliyah is a fundamental component of Zionism, it is enshrined in Israel's Law of Return, which accords any Jew and eligible non-Jews, the legal right to assisted immigration and settlement in Israel, as well as Israeli citizenship. Someone who "makes aliyah" is called an olah. Many religious Jews espouse aliyah as a return to the Promised land, regard it as the fulfillment of God's biblical promise to the descendants of the Hebrew patriarchs Abraham and Jacob. Nachmanides includes making aliyah in his enumeration of the 613 commandments. In the Talmud, at the end of tractate Ketubot, the Mishnah says: "A man may compel his entire household to go up with him to the land of Israel, but may not compel one to leave." The discussion on this passage in the Mishnah emphasizes the importance of living in Israel: "One should always live in the Land of Israel in a town most of whose inhabitants are idolaters, but let no one live outside the Land in a town most of whose inhabitants are Israelites.
Sifre says that the mitzvah of living in Eretz Yisrael is as important as all the other mitzvot put together. There are many mitzvot such as shmita, the sabbatical year for farming, which can only be performed in Israel. In Zionist discourse, the term aliyah includes both voluntary immigration for ideological, emotional, or practical reasons and, on the other hand, mass flight of persecuted populations of Jews; the vast majority of Israeli Jews today trace their family's recent roots to outside the country. While many have chosen to settle in Israel rather than some other country, many had little or no choice about leaving their previous home countries. While Israel is recognized as "a country of immigrants", it is in large measure, a country of refugees, including internal refugees. Israeli citizens who marry individuals of Palestinian heritage, born within the Israeli-occupied territories and carrying Palestinian IDs, must renounce Israeli residency themselves in order to live and travel together with their spouses.
According to the traditional Jewish ordering of books of the Tanakh, the last word of the last book in the original Hebrew is veya‘al, a jussive verb form derived from the same root as aliyah, meaning "and let him go up". 2 Chronicles 36:23 Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD God of heaven given me. Who among you of all his people? The LORD his God with him, let him go up. Return to the land of Israel is a recurring theme in Jewish prayers recited every day, three times a day
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
History of the Jews in Germany
Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early and High Middle Ages. The community suffered during the Crusades. Accusations of well poisoning during the Black Death led to mass slaughter of German Jews and they fled in large numbers to Poland; the Jewish communities of the cities of Mainz and Worms became the center of Jewish life during Medieval times. "This was a golden age as area bishops protected the Jews resulting in increased trade and prosperity." The First Crusade began an era of persecution of Jews in Germany. Entire communities, like those of Trier, Worms and Cologne, were murdered; the war upon the Hussite heretics became the signal for renewed persecution of Jews. The end of the 15th century was a period of religious hatred that ascribed to Jews all possible evils; the atrocities during the Khmelnytsky Uprising committed by Khmelnytskyi's Cossacks drove the Polish Jews back into western Germany. With Napoleon's fall in 1815, growing nationalism resulted in increasing repression.
From August to October 1819, pogroms that came to be known as the Hep-Hep riots took place throughout Germany. During this time, many German states stripped Jews of their civil rights; as a result, many German Jews began to emigrate. From the time of Moses Mendelssohn until the 20th century, the community achieved emancipation, prospered. In January 1933, some 522,000 Jews lived in Germany. After the Nazis took power and implemented their antisemitic ideology and policies, the Jewish community was persecuted. About 60% emigrated during the first six years of the Nazi dictatorship. In 1933, persecution of the Jews became an official Nazi policy. In 1935 and 1936, the pace of antisemitic persecution increased. In 1936, Jews were banned from all professional jobs preventing them from participating in education, higher education and industry; the SS ordered the Night of Broken Glass the night of November 9–10, 1938. The storefronts of Jewish shops and offices were smashed and vandalized, many synagogues were destroyed by fire.
This prompted a wave of Jewish mass emigration from Germany throughout the 1930s. Only 214,000 Jews were left in Germany proper on the eve of World War II. Beginning in late 1941, the remaining community was subjected to systematic deportations to ghettos and to death camps in Eastern Europe. In May 1943, Germany was declared judenrein. By the end of the war, an estimated 160,000 to 180,000 German Jews had been killed by the Nazi regime, by the Germans and their collaborators. A total of about 6 million European Jews were murdered under the direction of the Nazis, in the genocide that came to be known as the Holocaust. After the war, the Jewish community in Germany started to grow again. Beginning around 1990, a spurt of growth was fueled by immigration from the former Soviet Union, so that at the turn of the 21st century, Germany had the only growing Jewish community in Europe, the majority of German Jews were Russian-speaking. By 2014, the Jewish population of Germany had leveled off at 118,000, not including non-Jewish members of households.
In Germany, denial of the Holocaust or that six million Jews were murdered in the Holocaust is a criminal act. In 2006, on the occasion of the World Cup held in Germany, the Interior Minister of Germany, Wolfgang Schäuble, urged vigilism against far-right extremism, saying: "We will not tolerate any form of extremism, xenophobia, or anti-Semitism." In spite of Germany's measures against these groups and anti-Semites, a number of incidents have occurred in recent years. Jewish migration from Roman Italy is considered the most source of the first Jews on German territory. While the date of the first settlement of Jews in the regions which the Romans called Germania Superior, Germania Inferior, Magna Germania is not known, the first authentic document relating to a large and well-organized Jewish community in these regions dates from 321 and refers to Cologne on the Rhine, it indicates. They enjoyed some civil liberties, but were restricted regarding the dissemination of their culture, the keeping of non-Jewish slaves, the holding of office under the government.
Jews were otherwise free to follow any occupation open to indigenous Germans and were engaged in agriculture, trade and money-lending. These conditions at first continued in the subsequently established Germanic kingdoms under the Burgundians and Franks, for ecclesiasticism took root slowly; the Merovingian rulers who succeeded to the Burgundian empire were devoid of fanaticism and gave scant support to the efforts of the Church to restrict the civic and social status of the Jews. Charlemagne made use of the Church for the purpose of infusing coherence into the loosely joined parts of his extensive empire, by any means a blind tool of the canonical law, he employed Jews for diplomatic purposes, for instance, a Jew as interpreter and guide with his embassy to Harun al-Rashid. Yet then, a gradual change occurred in the lives of the Jews; the Church forbade Christians to be usurers, so the Jews secured the remunerative monopoly of money-lending. This decree caused a mixed reaction of
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona