Arena Football League
The Arena Football League is a professional indoor American football league in the United States. It was founded in 1987 by Jim Foster, making it the third longest-running professional football league in North America, after the Canadian Football League and the National Football League; the AFL plays a proprietary code known as arena football, a form of indoor American football played on a 66-by-28 yard field, with rules encouraging offensive performance, resulting in a faster-paced and higher-scoring game. The sport was invented in the early 1980s and patented by Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the NFL. From 2000 to 2009, the AFL had its own developmental league, the af2; the AFL played 22 seasons from 1987 to 2008. That year both the AFL and af2 were dissolved and reorganized as a new corporation comprising teams from both leagues, the AFL returned in 2010; the league's average game attendance since returning in 2010 has been 9,500. The league has had a nationwide footprint, has been recognized as the most prominent professional indoor football league in North America, offering higher payment, more widespread media exposure, a longer history than competing leagues.
From a high of 19 teams in 2007, the league contracted to a low of four teams in 2018, all in the northeastern United States. Six teams are announced for the 2019 season. Jim Foster, a promotions manager with the National Football League, conceived of indoor football while watching an indoor soccer match at Madison Square Garden in 1981. While at the game, he wrote his idea on a 9 x 12 envelope, with sketches of the field and notes on gameplay, he presented the idea to a few friends at the NFL offices, where he received praise and encouragement for his concept. After solidifying the rules and a business plan, supplemented with sketches by a professional artist, Foster presented his idea to various television networks, he reached an agreement with NBC for a "test game". Plans for arena football were put on hold in 1982. Foster left the NFL to accept a position in the USFL, he became executive vice-president with the Chicago Blitz, where he returned to his concept of arena football. In 1983, he began organizing the test game in his spare time from his job with the Blitz.
By 1985, the USFL had ceased football operations and he began devoting all his time to arena football, on April 27, 1986, his concept was realized when the test game was played. The test game was played in Illinois on April 27, 1986 at the Rockford MetroCentre. Sponsors were secured, players and coaches from local colleges were recruited to volunteer to play for the teams, the Chicago Politicians and Rockford Metros, with the guarantee of a tryout should the league take off. Interest was high enough following the initial test game that Foster decided to put on a second, "showcase" game; the second game was held on February 27, 1987 at the Rosemont Horizon in Chicago with a budget of $20,000, quadruple the $4,000 in the test game. Foster invited ESPN to send a film crew to the game. Following the successes of his trial-run games, Foster moved ahead with his idea for arena football, he founded the Arena Football League with four teams: the Pittsburgh Gladiators, Denver Dynamite, Washington Commandos, Chicago Bruisers.
Foster appointed legendary Darrel "Mouse" Davis, godfather of the "run and shoot" and modern pro offenses, as executive director of football operations. Davis hired the original coaches and was the architect of the league's original wide-open offensive playbooks; the first game in Arena Football League history was played on June 19, 1987, between the Gladiators and Commandos at Pittsburgh Civic Arena in front of 12,117 fans. The game was deliberately not televised so that it could be analyzed and any follies and failures would not be subject to national public scrutiny. Following the inaugural game and adjustments were made, the first season continued; the Dynamite and Bruisers played in the first-ever televised AFL game the next night, on June 20, 1987, at the Rosemont Horizon in suburban Chicago on ESPN with Bob Rathbun and Lee Corso calling the play-by-play. The broadcast showed a short clip of the Commandos-Gladiators game; each team played two against each other team. The top two teams and Pittsburgh competed in the first-ever AFL championship game, ArenaBowl I.
On September 30, 1987, Foster filed an application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to patent his invented sport. The patent application covered the rules of the game detailing the goalposts and rebound netting and their impact on gameplay. Foster's application was granted on March 27, 1990; the patent expired in 2007. From its inception, the AFL operated in a state of semi-obscurity. From the 1987 season until the late 1990s, the most exposure the league would receive was on ESPN, which aired tape-delayed games well after midnight, edited to match the allotted time slot; the league received its first taste of wide exposure in 1998, when Arena Bowl XII was televised nationally as part of ABC's old Wide World of Sports. On Saturday, July 23, 1989, much of America learned of the AFL for an unintended reason, when the Pittsburgh Gladiators' head coach, Joe Haering, made football history by punching commissioner Jim Foster during a game with the Chicago Bruisers; the national media ran with the story, including a photo in USA To
The Orlando Predators were a professional arena football team based in Orlando and member of the Arena Football League. The team was most owned by Orlando Predators LLC, a company owned by David A. Siegel, played its home games at Amway Center; the team was founded in 1991 as an expansion team of the AFL. The team advanced to the playoffs 19 consecutive seasons between 1992 and 2011, becoming the ArenaBowl champions in 1998 and 2000 during that span; the team suspended operations after the 2016 season. A new organization led by former Predator Kenny McEntyre obtained the Predators branding and relaunched the team in the National Arena League for the 2019 season; the Orlando Predators franchise was awarded by the AFL to Davey Johnson, Tracy Allen and Mike McBath on February 14, 1991, began play that same year, the only year until 2012 that the franchise missed the playoffs. In just their second season however, they advanced to ArenaBowl VI, only to fall to the Detroit Drive, who won their fourth title in five years.
Annually among the league-leaders in attendance, they qualified for the playoffs in 18 consecutive seasons, the longest streak in the original AFL. One noted administrator for the Predators was Pro Football Hall of Fame lineman, Jack Youngblood, who came to the Predators in 1995 as vice-president and later, president of the organization, he was with the team through the 1999 season. For much of their existence in the original AFL their head coach was Jay Gruden, younger brother of prominent National Football League coach Jon Gruden. Jay Gruden was an outstanding Arena Football quarterback, leading the Tampa Bay Storm to four ArenaBowl championships, served one year as offensive coordinator for the Nashville Kats prior to becoming head coach of the Predators. Jay was the first quarterback in the AFL Hall of Fame. Orlando won the ArenaBowl in 2000 under Gruden's coaching, he attempted a comeback as a player, but subsequently returned to coaching following the death of his head coach replacement, Fran Papasedero, in a car accident.
The Predators are undoubtedly one of the premier franchises in the history of the original AFL, have a legendary rivalry with Tampa Bay, who moved to Tampa the same year the Predators formed. They have met twice in the ArenaBowl, with Tampa Bay winning in 1995 and Orlando winning in 1998; the rivalry, nicknamed the "War on I-4" after the interstate that connects the two cities, intensified when Gruden took over as Orlando's head coach. Orlando and Tampa Bay have each lasted longer in their markets than any other AFL franchise; the Predators are unique in that they had played in their previous venue, Amway Arena, for 18 seasons in the AFL, longer than any other team. Amway Arena was nicknamed "The Jungle" during Predators games due to the hostile environment from the fans, harsh smoke that fills the arena during the players intro, a Guns N' Roses song which "welcomes" other teams followed by their impending death, they shared Amway Arena with the Orlando Magic of the NBA and the Orlando Titans of the NLL.
The 2010 season was the Predators' final season at Amway Arena. The team will move to the new arena in Orlando, for the 2011 season. A Predators game was the final sporting event performed at Amway Arena; the Tampa Bay Storm can surpass that record of 19 seasons in one venue if they stay at Amalie Arena until 2018. The team's current mascot is a monster-like human named Klaw who looks much like the alien from the Predator films, with only different coloring; the Predators have played in the ArenaBowl a total of seven times, more than any other current team. If you include the Pittsburgh Gladiators' two ArenaBowl games before they moved to Tampa Bay, the Storm is the only team that has more. During the 2007 season, the Predators inaugurated the "Predator Fan Hall Of Fame"; the inaugural inductees are Richard Grabe. Morris, a superfan for over 20 years, is known to most of the team and the front office as "The PredMom", is the president of the Orlando Predator In Your Face Fan Club. Grabe, a superfan since 1991, is the creator of the "PredHeads" that are seen worn by a select group of fans that sat in section 113 of the old Amway Arena, they're known for their tailgating parties on "Predator Island".
After moving to the new Amway Center, the majority of "PredHeads" sit in section 114, tailgate under I-4 in lot 9. The Predators maintained their organization and web presence after the AFL suspended operations in August 2009. On September 28, 2009, the Predators announced their return to play for the 2010 season as a member of the new Arena Football 1 league, until that league purchased the AFL's assets and assumed the AFL's history. With Jay Gruden obligated to the UFL by his contract with the Tuskers becoming the team's head coach, they hired former quarterback Pat O'Hara as their head coach for the 2010 season; when the schedule for the league's season was announced on December 31, 2009, the Predators were slated to return to action on April 9, 2010. In the 2010 season, the Predators finished with an 8–8 record, they qualified for the playoffs, but lost the conference championship to the Tampa Bay Storm by a single point as a last-second field goal attempt was unsuccessful. In 2011, the Predators finished the regular season 11–7, but fell to the Jacksonville Sharks in the conference semifinals by a score of 63–48.
With a 4–14 record in 2012 under first-year head coach Bret Munsey, the Predators missed the playoffs for the first time since their inaugural season in 1991. Following the end of the season, Munsey was released as head coach. Under Doug Plank for the 2013 season
Arena football is a variety of indoor gridiron football played by the Arena Football League, China Arena Football League, Champions Indoor Football and others. The game is played indoors on a smaller field than American or Canadian outdoor football, resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game; the sport was invented in 1981, patented in 1987, by Jim Foster, a former executive of the National Football League and the United States Football League. The name is trademarked by Gridiron Enterprises and had a proprietary format until its patent expired in 2007. Due to the patent, other indoor American football leagues that launched following the popularity of the original AFL developed variants on the arena rules. Three leagues have played under arena football rules: the AFL, which played 22 seasons from 1987 to 2008 and resumed play under new ownership in 2010, AF2, the AFL's erstwhile developmental league, which played 10 seasons from 2000 through 2009, the CAFL, which began play in 2016 but is not directly affiliated with the AFL.
While attending the 1981 Major Indoor Soccer League All-Star Game on February 11 at Madison Square Garden, Jim Foster came up with his version of football and wrote the rules and concepts down on the outside of a manila folder, which resides at the Arena Football Hall of Fame. Over the next five years, he created a more comprehensive and definitive set of playing rules, playing field specifications and equipment, along with a business plan to launch a proposed small, initial league to test market the concept of arena football nationally; as a key part of that plan, while residing in the Chicago area, he tested the game concept through several closed door practice sessions in late 1985 and early 1986 in nearby Rockford. After fine tuning the rules, he secured additional operating capital to play several test games in the MetroCentre in April 1986, the Rosemont Horizon Arena in February 1987; the next critical step for Jim Foster was securing a network television contract with ESPN and an initial group of key national corporate sponsors including United Airlines, Holiday Inn, Wilson Sporting Goods, Budget Rental Car, Hardees Restaurants.
As the league's founding commissioner he established a league office with a small staff in suburban Chicago, with addition of some much needed additional investor capital, was ready to launch the Arena Football League. On June 19, 1987, the Pittsburgh Gladiators hosted the Washington Commandos in the first league game after a two-week training camp for all four charter teams in Wheaton, Illinois. AFL football operations and training was overseen by veteran college and pro head coach, Mouse Davis, the father of the famed "run and shoot" offense; the other two 1987 teams were the Denver Dynamite. As the AFL grew into an established league with close to 20 teams, it defined itself as a major market pro sports product and welcomed commissioner C. David Baker. In the early 2000s the league appeared to have financially strong team ownership including NFL owners, as well as major names in the entertainment world, for a while, a weekly Sunday afternoon broadcast on NBC starting the week after the Super Bowl, during the stadium-played game's off season.
The growth and establishment of the AFL as a major market league spawned a developmental league that Foster helped co-found, a minor league called Arena Football 2, in 2000. The league was set up to operate in medium size markets around the U. S. where it enjoyed growth under the guidance of af2 president Jerry Kurz. Many other people have started their own indoor football minor leagues; these leagues do not technically play arena football or use the proper name "Arena Football", a registered trademark, because of the patent on the rules that Foster obtained in 1990. The other two partners were Chicago based lawyers Bill Niro and Jerry Kurz, who in early 1987 joined Foster to help secure the patents on the Arena Football game system and re-establish the Arena Football League in early 1990 as a franchised league after removing a small group of limited partners for multiple breaches of the limited partnership agreement, the basis for operating the AFL during the 1988 season; the patents expired in 2007.
The trademarks only cover the words "arena football" in immediate succession. Arena football is played indoors, in arenas designed for either basketball or ice hockey teams; the field is the same width and length as a standard NHL hockey rink, making it 55% of the dimensions of a regular American gridiron football field. The scrimmage area is long, each end zone is deep. Depending on the venue in which a game is being played, the end zones may be rectangular or, where necessary because of the building design, rounded; each sideline has a padded barrier, with the padding placed over the hockey dasher boards. The goalpost uprights are 9 feet wide, the c
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
A head coach, senior coach, or manager is a professional at training and developing athletes. They hold a more public profile and are paid more than other coaches. In some sports, the head coach is instead called the "manager", as in association football and professional baseball. In other sports such as Australian rules football, the head coach is termed a senior coach. Other coaches are subordinate to the head coach in offensive positions or defensive positions, proceeding down into individualized position coaches. Head coaches in American football have different responsibilities depending on what level of the sport they are coaching; the head coach has a much more complete hold on the intricacies of the team. He may have to perform the duties of a offensive coordinator. High school head coaches have to do more work off the field than on, it is important that head coaches in high school hire a competent and proactive coaching staff because when the head coach is pulled away from practice he must be confident that his team is in good hands with his other coaches and staff.
One of the most difficult issues that head coaches must deal with off of the field is the parent, although many coaches do not allow parental interactions in many cases. He must be able to handle any issues that parents may have with the way that the head coach is running the program, all along while staying professional and not being demeaning. Furthermore, a high school's head football coach serves as his school's Athletic Coordinator or Director, which adds further responsibilities to his job. In some jurisdictions, a high school head coach must have a paying job within the school always as a teacher. One of the major features of head coaching in college football is the high turnover rate for jobs. With few exceptions college coaches routinely change jobs staying at a school for more than a decade; some coaches have been known to leave a school and return to the program after a period of time. Many head coaches at the college level have a paid staff and as such are more free to concentrate on the overall aspect of the team rather than dealing with the nuances of training regimens and such.
Unlike head coaches at other levels, college coaching staffs are responsible for the composition and development of players on the team. The ability to recruit and develop top players plays a major role in success at this level. A college coach acts as the face of a team, at an age when many young players do not wish to be hounded by media, they are called upon to discuss off-the-field incidents such as rule infractions or player antics. Sometimes, the coach becomes a celebrity in e.g. Lou Holtz. At the end of the year there are numerous college football coach of the year awards given out; the awards all go to the same coach but there are some discrepancies. Major annual coaching honors include the Home Depot Coach of the Year, The Liberty Mutual Coach of the Year Award, the Associated Press College Football Coach of the Year Award, The Paul'Bear' Bryant Award. At the professional level, coaches may work for millions of dollars a year. Since he or she does not have to travel the country recruiting high school players, the head coach at the pro level has much more time to devote to tactics and playbooks, which are coordinated with staff paid more than at the college level.
They report to the General Manager. Head coaching, due to the lack of job security and long hours, is a stressful job. Since the money is good at high levels and firings are common, many coaches retire in their early fifties. Many factors are part of National Football League coaches' contracts; these involve the NFL's $11 billion as the highest revenue sport, topping the Major League Baseball's $7 billion. The NFL's coaches are the highest-paid professional coaches with professional football topping the list in Forbes' highest-paid sports coaches. Bill Belichick is in the number one spot for the second year in a row with no MLB or National Hockey League coaches making the list. Another major element of NFL coaches' contracts, negotiated between individual coaches and NFL "teams"/owners, are NFL demanded provisions in the coaches employment contracts, that authorize the employing NFL teams to withhold part of a coach's salary when league operations are suspended, such as lockouts or television contract negotiations.
The average salary for a head coach in the National Football League is $6.45 million a year. In association football, a head coach has the same responsibilities as in any other sport. A head coach has an option to pick his own coaching staff. In some countries there is a position of senior coach who acts as the first assistant of the head coach or runs a junior squad in the club. In the absence of a head coach, a senior coach temporarily fulfills his role as interim. There is the UEFA Convention on the Mutual Recognition of Coaching Qualifications that has three levels: Pro, A, B. In Australian rules football the head coach or senior coach is responsible for development and implementing an appropriate training program to the players so that they ensure they perform on game day; the senior coach in AFL has to be responsible for the rotations and team line up for the games. A senior coach in AFL is not the only coach involved in making the team operate, in AFL teams there are up to five different coaches that all have different responsibilities, for example, there is a forward and defence coach, these coaches focus on the particular positions on the grou
The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. The Cowboys compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference East division; the team is headquartered in Frisco and plays its home games at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, which opened for the 2009 season. The stadium took its current name prior to the 2013 season; the Cowboys joined the NFL as an expansion team in 1960. The team's national following might best be represented by its NFL record of consecutive sell-outs; the Cowboys' streak of 190 consecutive sold-out regular and post-season games began in 2002. The franchise has made it to the Super Bowl eight times, tied with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Denver Broncos for second most Super Bowl appearances in history, just behind the New England Patriots record eleven Super Bowl appearances; this has corresponded to eight NFC championships, most in the NFC. The Cowboys have won five of those Super Bowl appearances, tying them with their NFC rivals, the San Francisco 49ers.
The Cowboys are the only NFL team to record 20 straight winning seasons, in which they missed the playoffs only twice. In 2015, the Dallas Cowboys became the first sports team to be valued at $4 billion, making it the most valuable sports team in the world, according to Forbes; the Cowboys generated $620 million in revenue in 2014, a record for a U. S. sports team. In 2018 they became the first NFL franchise to be valued at $5 billion and making Forbes' list as the most valued NFL team for the 12th straight year. Prior to the formation of the Dallas Cowboys, there had not been an NFL team south of Washington, D. C. since the Dallas Texans folded in 1952. Oilman Clint Murchison Jr. had been trying to get an NFL expansion team in Dallas, but George Preston Marshall, owner of the Washington Redskins, had a monopoly in the South. Murchison had tried to purchase the Washington Redskins from Marshall in 1958. An agreement was struck, but as the deal was about to be finalized, Marshall called for a change in terms.
This infuriated. Marshall opposed any franchise for Murchison in Dallas. Since NFL expansion needed unanimous approval from team owners at that time, Marshall's position would prevent Murchison from joining the league. Marshall had a falling out with the Redskins band leader Barnee Breeskin. Breeskin had written the music to the Redskins fight song "Hail to the Redskins" and Marshall's wife had penned the lyrics. Breeskin was aware of Murchison's plight to get an NFL franchise. Angry with Marshall, Breeskin approached Murchison's attorney to sell him the rights to the song before the expansion vote in 1959. Murchison purchased "Hail to the Redskins" for $2,500. Before the vote to award franchises in 1959, Murchison revealed to Marshall that he owned the song and Marshall could not play it during games. After a few Marshall expletives, Murchison gave the rights to "Hail to the Redskins" to Marshall for his vote, the lone one against Murchison getting a franchise at that time, a rivalry was born.
From 1970 through 1979, the Cowboys won 105 regular season games, more than any other NFL franchise during that span. In addition, they appeared in 5 and won two Super Bowls, at the end of the 1971 and 1977 regular seasons. Danny White became the Cowboys' starting quarterback in 1980 after quarterback Roger Staubach retired. Despite going to 12–4 in 1980, the Cowboys came into the playoffs as a Wild Card team. In the opening round of the 1980–81 NFL playoffs they avenged their elimination from the prior year's playoffs by defeating the Rams. In the Divisional Round they squeaked by the Atlanta Falcons 30–27. For the NFC Championship they were pitted against division rival Philadelphia, the team that won the division during the regular season; the Eagles captured their first conference championship and Super Bowl berth by winning 20–7. 1981 brought another division championship for the Cowboys. They entered the 1981-82 NFL playoffs as the number 2 seed, their first game of the postseason saw them blowout and shutout Tampa Bay 38–0.
For the Conference Title game they were pitted against the number 1 seed. Despite having a late 4th quarter 27–21 lead, they would lose to the 49ers 28–27. 49ers quarterback Joe Montana led his team to an 89-yard game-winning touchdown drive connecting to Dwight Clark in a play known as The Catch. The 1982 season was shortened after a player strike. With a 6–3 record Dallas made it to the playoffs for the 8th consecutive season; as the number 2 seed for the 1982–83 NFL playoffs they eliminated the Buccaneers 30–17 in the Wild Card round and dispatched the Packers 37–26 in the Divisional round to advance to their 3rd consecutive Conference championship game. 3 times was not a charm for the Cowboys as they fell 31–17 to division rival and eventual Super Bowl XVII champions, the Redskins. For the 1983 season the Cowboys went 12–4 and made it once again to the playoffs but were defeated at home in the Wild Card by the Rams 24–17. Prior to the 1984 season, H. R. "Bum" Bright purchased the Dallas Cowboys from Clint Murchison, Jr. Dallas posted a 9–7 record that season but missed the playoffs for the first time in 10 seasons.
After going 10–6 in 1985 and winning a division title, the Cowboys were blown out in the Divisional round at home to the Rams 20–0. Hard times came for the organization as they went 7–9 in 1986, 7–8 in 1987, 3–13 in 1988. During this time period Bright became disenchanted with the team. During the savings and loan crisis, the team and Mr. Bright's saving
The Houston Texans are a professional American football team based in Houston, Texas. The Texans compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference South division; the team plays its home games at NRG Stadium. The club first played in 2002 as an expansion team, making them the youngest franchise competing in the NFL; the Texans replaced the city's previous NFL franchise, the Houston Oilers, which moved to Nashville and are now known as the Tennessee Titans. The team was founded and owned by Bob McNair from 1999 to his death in 2018. Following McNair’s death, the majority ownership of the team went to his wife, Janice McNair, his son, D. Cal McNair. While the team struggled in the 2000s, they found success in the 2011 season, after clinching their first playoff berth and went on to win their first division championship; the Texans have gone on to win four more AFC South championships since in 2012, 2015, 2016, 2018. As of the 2018 season, they are the only franchise to have never appeared in a conference championship game.
In 1997, Houston entrepreneur Bob McNair had a failed bid to bring a National Hockey League expansion team to the city, Bud Adams relocated the city's NFL team, the Houston Oilers, to Nashville where they were renamed the Tennessee Titans. In 1996, a year earlier, the Cleveland Browns had controversially relocated to become the Baltimore Ravens; as part of the settlement between the NFL, the city of Cleveland and the team owned by Art Modell, the league promised to return football to Cleveland within the following three years. In order to out the franchises at 32, the league contemplated adding another expansion franchise; as Houston was one of the favorites for the extra franchise along with Toronto and Los Angeles, McNair decided to join the football project and founded Houston NFL Holdings with partner Steve Patterson. In association with Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, they would push for a domed stadium as part of the bid to lure the NFL back to Houston. On October 6, 1999 the NFL awarded the 32nd team at the cost of $700 million.
The Houston Texans joined the league at the 2002 NFL season, playing at the newly founded Reliant Stadium. With their opening game victory over the Dallas Cowboys that season, the team became the first expansion team to win its opening game since the Minnesota Vikings beat the Chicago Bears in 1961. While the team struggled in early seasons, results began to improve once native Houstonian Gary Kubiak became the head coach in 2006; the Texans finished with a.500 season in both 2007 and 2008, nearly qualified for the 2009–10 NFL playoffs with a 9–7 result in 2009. In 2010, the team started the season on a 4–2 record going into a Week 7 bye week, but promptly collapsed 2–8 in the second part of the season, finishing 6–10. In the 2011 NFL Draft, the Texans acquired Wisconsin star defensive end J. J. Watt eleventh overall; the following season, former Cowboys head coach Wade Phillips was hired as the defensive coordinator of the Texans, the improved defense led to the Texans finishing 10–6, winning their first AFC South title.
The Texans beat wild card Cincinnati Bengals 31–10 in the first round of the 2011–12 NFL playoffs, before a 20–13 defeat by the Ravens in the Divisional Round. The Texans surged as the team to beat in the AFC South in 2012, starting 5–0 and holding an 11–1 record by week 14. However, they lost three of their last four games to finish 12–4; the Texans beat the Bengals again in the wild-card round, but they lost in the Divisional Round to the New England Patriots. In the 2013 NFL Draft, the Texans acquired Clemson wide receiver DeAndre Hopkins twenty seventh overall. In 2013, the Texans started 2 -- 0 but lost every game afterwards. Kubiak was fired as head coach after being swept by the rival Jacksonville Jaguars, who themselves started 0–8. Wade Phillips filled in as head coach, but the Texans' poor form did not change, they finished 2–14, with 2005, their worst record in franchise history; the 14-game losing streak is the worst in franchise history. The Texans entered the 2014 season with a 14-game losing streak.
Former Penn State head coach Bill O'Brien became the Texans' new head coach, the third in franchise history, during the offseason. In 2014, the Texans won three of their first four games, defeating the Redskins in the season opener, the Raiders, the Bills, losing to the New York Giants, they lost three of their next four games, losing to the Dallas Cowboys, the Indianapolis Colts, the Pittsburgh Steelers, respectively. The Texans went on to finish 9–7 in the 2014 season and missed the playoffs. In the 2015 season, they were featured on HBO, on the show "Hard Knocks"; that year, the Texans started with a 2–5 record. Quarterback Ryan Mallett was released amidst controversy regarding his benching in favor of Brian Hoyer during a loss against the Indianapolis Colts. After a poor start, the Texans won their third AFC South title. However, they were shut out by the Kansas City Chiefs in the Wild Card round 30–0, ending their championship hopes for the year. On March 9, 2016, the Texans signed former Denver Broncos quarterback Brock Osweiler to a 4-year, $72 million deal.
Despite Osweiler's lucrative deal, he struggled during the entire season. After throwing two interceptions in Week 15 against the Jaguars, coach Bill O'Brien benched the offseason acquisition in favor of backup quarterback Tom Savage. Savage led a comeback effort against the Jaguars, was named the starter for the remainder of the