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Press photo of Dalida in 1974 during variety show on Italian TV
Iolanda Cristina Gigliotti|
17 January 1933
3 May 1987 (aged 54)|
|Cause of death||Suicide by overdose with sleeping pills|
|Title||Miss Egypt 1954|
|Height||168 cm (5 ft 6 in)|
Iolanda Cristina Gigliotti (Italian: [joˈlanda kriˈstiːna dʒiʎˈʎɔtti]; 17 January 1933 – 3 May 1987), professionally known as Dalida (Egyptian Arabic: داليدا), was a French vocalist and actress, born in Egypt to Italian parents.
She won the Miss Egypt beauty contest in 1954. Her singing career began in 1956 and ended with her last album in 1986, half a year before she committed suicide. She has sold 140 million albums and singles worldwide.
- 1 Early life and career
- 1.1 Childhood in Cairo
- 1.2 1951–1956: Early work
- 1.3 1956–1959: Commercial breakout and fame
- 1.4 1960–1966: International breakthrough
- 1.4.1 Les enfants du Piree and transition to yé-yé
- 1.4.2 Year of covers and first Olympia concert residency
- 1.4.3 Performances in Canada and Asia
- 1.4.4 Scoptiones and filming
- 1.4.5 Bestseller Eux and TDF 64 tour
- 1.4.6 Platinum disc and IFOP pole
- 1.4.7 Debut in Latin America with Zorba
- 1.4.8 Extensive touring in 1966
- 1.4.9 Success of Bang Bang in Italy and collaboration with Tenco
- 1.5 1967–1974: New career
- 1.6 1975–1980: Disco period
- 1.7 1981–1987: Diva trademark years
- 2 Death and funeral
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Artistry
- 5 Public image and legacy
- 6 Awards and achievements
- 7 Other appearances and interests
- 8 Discography
- 9 Filmography
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early life and career
Childhood in Cairo
Gigliotti was born and raised in Cairo, Egypt, after her family migrated from Serrastretta, Calabria, Italy, during the 1920s and settled in the Shubra quartier. Iolanda's father, Pietro Gigliotti (1904–1945), was primo violino (first violinist) at the Cairo Opera House, while Iolanda's mother Giuseppina (née Rossi, 1906–1971) was a seamstress. She had two brothers, Orlando (1928–1992) and Bruno (who later changed his name to Orlando like his brother and became her manager in 1966). At the age of 10 months Iolanda caught an eye infection, and underwent two eye operations. She attended the Scuola Tecnica Commerciale Maria Ausiliatrice, an Italian Catholic school. She developed an interest in acting due to her uncle's job as a projectionist for a local cinema, but started working as a typist in a pharmaceutical company in 1951.
1951–1956: Early work
Modelling, acting and relocation to France
In 1951 she entered the Miss Ondine beauty pageant, won the second prize and soon left her job to start modelling for Donna, a Cairo-based fashion house. In 1954 she won the Miss Egypt pageant, which led Marco de Gastyne to cast her in The Mask of Tutankhamun and Niazi Mostafa to hire her for leading role in A Glass and a Cigarette. She adopted the stage name Dalila because, as she explained in 1968, "it was a very frequent name in Egypt and I liked it a lot." She was offered a contract by an Egyptian film producer, but turned it down because Gastyne advised her to try her luck in Paris. Dalila decided to not represent Egypt on Miss World 1955; Egypt did not compete that year because of Suez Crisis.
On 25 December 1954, Dalila left Egypt for Paris. Her first residence was a room in an apartment of Gastyne's friend and impresario Vidal, at 49 rue de Ponthieu. Although she met with a number of directors, she initially found it difficult to find work. She relocated to an apartment in 34 Rue Jean Mermoz where she met a young soldier named Alain Delon, with whom she had a brief relationship.
Singing breakthrough and decisive dice game
Dalila's difficulty in finding acting work led her to try singing. Vidal introduced her to Roland Berger, a professor, who gave her daily singing lessons. Berger arranged for her to perform in the famous cabaret Le Drap d'Or on Champs-Élysées. There she was spotted by Jacques Paoli, the director of the cabaret La Villa d'Este, who engaged her for a series of performances. After one performance, author and screenwriter Alfred Marchard advised Dalila to change her name to Dalida saying to her: "Your pseudonym resembles too much the movie Samson and Dalila and it won't help to boost your popularity. Why don't you replace the second "l" with a "d", like God the father?"[note 1] She immediately accepted the change. Following another recital, Bruno Coquatrix invited her to participate in his singing contest Les Numéros 1 de demain, scheduled on 9 April 1956 at his Olympia concert hall. In future years, Coquatrix said that "... her voice is full of colour and volume, and has all that men love: gentleness, sensuality and eroticism."
Prior to the Les Numéros 1 de demain competition, Eddie Barclay, owner of Barclay Records, and Lucien Morisse, artistic director of newly established radio station Europe n°1, met and discussed what to do that evening. Barclay wanted to visit the cinema, whereas Morisse wanted to attend the competition at the Olympia. They settled their disagreement by playing 421, a dice game, which Morisse won. Joined with Bruno Coquatrix, the owner of the Olympia, they spotted Dalida's performance and all three were greatly impressed and arranged a meeting with her. The three men went on to play a large part in launching her career.
1956–1959: Commercial breakout and fame
First contract, overnight success with Bambino and first Olympia
After the performance in Les Numéros 1 de demain, Dalida met with Morisse and performed Barco Negro, a recent hit by Amália Rodrigues. He arranged an audition for her with Eddie Barclay, and on 2 May 1956 she signed a renewable one-year recording contract with him. Bruno Coquatrix planned to promote her through a series of concerts, including two concerts at the Olympia, two weeks in Bombino, and a tour of the provinces. Her first record "Madonna" was recorded in June as an EP, and was first played on 28 August 1956 on Radio Europe n°1, which was her first radio appearance. The record achieved sufficient success and was followed by "Le Torrent" a month later which received an equally encouraging welcome. Dalida continued performing live throughout the latter part of 1956, while her promoters worked on developing a song that would make her a star. Morisse asked lyricist Jacques Larue to write a French language version of Marino Marini's Italian hit Guaglione. Entititled Bambino, it was released as the title song of Dalida's third EP on 28 October 1956, and was an immediate success, spending 31 weeks at the top of French charts in 1957, for which it still holds the record. The song gained Dalida her first gold disc, the first time such an award had been won by a woman, on 19 September 1957 for sales of over 300,000. Promoting it in December, Dalida also made her first TV appearance, and her contract was immediately extended for four years. Then she also received her first criticism from a journalist: "On stage, Dalida appears in beauty and warmth, highlighted by a presentation of extreme sobriety."[note 2]
On the night of 27 February 1957, Dalida held her first concert at the Olympia, as the opening act for Charles Aznavour, and was widely applauded. The release of Bambino was followed up with the release of four more EPs that were all collected on her first two albums released in mid 1957; "Son nom est Dalida" and "Miguel". Then she performed in a successful three-week series of concerts at Bobino, and in the summer a fan club was established, the first such club to be devoted to a female artist. Second performance in Olympia was in September as opening act for Gilbert Bécaud, when the newly renovated Olympia appeared for first time with the red neon facade sign. The future iconic symbol of the hall, Bécaud and Dalida became the first two names to appear in it. Next month she recorded, what was to become one of her old standards, Histoire d'un amour that earned her a second gold disc. Over Christmas in 1957, Dalida re-released "Gondolier" which became her biggest hit since Bambino, reaching number one on the French charts and earning her third golden disc. Its B side "Pardon" also proved popular, reaching number one in Canada.
By the end of April 1958, the radio programmer listened Dalida recording "Dans le bleu du ciel bleu" in Avenue Hoche Barclay studios. Immediately asking for a copy of the tape and passing it on the antenna, the radio station was flocked with phone calls of people asking for the number of the disc? and when will it be available? as the song replaced Gondolier as number one in France, she scored a still running chart record of France, for five songs simultaneously in the Top 10.[note 3] It was followed by her receipt of Singer of the year RMC award, which she went on to win for six consecutive years. In June she embarked upon her first "TDF avec Dalida 58" tour (Tour de France avec Dalida); a daily appearance in the stage city of the 1958 Tour de France, which she repeated several time in future decades. Then she also performed in Algiers during summer, supporting the morale of French soldiers fighting the Algerian War, and held a new series of galas in France and Belgium that ended regularly with two hours of autograph signing.
In September Dalida played supporting roles in two B movies; in "Rapt au deuxième bureau" and "Brigade des mœurs". On 9 October, she again performed at Bobino, this time for three weeks as the headline performer, where she promoted her last release Come prima, which became the Christmas number one in France and Belgium. Its B side "Si je pouvais revivre un jour ma vie" reached number one in Canada. By the end of the year, she had again compiled previously released EPs on two new albums; "Gondolier" and "Les Gitans". On 26 December 1958 Dalida was in New York with Morisse where they met Norman Granz, the American impresario of Ella Fitzgerald, who invited her to Hollywood and offered a fifteen years contract to launch her career in the USA. She quickly rejected the offer, saying that she wanted to focus on her musical career in France where she was already well-know with a secure fan base.
Dalida toured extensively in 1959, playing sold-out dates in France, Egypt, Italy, and Germany. As her fame spread outside France, she started to record songs in other languages to cater for these new audiences. In February, during a TV appearance, she performed a version of "Hava Naguila". On 2 March, journalists of popular magazine Music Hall awarded her, alongside Yves Montand, with the Bravos du music hall, the forerunner of Victoires de la Musique, for outstanding success in the past twelve months. In May she recorded in German "Am tag als der regen kam", which reached number 1 in Germany and earned her another gold disc. During the summer, she covered her own recording of "C'est ça l'amore" in Flemish as "Ik zing amore", the only time in her career she sang in Flemish. In France she collected five Top 10 hits in 1959, most notably "Ciao, ciao Bambina" and "Guitare et tambourin"; both earning gold discs. In Italy she was awarded with Oscar di popolarità and Lupo d'oro for first place in sales of 45rpms. Those were her first two foreign awards, and furthered her international recognition. Dalida also performed in successful concerts in Berlin, Athens, and Cairo, where she performed in the Rivoli cinema that she frequented as a child. On 23 September 1959, Dalida sang in a successful three-week run at Théâtre de l'Étoile, where a jukebox was installed in recognition of her being voted Mademoiselle Jukebox, the 'most listened to artist on jukeboxes'. During the closing night of the Berlin Film Festival on 28 September, she was presented with a "Golden Lion" award for Am Tag als der Regen Kam and saluted with fanfare playing its verses. By the end of the year, she released her fifth and sixth albums "Le disque d'or de Dalida" and "Love in Portofino", and had already sold three and a half million records.
1960–1966: International breakthrough
Les enfants du Piree and transition to yé-yé
Dalida's first hit of 1960 was the song T'aimer follement, released on EP, that topped the charts of France and Belgium in February. Then she embarked upon a Elle, lui et l'autre world tour. The next EP, Romantica, also reached number one in France and Belgium in April.
In June, Les enfants du Piree was released and quickly became her first big international breakthrough and million-seller. Recorded in five different languages, the song became a summer success and chart topper across Europe, primarily in France. In Italy she was awarded with an Oscar di Popolarità and a Lupo d'Oro for the best record sales of the year.
In France, as the new musical style yé-yé was eerging, she recorded the song Itsi bitsi petit bikini in September. Today one of her signature songs, it became late-summer international hit as it topped charts across Western Europe and in Canada. It was also her second record to sell more than a million. That was followed with Milord, a number one in Austria, Germany and Italy, for which her first Italian album was named.
Dalida then completed a year-long world tour, performing in countries across Europe, in Canada and in several Arab states. For Christmas, she recorded EP Joyeux Noël Dalida which was promoted in the new year's eve Dalida show, broadcast on French TV with an audience of nearly six million.
Year of covers and first Olympia concert residency
In 1961 most of the songs she released were covers of foreign recordings, many of them collated on her album Dalida Internationale. In January, she released the EP Garde Moi la Derniere Danse, her biggest French hit of the year peaking at number two. Then she embarked on another world tour, entitled Dalida Internationale, starting in Tehran in front of Iranian royal family.
Tour was followed by the release of her Canta in Italiano EP, and by several other songs that entered international top 10 lists such as Nuits d'espagne and Tu ne sais pas. In April she made Pepe number one hit both in Austria and Germany, and 24 000 baisers solely in Austria. In late spring, she went to Italy to work on the film Parlez moi d'amour. Returning to France, she filmed her first scopitone for the song Loin de moi.
In early December she had her first concert residency at Olympia, which was a sell-out success. The premiere was broadcast line by Radio Europe N°1. She congratulated by Edith Piaf, who told her: "After me, it will be you." At the very end of December, she completed her world tour in Ancienne Belgique.
Performances in Canada and Asia
In January 1962, she toured Canada where Tu peux le prendre had reached number one. On 5 February, in a French TV program Toute la Chanson, performed an interpretion of La Leçon de Twist, accompanied on the piano by Johnny Hallyday. It was followed by release of her another yé-yé hit Achète-moi un Juke-box.
From April to July she toured across Italy and Vietnam. In Saigon, Dalida's popularity led to traffic congestion when she performed, but the local authorities interrupted her show during a rendition of La Leçon de Twist because the song was considered to be a political act. Around this time she recorded Le Petit Gonzales which topped international charts the following month and eventually became her most successful yé-yé recording.
Scoptiones and filming
In September 1962, Dalida performed her latest song Le jour le plus long on the first floor of the Eiffel Tower. The song was released with a music video in which she was dressed as a soldier. The video was distributed by scopitones in cafes, and song reached number one in France. It was followed with release of album also named Le petit Gonzales.
After this, Dalida went to Hong-Kong for three months to film L'Inconnue de Hong-Kong. During filming, she recorded Le jour du retour, a July chart success in Canada. The movie was released in August, just before beginning of her World tour 63. The tour was a success, with sold out concerts in Germany, Canada, Hong Kong, Fort-de-France, Brazil and the Eastern countries. In Algeria, she became the first French artist to appear since the proclamation of independence.
Soon the popularity meter for scoptiones placed her well ahead of other singers, and she was awarded with the World Juke-box Oscar for being the most listened-to artist on juke-boxes in Europe.
Bestseller Eux and TDF 64 tour
Her end of year bestseller became song Eux, which her album Eux was named for. The song was recorded in October and received four different language versions. The accumulated international exceeded one million examples, already in fourth tertile of same year. For that achievement she was awarded with her first Oscar mondial du disque de l'année.
In January 1964, she immediately started a new world tour from Fort-de-France. In support of tour, she also released an EP Ce coin de terre, which proved successful, charting internationaly.
The tour's French leg started on 11 April, after which she travelled 30 thousand kilometers by car during its five-month run. For concert at Draguignan on 14 August she appeared with blond hair for the first time. In July she release Chaque instant de chaque jour. The tour ended in September, and she returned to the Olympia for her third concert residency there, which again sold out.
Platinum disc and IFOP pole
The last release of 1964 was Amore scusami in November, which she promoted through TV appearances and with a scoptione video for its B side, Je n'ai jamais pu t'oublier. The EP was another French number one hit, and earned her a gold disc in January 1965. At the same time she became first person to be awarded with the platinum disc, for accumulated sales of over 10 million records since her debut in 1956.
In February 1965, she embarked upon another tour of Canada and Europe, and released Viva la pappa. The B side, La sainte totoche, was applauded by critics as it touched the theme of "the hypocritical behaviour of men towards women". In a poll conducted by IFOP on 24 April 1965, Dalida was voted the favourite French singer of the decade, above Edith Piaf.
Debut in Latin America with Zorba
Following its release in June, La danse de Zorba became summer hit, reaching number one in France and Brazil, and charting in many more countries. In August, she added Morocco and Algeria as a third leg of her ongoing tour, and released Wenn die Soldaten, her first record in single format. She then travelled to Italy to film Menage all'Italiana.
In late September, she released the EP Il silenzio, and an album of a same name. The song Il silenzo was recorded in several languages and topped charts in Europe, Canada and Latin America, becoming her secong big entry there. Scandale dans la famille was also well-received in Canada and France.
Extensive touring in 1966
1966 was marked by an extensive year-long world tour that started on 13 February, in Paris, and ended on 31 December, in Toulouse. She toured Canada, Latin America, Arab states and across Europe. El cordobes was her first EP of the year, released in January and achieving chart success in Latin America and Europe.
As of January, Dalida starting employing family members, with her cousin Rosy as her secretary, and brother Bruno as her artistic director. In May she met El Cordobes in Toulouse during a Corrida. The following month Parlez moi de lui was released, including songs based on experienced in her own life.
Success of Bang Bang in Italy and collaboration with Tenco
During summer, on Italian TV in Rome she performed Bang Bang, her number one hit of the moment in Italy and Argentina. In September her Italian managers suggested that she participate with Luigi Tenco, a new avant-garde cantautor, at the next Sanremo Music Festival. Although in previous years she declined the festival, she accepted because she saw an opportunity to reach a new audience, especially young people.
She also appeared in movie La Morale de l'histoire, which included the unreleased Je sortirais sans toi. In October, she released her last EP of the year Petit Homme, which gained significant success in Europe, Canada and Argentina.
1967–1974: New career
In the first few weeks of 1967, Dalida released the French version of Ciao amore, ciao as a single. She sang the song at the Sanremo Music Festival in January 1967, but she didn't pass. Again, in November, she organized four weeks of shows at Olympia, all sold out. Following the first night of the concert she released, for the first time, an album named after Olympia called Olympia67. She continued performing at Olympia until her last show in 1981, holding weeks of concerts every 3–4 years. The album contained new songs along with Ciao amore, ciao.
The same year she won Oscar de Canzonissima, awarded by the biggest TV show in Italy. In December, she was awarded the Médaille de la Présidence de la République by Charles de Gaulle, then French president. She is the only person from the show business to ever have received this medal.
In this period, her repertoire changed completely. In 1968, after gaining a keen interest in academia (Freud, David Cooper, Jean Hamburger…), she chose to perform songs with more profound lyrics. She tried to probe into her inner self and declared that she would sing only those songs which have a meaning for her. Every year's new releases were melancholic or fully attached to her personal life. That was completely influenced by Tenco's death. Also, from 1969 to 1972 she would frequently go to Asia on spiritual recoveries with gurus. The first few years of 1970s became a transitional period for the singer, highlighted by successful touring through Europe, Asia and Japan.
She recorded the very popular hit Darla dirla dada in 1970. Then she started to add more joyful songs to her repertoire.
Bruno Coquatrix was dubious about Dalida's career evolution, and was hesitant to book her for a series of performances in 1971. Dalida hired the hall herself, and all 30 days of the show were met with an impressive public response. She again released the album named by Olympia, but this time Olympia71 was released as a live album (first live LP in her career). All of her three Olympia albums from the '70s will be live.
In 1973, she recorded Paroles Paroles in duet with Alain Delon, which became #9 in France, #17 in Turkey, #3 in Mexico, #3 in Portugal, #10 in the county of Wallonia and #28 in Japan. Some of her other hits from this period were Petruska (1969) in Germany and Mamy Blue (1971) in Italy.
By the end of 1973 Dalida released the promotional single A side Il venait d'avoir 18 ans with B side Non ce n’est pas pour moi. In that same time, she released the album Julien that gathers most of her 1973 songs. The song Il venait d'avoir 18 ans quickly started gaining success and it was again released in the beginning of 1974 but as B-side to single A-side Gigi l'amoroso. Il venait d'avoir 18 ans peaked #3 in Quebec, #16 in Belgium, #13 in Germany,' and #37 in Italy while Gigi l'amoroso beat the record held by Frank Sinatra's Strangers in the night from 1966 for the most sold single in Benelux and charted #4 in France, #1 in Switzerland, #2 in Netherlands, #1 in county of Flanders, #3 in Quebec, #2 in Spain and #59 in Italy. The first performance of both songs was during her concerts in Olympia 1974. The whole 4 weeks were sold out and a triumph for the singer, and was followed again with a live album Olympia75.
1975–1980: Disco period
In February 1975, French music critics awarded the singer with the prestigious Prix de l'Académie du Disque Français. Touring from 1974 to 1975 would follow this period of unprecedented sales. During 1975, she released duet Et de l'amour de l'amour with her partner Richard. This single peaked #16 in France.
At the end of 1975, Dalida released a new album that gathered some songs from singles released in 1974 and '75 plus some new material. Most of the songs were from the same genre except for the title song J'attendrai which was of the disco genre. J'attendrai immediately gained success and was released as a single in January 1976. It reached number 1 on the French charts and was the first French disco hit in French speaking countries. Achieving that, Dalida holds the title of the inventor of French disco.
Around the same time, the popularity of the variety show was soaring in France, and Dalida started making television appearances on a weekly basis there and across Europe.
Following her disco success, in mid 1976 she released a new album with completely new songs, most of them disco. The most notable one was Besame mucho (#7 in France and #10 in Turkey).
1977 was a successful year for Dalida both in her private and professional life. She released three albums. One of them was live Olympia77, released following her again 4-week triumph at Olympia in 1977. The other two were albums with completely new songs. Salma Ya Salama became the first Raï hit in the world. Due to its success in the original Arabic, the song was translated into French, Italian, and German. Part of the lyrics are based on an old Egyptian folk song about homesickness and celebrating the Egyptian nation.
Dalida continued touring the world, including the USA, for the second time since the 1950s, by playing two nights in New York's Carnegie Hall in November 1978. The New York Times review of the Carnegie Hall concert praised Dalida's performance and noted its intimacy and intensity after she began to converse midway through it, revealing her personality. Most of the audience were French citizens. The concerts were almost sold out, but nevertheless, it was another triumph for her. Due to the concert, she was offered again a contract to perform in the USA, but she refused it for the second time.
In February, during her 1977 Canada tour, an obsessed fan tried to kidnap her by using a hammer, but did not succeed.
Other hit performances of Dalida include "The Lambeth Walk" sung in English and French. The song "Je suis malade", written and originally performed by Serge Lama was made into a success by Dalida during 1977 although she released it in 1973. In 1979, Dalida recorded her biggest disco hit "Monday, Tuesday... Laissez-moi danser" (Monday Tuesday ... let me dance). The song was a smash hit peaking #1 on the French charts. By the end of 1979, she released the semi-biographical song "Comme disait la mistinguett" where she, through music, speaks about herself in a fun way. Her debut of 1980 was marked by the release of a big disco hit "Rio do Brasil". Then she released the album "Gigi in Paradisco", named by title song that was a sequel to her previous hit "Gigi l'amoroso".
In 1979, Dalida met Lester Wilson. Agreeing to work together he became her choreographer for the upcoming spectacle in the Palais des Sports, booked for January 1980. In total, Dalida performed for three hours per day for fifteen days, with ten costume changes, twelve dancers, in front of a combined audience of around 90,000 people. Palais des Sports of Paris was the largest playing venue in Paris and also one of the biggest in France so triumph there was the same as the triumph in already mythical Olympia.
Following the spectacle, Dalida released the double live album Le spectacle du Palais des Sports 1980 and organized a new European tour and minor World tour. She toured in the whole Western and Eastern Europe except Yugoslavia and SSSR. Also, she held concerts in Brasil, USA and Canada. When she came back, she organized a tour across the whole of France delivering more 20 sold out concerts monthly across French countryside and cities. In 1980, problems in her private life appeared again. Her inside tournaments were reflected in the profound song "A ma maniere".
1981–1987: Diva trademark years
Very quickly Dalida left disco and started singing slower moody deep minded songs with typical 80s instruments. It was all caused again by escalating problems in her private life (break up with St. Germain in 1981). That same year she started to sing more often her 1973 song "Je suis malade" ("I am sick"). Her performances of that song during that year and later on, are today one of her most remembered performances. The song has also become her signature track. Dalida had popularized it globally, singing it because it reflects her personal torments and unhappiness, and has shown emotions that are, thus to numerous covers.
From March to April 1981, she held a month of sold-out concerts at the Olympia in Paris, emulating her successful 1980 tour. It became her last Olympia concert because the following year Olympia went bankrupt until 1989. On the night of her inaugural performance, she became the first singer to be awarded with a diamond disc, in recognition of her record sales which, at that point in her career, have reached 65 million. Olympia was followed up by the release of her last named Olympia album "Olympia81", but this time not live. That same year she refused to be a model for Marianne of France.
Instead of disco, Dalida started to record dance songs that quickly replaced disco in France and had occupied the clubs. In the end of 1981, Dalida starred in New Year TV spectacle called "Special Dalida". She was half host and sang her songs.
At the beginning of 1982, she had many TV appearances singing new songs still unreleased. All that resulted with the release of a new dance album "Special Dalida". She was now ruling dance scene. The most remembered songs of the album are the dance songs "Jouez bouzouki", "Danza" and moody "Nostalgie". Dalida launched a new world tour in 1982 and spent most of 1982 to 1984 delivering sold-out concerts from Rio de Janeiro, across Europe, to Asia. Her TV appearances were highly often in the 80s, almost every second week.
In the summer of 1982, during the FIFA world cup, just as many other singers, Dalida released a song for the French representation "La chanson du Mundial" (#17 in France).
In the first part of 1983, she released several songs and the most notable of them was "Mourir sur scène". The dance-pop song has very profound lyrics and has stayed a big hit still today, one of the signature tracks by Dalida. Most of her songs of 1983 were gathered on her album released in mid '83 "Les p'tits mots", which featured other singles as "Lucas" and "Bravo".
By the beginning of 1984, her private problems escalated again, so she couldn't dedicate as much time to her career as she would have wanted. Although, she recorded a new repertoire completely of dance songs, like "Soleil" and "Kalimba de Luna". In mid '84, she recorded the album "Dali", gathering all songs released that same year. To promote the album, a television special was later released on VHS named "Dalida Idéale", it was filmed in 1984, and directed by the then highly rated director Jean-Christophe Averty. This highly campy television special includes Dalida singing in 7 languages and dancing her way through a huge number of her earlier hits, all with the best video effects available at the time. Dalida also had a prestigious wardrobe during this show, changing more than 40 outfits from the best French and international fashion designers, showing off her amazing mannequin body for a woman of her age and keeping her "Glamour" and "DIVA" trademark gained during the disco era in the late seventies.
Dalida's eye problems returned again. She underwent two major eye operations in 1985, and she put her career on hiatus as the stage lights started to become difficult for her to endure. She released Reviens-moi, a cover of George Michael's Last Christmas. During early 1985, she occasionally had some live performances, as well as many TV appearances. When her eyes recovered in mid 1985, she accepted the role of a young grandmother in the Youssef Chahine film Le Sixième Jour. As she always wanted to become an actress, she temporarily disregarded her singing career and fully devoted herself to the movie. She returned to France to promote the movie in late 1985.
In 1986, she released Le Visage de l'amour with completely new recordings, and some singles from the album, which would become her last album. Le temps d'aimer and Le Vénitien de Levallois were minor hit songs that failed to achieve bigger success upon their release. She did promote the album, but not as well as she used to do previously, due to issues in her private life which has never been worse since 1967. Dalida, therefore, spent more and more time in her house alone or going out with friends in an attempt to amuse herself, again neglecting her career.
Dalida ceased to create new material in the recording studio, instead devoting herself to perform commercial concerts. Once again organising a lot of concerts on a monthly basis and singing her previously-known hits, Dalida was then known for the amazing "show" performances, wearing her wardrobe from 1980–1982. She sang glamourous disco-dance songs from same period such as Je suis toutes les femmes, Gigi in paradisco, Il faut danser reggae, Monday, Tuesday..., Comme disait la Mistinguett.
By the beginning of 1987, Dalida was entering into severe depression while trying to overcome it. Although no new songs had been recorded, she toured internationally from Los Angeles to the Middle East. Being part of the music spotlight in 1978, many of her songs appeared daily on TV, as well as many notable TV appearances in talk shows from 1986–1987. Her last live TV appearance was hosting the Nuit des César on 7 March 1987. Her last live performance took place in Antalya, Turkey, from 27 to 29 April 1987, just before her suicide. Her performance was not recorded by the national television of Turkey which was the only TV channel in the country.
Death and funeral
On the night of 2 May to 3, 1987, Dalida committed suicide by overdosing on barbiturates. She left behind a note which read, "La vie m'est insupportable... Pardonnez-moi." ("Life is unbearable for me... Forgive me.")
Dalida is buried at the Montmartre Cemetery, 18th Division, Chemin des Gardes.
While Dalida was professionally very successful, her private life was marred by a series of failed relationships and personal problems.
In January 1967, she took part in the Sanremo Festival with her new lover, Italian singer, songwriter, and actor Luigi Tenco. The song he presented was "Ciao amore ciao" ("Bye Love, Bye"), which he sang together with Dalida. But, stressed, Tenco failed despite Dalida's performance. Tenco committed suicide on 27 January 1967, after learning that his song had been eliminated from the final competition. Tenco was found by Dalida in his hotel room with a bullet wound in his left temple and a note announcing that his gesture was against the jury and public's choices during the competition. Prior to Tenco's suicide, Dalida and he had become engaged. One month later, Dalida attempted to commit a suicide by drug overdose at the Prince of Wales Hotel in Paris. She spent five days in a coma and several months convalescing. Dalida returned to the stage the following October.
In December 1967, she became pregnant by a 22-year-old Italian student, Lucio. She had an abortion that left her infertile.
In September 1970, her former husband (1956–1961) Lucien Morisse, with whom she was on good terms, committed suicide, shooting himself in the head.
In April 1975, her close friend, singer Mike Brant leapt to his death from an apartment in Paris. He was 28. Dalida had contributed to his success in France when he opened concerts for her in 1971 at l'Olympia.
In July 1983, her lover from 1972 to 1981, Richard Chanfray, committed suicide by inhaling the exhaust gas of his Renault 25 car.
Voical and musical styles
Dalida had alto singing voice, combined with male verdi baritone, as it could extend down to G2, which is an completely unusual phenomenon. Her voice spanned for 33 piano keys, which is a 2.54 octave range.
Dalida had employed various musical styles ranging from Pop and easy listening to disco and ac, employing even folk and rock. She said that she was doing it because "if an artist wants to remain relevant, [he/she] has to adapt needs to be adapted to the current period and environment".
In her teenage years, her uncle was a projectionist for a local Italian/French language cinema, so for the first time she caught a glimpse of Hollywood, and gained an interest in acting, being fascinated by Ava Gardner and Rita Hayworth. She dreamed of looking like them, but eventually as she became singer, she copied their gestures for her musical appearances. Sometimes her costumes were inspired by the movie wardrobe, like dress from Gilda.
Films, music videos, and performances
Dalida had recorded several scoptione videos for her songs in the 60s. She also made two video commercials.
|1960||Permaflex||Matress||Dalida laying on bed and talking about Permaflex mattress||Je pars, Il venditore di felicità, Mes frères, La pioggia cadrà, La Chanson d'Orphée, Vieni vieni si, Romantica, Ik zing amore, Mélodie pour un amour, Scoubidou, Gondolier||Italy|
|1986||Wizard Sec||Air freshener||Dalida dancing through house and spraying around Wizard Sec on rhythm of music||Adaptation of Gigi l'amoroso||France|
Public image and legacy
Since her death, Dalida has become a cult figure to a new generation of fans. In 1988, the Encyclopædia Universalis commissioned a poll, published in the French newspaper Le Monde, that aimed to reveal the personalities who had the greatest impact on French society. Dalida polled second, behind Général de Gaulle.
In 2003, for the award "Greatest Singer of the Century" in France (based on three criteria: numbers of album and single sales, number of radio airplays and chart positions), Dalida was placed third after Madonna and Céline Dion, which means that she remained the number one favorite artist in France.
Her output has also been the subject of various remix albums. Since her death, many of Dalida's hits have been remixed to modern techno and dance beats. In 2009 Lara Fabian said that Dalida had influenced the most on her.
During her life, Dalida was tributed several times, mostly by awards specially created for her or some impersonators singing her songs on events. After her death, various artists covered her songs, some of them to pay her a tribute. Dozens of concerts, galas and TV appearances were held in several European countries to annually commemorate the anniversary of her death. Below are listed some of most notable tributes to Dalida since 1987;
- In 1987, Dalida was posthumously honoured with a commemorative coin minted by The French Mint, Monnaie de Paris, issued in gold, bronze and silver, bearing her effigy.
- In 1997, as the Dalida Square and statue of her were established in Paris, on the 10th anniversary of her death, she became one of only three women in France to have a statue, along with Joan of Arc and Sarah Bernhardt.
- In 1998, a tribute ceremony was held on 27 October in Cairo and the "Dalida Prize" was established and awarded in her honour.
- In 2001, the French government honoured her with a second stamp bearing her likeness which was released by La Poste, the French postal service, as part of the Artistes de chanson (Artists of the song) series. In 2003, Dalida arrives in the leading point with 10 157 601 copies sold.
- In 2002, the first TV spectacle for marking the 15th anniversary of her death Dalida, 15 ans déjà (Dalida, 15 years already).
- In 2005, the first biopic of Dalida; two part telefilm Dalida. Its first broadcast on France 2 will reach 13 million viewers, scoring its best audience number since its inception, beating TF1 the same evening during the broadcast of a football match, still holding the record.
- In 2007, first of two big expo dedicated to Dalida; Dalida Expo was held in Paris City Hall Hôtel de Ville to commemorate 20th anniversary of her death with an exposition of her outfits, personal belongings, makeup, documents and previously unreleased photographs. In four months of its lining the exposition was visited by 300,000 people.
- In 2012, the TV spectacle Dalida, 25 ans déjà (Dalida, 25 years already) marked the 25th anniversary of her death.
- In 2016, the second biopic Dalida had its prepremiere in Olympia, first time in history that the hall was used for a movie projection. The event was attended by French elite personalities from public and political life while the beginning was transmitted live by TF1.
- In 2017, the second expo dedicated to Dalida; Dalida Expo was held in Palais Galliera to commemorate the 30th anniversary of her death. In three months of its lining, the exposition was visited by 100,000 people, becoming a personal record for the gallery because of its limited capacity
Awards and achievements
Dalida is the most consecrated artist in the history of France. During her life and posthumously, she collected various international awards that no European artist has ever obtained. Dalida is the only person in Europe who has ever achieved such fame without any releases in the American and UK markets. She sold 120 million records worldwide during her lifetime and a further 20 million records since her death. Her singles and albums have received more than 90 certifications.
Her early success with Bambino made Barclay adopt the practice of other producers in the world who had already awarded their singers with golden certifications, so, on 19 September 1957, Bambino became the first record in the history of France to be certified gold. Barclay had not been the official certification association, but has faithfully served its 300,000-copy gold certification award over the years.
In 1964, from the hands of Barclay, Dalida received the certification of a Platinum Disk for Accumulated Sales of over 10 million discs sold in the previous seven years of her career. It was the first time in world history that the term "platinum disk" was used and awarded to a singer. It is also the first time that a disk certification for lifetime achievement/accumulated sales was awarded. In 1976 RIAA introduced a new platinum award. The inspiration for the name came after this Dalida's achievement 12 years earlier.
In 1981, Dalida celebrated 25 years of her career. On 18 March, the first night of her seventh and last Olympia concert residency, Orlando awarded Dalida with a Diamond Disk for Lifetime Achievement and 45 million units sold. The event was a live transmission. It is also the first time in world history that the term "diamond disk" was used and awarded to a singer. In 1999, RIAA introduced a new diamond award, inspired by Dalida's achievement.
- 1965 – I.F.O.P. Poll: 'Favourite French singer'
- 1976 – Dalida was voted 'Woman of the Year' in Canada, ahead of Jackie Kennedy)
- 1982 – Paris Match magazine survey revealed that Dalida was the only representative from show business to appear in a list of most influential French women.
- 1985 – Dalida was voted 'Favourite French singer' (Télé 7 Jours magazine).
- 1986 – VSD magazine published a survey in which Dalida was voted 'Favourite French singer'.
- 1988 – SOFRES/Encyclopædia Universalis: In a survey asking the French public which events had the greatest impact on the French public between 1968 and 1988, 16% of the French public voted the 'Death of Général de Gaulle' and 10% voted the 'Death of Dalida'.
- 1989 – Encyclopædia Universalis: By examining the proof of the criteria to find out which person had the biggest impact on French society, it was concluded that Dalida is the second, just after president de Gaulle.
- 2001 – IFOP Survey: Dalida was voted the 'Most important female singer who had the greatest impact on French society in the 20th century', along with Édith Piaf.
- 2005 – Dalida was voted the 'Favourite singer in 2004' amongst Italians, and held seventh place amongst the most collected musical artists in Italy.
- 2005 – Dalida was voted 'Top 58th French person of all time' in a survey sponsored by the France 2 television channel. The only women from the show business which appeared in this list were Catherine Deneuve, Brigitte Bardot, Simone Signoret, Édith Piaf and Dalida.
Other appearances and interests
- 1960 for Permaflex, matress.
- 1966 for Margnat, vine.
- 1968 for hand watches (it is notable for mass popularizing small type of hand watches between young population).
- 1970 for Armand Thiery and Sigrand, wardrobe.
- 1976 for Saint-Raphaël, apéritif.
- 1986 for Wizard Sec, air freshener (she wore her famous Loris Azzaro dress).
Theatrical and movie adaptations of Dalida's life
Several theatrical productions have been made about Dalida's life. At least a dozen theatrical adaptations of Dalida's life in addition to the ones listed below have been performed at schools or in independent productions.
- In 1999, the play Solitudini – Luigi Tenco e Dalida, written and directed by Maurizio Valtieri, was performed in Rome.
- "Dalida: Une Vie", directed by René Simard and under the authorization of Orlando Productions, was performed from October 2003 to June 2006, in Quebec, Canada, and was shown in Beirut, Lebanon in May 2004.
- In 2005 a two-part television film, Dalida, in which Dalida was portraited by Sabrina Ferilli, was first broadcast on France 2, reaching 13 million viewers. It was France 2's highest viewership since its inception, beating TF1 the same evening during the broadcast of a football match. The film still holds the record.
- In 2005, the play "Dalida, à quoi bon vivre au mois de mai ?", written by Joseph Agostini and Caroline Sourrisseau, was performed at the Ateliers Théâtre in Montmartre.
- In 2017, the film Dalida, directed by Lisa Azuelos and assisted by Orlando Productions, featured Sveva Alviti as Dalida. The film achieved moderate success. Its premiere was at Olympia Music Hall, the first time that the hall hosted a film presentation.
Music in motion pictures and TV
Dalida’s songs have appeared in 36 action films, of which there are two biographical films: Dalida (2005) and Dalida (2017). In addition, a documentary with her songs was recorded during her life. After her death, dozens of documentaries with her songs were recorded.
Dalida in Art (selection)
- Raymond Moretti: Dalida (Oil on canvas, 1957).
- ?: Dalida (Oil on canvas, 1968).
- Magguy Crouzet: Dalida (Portrait in dot-sculpture, 1976).
- Michel Souvais: Dalida, femme est la nuit (Oil on canvas, 1977).
- Alain Aslan: Dalida (Yolanda Gigliotti), funerary statue (Bronze sculpture, 1987).
- Alain Aslan: Dalida (Yolanda Gigliotti) (Bronze bust, 1997).
- Francesco Gallo: Dalida (Yolanda Gigliotti) (Bronze sculpture, 2007).
- FS62: Dalida (Black and white portrait in acrylic, 2008).
- HK: Dalida Ideal (Oil on canvas, 2018).
- Dalida, by Michel Delain, Éditions de l'Heure, 1962. (in French)
- Dalida, La gloire et les larmes, by Pascal Sevran, 1976. (in French)
- 25 ans de triomphe, by Christian Page, Delmas Éditeur, 1981. (in French)
- Dalida, by Christian Page, Têtes D'affiche, 1982. (in French)
- Dalida, mon amour, by Anne Gallimard and Orlando, Édition NRJ, 1984. ISBN 978-2-908070-01-9. (in French)
- Lorsque l’amour s’en va, by Catherine Benoît Sévin, Michel Lafon, 1987; Carrere, 1989. ISBN 978-2-908070-01-9. (in French)
- Dalida, mon amour, by Anne Gallimard and Orlando, Édition NRJ, 1989. ISBN 978-2-908070-01-9. (in French)
- Dalida mon amour, by Orlando, Hachette Littérature, 1991. ISBN 978-2-7382-0362-5. (in French)
- Dalida, Histoire d’une femme, by Jean-François Josselin and Jeff Barnel, Jean-Claude Lattès, 1994. ISBN 978-2-7096-1450-4. (in French)
- Les larmes de la gloire, by Bernard Pascuito, Éditions Michel Lafon, 1997. ISBN 978-2-84098-301-9. (in French)
- Dalida, by C. Daccache, Éditions Vade Retro, 1998. ISBN 2-909828-51-4 and ISBN 978-2-909828-51-0. (in French)
- Dalida: Mon frère, tu écriras mes mémoires, by Catherine Rihoit, Plon, 1998. (in French)
- Dalida, by Catherine Rihoit, Omnibus, 1998. ISBN 978-2-259-00083-3. (in French)
- Star pour toujours, by Julie Thamin, Gep, 2000. (in French)
- Dalida: Entre violon et amour, by Isaline, Éditions Publibook, 2002. ISBN 978-2-7483-2629-1. (in French)
- Du Nil à la scène, Jacques Brachet, Éditions Va bene and Éditions de la courtine, 2001, 2002. ISBN 2-913483-36-4. (in French)
- Dalida: Une oeuvre en soi, by Michel Rheault, Nota Bene, 2002. ISBN 2-89518-111-X. (in French)
- Luigi Tenco. Vita breve e morte di un genio musicale, by Aldo Fegatelli Colonna, A. Mondadori, 2002. ISBN 88-04-50087-5 and ISBN 978-88-04-50087-2. (in Italian)
- Ciao, ciao bambina, by Henri-Jean Servat and Orlando, Éditions Albin Michel, 2003. ISBN 978-2-226-14298-6. (in French)
- Dalida, by Catherine Rihoit, Plon, re-published 2004. ISBN 978-2-259-20180-3. (in French)
- D’une rive à l’autre, by David Lelait, Payot, 2004. ISBN 978-2-228-89904-8. (in French)
- L’argus Dalida: Discographie mondiale et cotations, by Daniel Lesueur, Éditions Alternatives, 2004. ISBN 978-2-86227-428-7. (in French)
- La véritable Dalida, by Emmanuel Bonini, Éditions Pygmalion, 2004. ISBN 2-85704-902-1 and ISBN 978-2-85704-902-9. (in French)
- Mademoiselle succès, Barclay France, 2004. UPC 602498110843. (in French)
- Dalida: La femme de cœur, by Jeff Barnel, Éditions du Rocher, 2005. ISBN 978-2-268-05500-8. (in French)
- Dalida: La voce e l'anima, by Giandomenico Curi, 2005. ISBN 978-88-7641-687-3. (in Italian)
- Top Dalida, Éditions Paul Beuscher, 2005. ASIN B000ZG64FO. (in French)
- Dalida: La voce, Il suono, L'anima, by Mino Rossi, Edizioni Franciacorta, 2005. ISBN 978-88-89364-01-7. (in Italian)
- Quasi sera: una storia di Tenco, by A. Montellanico, StampaAlternativa/NuoviEquilibri, 2005. ISBN 88-7226-910-5. (in Italian)
- D’une rive à l’autre, by David Lelait-Helo, Éditions J'ai Lu, 2006. ISBN 978-2-290-34567-2. (in French)
- Ntaainta Dalida, Éditions Odos Panos and 20 ans sans elle, 2006. (in French)
- Dalida passionnément, by Arianne Ravier, Éditions Favre, 2006. ISBN 978-2-8289-0927-7. (in French)
- Dalida, by Henry-Jean Servat and Orlando, Éditions Albin Michel, 2007. ISBN 978-2-226-15218-3. (in French)
- Dalida, tu m'appelais petite sœur…, by Jacqueline Pitchal, Éditions Carpentier Didier, 2007. ISBN 978-2-84167-504-3. (in French)
- Dalida: Une vie brûlée, by Bernard Pascuito, L'Archipel, 2007. ISBN 978-2-84167-504-3. (in French)
- Dalida: Une vie..., by Jacques Pessis, Célina Jauregui, Emmanuel Polle and N-T Binh, Édition Chronique, 2007. 978-2-205-06006-5. (in French)
- Dalida: Le temps d'aimer, Fabien Lecœuvre, Éditions City Editions, 2007. ISBN 978-2-35288-046-2. (in French)
- Luigi Tenco: Ed ora avrei mille cose da fare, by R. Tortarolo and G. Carozzi, Arcana, 2007. ISBN 978-88-7966-431-8. (in Italian)
- Dalida: Ses fans, ses amis ont la parole, by Claire Nérac and Cédric Naïmi, Éditions du Rocher, 2008. ISBN 978-2-268-06580-9. (in French)
- Mia zia, ma tante Dalida, by Stéphane Julienne and Luigi Gigliotti, Éditions Ramsay, 2009. ISBN 978-2-8122-0011-3. (in French)
- Dalida, le profil perdu, by Jean-Manuel Gabert, Éditions de la Belle Gabrielle, La légende de Montmartre collection, 2009. ISBN 978-2-917269-02-2. (in French)
- Pour Dalida, by Colette Fellous, Flammarion ed., 2010. ISBN 978-2-08-069056-2. (in French)
- Les grands interprètes, by Jacques Perciot, Frédéric Brun, Olympia Alberti, et Claude Frigara, Éditions Christian Pirot, 2010. ISBN 978-2-86808-274-9. (in French)
- Rencontres avec une Étoile, by Jean-Claude Genel, Éditions Entre deux mondes, 2010. ISBN 978-2-919537-00-6. (in French)
- La nuit de San Remo, by Philippe Brunel, Éditions Grasset, 2012. ISBN 978-2-246-75321-6. (in French)
- Ciao amore. Tenco e Dalida, la notte di Sanremo, by Philippe Brunel, transl. by G. Vulpius, Rizzoli ed., 2012. ISBN 978-88-17-05518-5. (in Italian)
- C'était en mai, un samedi, by David Lelait-Helo, Éditions Anne Carrière, 2012. ISBN 978-2-84337-663-4. (in French)
Most of her records were issued in France, then in Italy, Germany and Spain. Combining with other countries makes a total of 40 countries. In the 50s, she starts issuing only 25 cm albums and 45 maxi. In 1965, she changes size of her albums to 30 cm, and in late 1969, she completely stops issuing 45 maxi and replaces them with single.
|Diameter||Revolutions per minute||Duration|
|12 in (30 cm)||33 1⁄3 rpm||LP (album)|
|10 in (25 cm)|
|7 in (17.5 cm)||45 rpm||EP (45 maxi)|
- Le Masque de Toutankhamon (1954)
- Sigarah wa kas (1954)
- Brigade des moeurs (1958)
- Rapt au deuxième bureau (1958)
- Che femmina... e che dollari! (1961)
- L'inconnue de Hong Kong (1963)
- Menage all'italiana (1965)
- La morale de l'histoire (1966)
- Io ti amo (1968)
- Dalida: Pour toujours (1977) (documentaly film)
- Le sixième jour (1986)
- Honorific nicknames in popular music
- Mononymous persons
- Culture of France
- Music of France
- Music of Italy
- Music of Canada
- List of cultural icons of France
- Olympia (Paris)
- Original pronouncement in French: "Votre pseudo ressemble trop au film Samson et Dalila et ça n'aidera pas à augmenter la popularité. Pourquoi ne remplacez-vous pas le second "l" par un "d", comme Dieu le père?"
- Original text in French: "Sur scène, Dali apparaît en beauté et chaleur, mise en valeur par présentation extrême sobriete."
- List of Top 10 songs: #1-Dans le bleu du ciel bleu, #4-Les Gitans, #6-Gondolier, #7-Le jour ou la pluie viendra, #8-Melodie perdue.
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- Dalida, mon amour, by Anne Gallimard and Orlando, Édition NRJ, 1989. ISBN 2-908070-01-4 and ISBN 978-2-908070-01-9. (in French)
- Dalida mon amour, by Orlando, Hachette Littérature, 1991. ISBN 2-7382-0362-0 and ISBN 978-2-7382-0362-5. (in French)
- Dalida, Histoire d’une femme, by Jean-François Josselin and Jeff Barnel, Jean-Claude Lattès, 1994. ISBN 2-7096-1450-2 and ISBN 978-2-7096-1450-4. (in French)
- Dalida: Mon frère, tu écriras mes mémoires, by Catherine Rihoit, Plon, 1998. (in French)
- Ciao, ciao bambina, by Henri-Jean Servat and Orlando, Éditions Albin Michel, 2003. ISBN 2-226-14298-3 and ISBN 978-2-226-14298-6. (in French)
- L’argus Dalida: Discographie mondiale et cotations, by Daniel Lesueur, Éditions Alternatives, 2004. ISBN 2-86227-428-3 and ISBN 978-2-86227-428-7. (in French)
- Dalida: La femme de cœur, by Jeff Barnel, Éditions du Rocher, 2005. ISBN 2-268-05500-0 and ISBN 978-2-268-05500-8. (in French)
- Dalida, tu m'appelais petite sœur…, by Jacqueline Pitchal, Éditions Carpentier Didier, 2007. ISBN 2-84167-504-1 and ISBN 978-2-84167-504-3. (in French)
- Mia zia, ma tante Dalida, by Stéphane Julienne and Luigi Gigliotti, Ramsay, 2009. ISBN 2-8122-0011-1 and ISBN 978-2-8122-0011-3. (in French)
- Dalida, by Catherine Rihoit, Plon, re-published 2004. ISBN 2259251501 and ISBN 978-2259251501. (in French)