The Dallas Mavericks are an American professional basketball team based in Dallas. They compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the Western Conference Southwest Division; the team plays its home games at the American Airlines Center, which it shares with the National Hockey League's Dallas Stars. Throughout the 1980s, the Mavericks were a perennial playoff team, led by All-Stars Rolando Blackman and Mark Aguirre; the team struggled during the 1990s. In 1998, the franchise's fortunes would change drastically with the acquisition of Dirk Nowitzki, who would become the cornerstone of the most successful period in franchise history, leading the team to its first NBA championship in 2011; as of the 2017 season, the Mavericks have sold out 707 consecutive games since December 15, 2002, the longest running sellout streak in North American major league sports. Since their inaugural 1980–81 season, the Mavericks have won three division titles, two conference championships, one NBA championship.
In 1978, Californian businessman Garn Eckardt met Dallas lawyer Doug Adkins, mentioned he was trying to raise capital to move an NBA team to the city. Asking for a possible partner, Adkins recommended him one of his clients, Home Interiors and Gifts owner Don Carter. Negotiations with Eckardt fell through, but Carter remained interested in the enterprise as a gift to his wife Linda, who played basketball while at Duncanville High School. At the same time, Buffalo Braves president and general manager Norm Sonju developed an interest in bringing the NBA to Dallas as he studied possible new locations for the ailing franchise. While the Braves went to California as the San Diego Clippers, Sonju returned to Texas, was introduced to Carter by mayor Robert Folsom, one of the owners and team president of the last professional basketball team in the city, the Dallas Chaparrals of the American Basketball Association, which moved to San Antonio in 1973 to become the San Antonio Spurs. Sonju and Carter tried purchasing both the Milwaukee Bucks and the Kansas City Kings, but disagreement on relocation stalled the negotiations, leading them to instead aim for an expansion team.
The league was reluctant to expand to Dallas, given Texas had both the Spurs and Houston Rockets, the 1978–79 NBA season was proving unprofitable and unpopular. Still, during the 1979 NBA All-Star Game weekend, NBA commissioner Larry O'Brien announced the league would add two new teams in the 1980–81 season, with teams in Dallas and Minneapolis. Once the Minnesota team backed out, only Dallas remained, through negotiations with general counselor and future commissioner David Stern, the expansion fee was settled on the $12.5 million. Carter would provide half the amount. At the 1980 NBA All-Star Game, league owners voted to admit the new team, with the team's name coming from the 1957–1962 TV western Maverick. James Garner, who played the namesake character, was a member of the ownership group; the University of Texas at Arlington, who uses the Mavericks nickname, had objections about a shared name, but did not attempt any legal action. They joined the Midwest Division of the Western Conference, where they would stay until the league went to six divisions for the 2004–05 season.
Dick Motta, who had guided the Washington Bullets to the NBA Championship in 1977–78, was hired as the team's first head coach. He had a well-earned reputation of being a stern disciplinarian, but was a great teacher of the game. Kiki Vandeweghe of UCLA was drafted by the Mavs with the 11th pick of the 1980 NBA draft, but Vandeweghe refused to play for the expansion Mavericks and staged a holdout that lasted a month into the team's inaugural season. Vandeweghe was traded to the Denver Nuggets, along with a first-round pick, in 1981, in exchange for two future first-round picks that materialized into Rolando Blackman in 1981 and Sam Perkins in 1984. In the Mavericks' debut game, taking place in the brand-new Reunion Arena, the Mavericks defeated the Spurs, 103–92, but the Mavs started the season with a 6–40 record on their way to finishing 15–67. However, the Mavericks did make a player acquisition that, while it seemed minor at the time, turned out to play a important role in the early years of their franchise.
Journeyman 6 ft 3 in guard Brad Davis, who played for the Anchorage Northern Knights of the Continental Basketball Association, was tracked down and signed by the Mavs in December. At the time, there was no reason to expect that Davis would be any better than the expansion-level talent the Mavs had, but he started the Mavs' final 26 games, led the team in assists, his career soared. He spent the next twelve years with the Mavericks, his number 15 jersey was retired; the Mavericks marked the first NBA team to have a profitable debut season, with an average of 7,789 spectators. The 1981 NBA Draft brought three players; the Mavs selected 6'6" forward Mark Aguirre with the first pick, 6'6" guard Rolando Blackman 9th, 6'7" forward Jay Vincent 24th. By the end of his seven-year Mavs career, Aguirre would average 24.6 points per game. Blackman contributed 19.2 points over his 11-year career in Dallas. But it was Jay Vincent who made the biggest difference for the Mavs in their second season, leading the team in scoring with 21.4 points per game and earning NBA All-Rookie Team honors.
The Mavericks improved to 28–54, ge
Alan John Butler, a Director of the Kuruman Moffat Mission in Kuruman, South Africa, Canon of Kimberley Cathedral, was a priest who served in the Diocese of Kimberley and Kuruman for a major part of the second half of the twentieth century. He was responsible for the restoration of the historic Moffat Mission precinct which became renowned as a conservation area and as a beacon of hope in the troubled last years of Apartheid, he was born in the United Kingdom in 1930 and died at Wimborne on 13 January 2011. Butler was trained at Kelham Theological College from 1951 and was in due course ordained deacon at Southwark Cathedral in 1956 prior to serving in the Diocese of Bloemfontein in South Africa, he was ordained priest in Bloemfontein in 1957. In 1960 he transferred to the Diocese of Kimberley and Kuruman to serve as a Curate at St Cyprian's Cathedral in Kimberley. Butler commenced his ministry amongst the Tswana of the Northern Cape when Bishop Philip Wheeldon sent him to Kuruman in 1961 as Rector and Director of St Paul's, a vast mission district at the edge of the Kalahari.
His wife, whom he married at the Moffat Mission Church in Kuruman in 1964, has recalled that "he hitch hiked with one suitcase along a dirt road from Kimberley to Kuruman. The chap who gave him a lift bought him an old Chev car." Butler would serve in the area from 1961 to 1965, doubling up as Director of the Bothithong Mission from 1963 to 1965. "He loved the Northern Cape and her people and said that it was the'real' Africa."Bishop Wheeldon appointed Fr Butler as his Honorary Chaplain in 1963–1965. Butler was sent by his Bishop in 1965 to Bechuanaland Protectorate to the yet-to-be-built Gaborone, a capital city for the anticipated independent state of Botswana. There he was to found and build Trinity Church, an ecumenical venture, as well as being involved in such projects as starting up a Co-op food store and initiating the start of a multi-national school, he was at one time deputy mayor of Gaborone. Fr Butler remained there until 1970, a historic period when the protectorate became independent as Botswana and when church jurisdiction was transferred to the Diocese of Matabeleland.
Butler subsequently returned for a time to England to serve as vicar at St James, Diocese of Coventry. In 1979 Butler volunteered to work once again in "South Africa. Bishop Graham Chadwick took up his offer and invited him to work again in the Kuruman area as a priest in the Diocese of Kimberley and Kuruman and to commence the massive task of restoring the Kuruman Moffat Mission of which he became Director. Butler worked there for the next 14 years; the notorious Apartheid Group Areas Act had decreed the historic Kuruman Mission site to be in a whites only area. This divided the people from their church, with the latter falling into disuse. Butler's predecessor, the Revd Humphrey Thompson, ran the mission for fifty years – and did what he could to maintain mission activities during these troubled times. Upon Butler's appointment and through the 1980s the Moffat Mission was transformed into being, as he put it, "a focus for new hope in a disturbing age." One priority was to restore and conserve the buildings and their setting, promoting tourism to help generate an income and awareness about the work of the Mission.
He developed a retreat and the Maphakela conference centre, cultivating a Moffat Mission Community which included a network of helpers from near and far. Fr Butler, who wore a beard "every bit as dramatic as Moffat's," as was said and published extensively on the mission and its history, he amassed a collection of memorabilia, paintings, photographs and books associated with the history of the Mission, he was responsible for developing a museum within the 4 hectare precinct. A crowning achievement in 1996 was the return of Moffat's printing press, from the Africana Library in Kimberley, for which he had campaigned tirelessly since taking up Directorship of the Mission. In 1994, in South Africa's first democratic elections, Butler was asked to be an Electoral Officer for the Northern Cape, he had always been interested in politics and this was, as his wife has put it, "the cherry on the cake." Fr Butler was made a Canon of Kimberley Cathedral before he and his wife Hilda retired to Wimborne in the south of England in 1995.
There he became part of the Minster staff, where he was an enthusiastic bellringer, practising a skill he had learned in his youth. He was a member of the Ancient Society of College Youths, the premier change ringing society in the City of London, to which he was elected in 1947. Amongst his other accomplishments were sign-writing and book-binding
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient. A thermometer has two important elements: a temperature sensor in which some change occurs with a change in temperature. Thermometers are used in technology and industry to monitor processes, in meteorology, in medicine, in scientific research; some of the principles of the thermometer were known to Greek philosophers of two thousand years ago. The Italian physician Santorio Santorio is credited with the invention of the first thermometer, but its standardisation was completed through the 17th and 18th centuries. While an individual thermometer is able to measure degrees of hotness, the readings on two thermometers cannot be compared unless they conform to an agreed scale. Today there is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. Internationally agreed temperature scales are designed to approximate this based on fixed points and interpolating thermometers; the most recent official temperature scale is the International Temperature Scale of 1990.
It extends from 0.65 K to 1,358 K. Various authors have credited the invention of the thermometer to Hero of Alexandria; the thermometer was not a single invention, but a development. Hero of Alexandria knew of the principle that certain substances, notably air and contract and described a demonstration in which a closed tube filled with air had its end in a container of water; the expansion and contraction of the air caused the position of the water/air interface to move along the tube. Such a mechanism was used to show the hotness and coldness of the air with a tube in which the water level is controlled by the expansion and contraction of the gas; these devices were developed by several European scientists in the 16th and 17th centuries, notably Galileo Galilei and Santorio Santorio. As a result, devices were shown to produce this effect reliably, the term thermoscope was adopted because it reflected the changes in sensible heat; the difference between a thermoscope and a thermometer is. Though Galileo is said to be the inventor of the thermometer, there is no surviving document that he produced any such instrument.
The first clear diagram of a thermoscope was published in 1617 by Giuseppe Biancani: the first showing a scale and thus constituting a thermometer was Santorio Santorio in 1625. This was a vertical tube, closed by a bulb of air at the top, with the lower end opening into a vessel of water; the water level in the tube is controlled by the expansion and contraction of the air, so it is what we would now call an air thermometer. The word thermometer first appeared in 1624 in La Récréation Mathématique by J. Leurechon, who describes one with a scale of 8 degrees; the word comes from the Greek words θερμός, meaning "hot" and μέτρον, meaning "measure". The above instruments suffered from the disadvantage that they were barometers, i.e. sensitive to air pressure. In 1629, Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, a student of Galileo and Santorio in Padua, published what is the first description and illustration of a sealed liquid-in-glass thermometer, it is described as having a bulb at the bottom of a sealed tube filled with brandy.
The tube has a numbered scale. Delmedigo does not claim to have invented this instrument, nor does he name anyone else as its inventor. In about 1654 Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany produced such an instrument, the first modern-style thermometer, dependent on the expansion of a liquid, independent of air pressure. Many other scientists experimented with various designs of thermometer. However, each inventor and each thermometer was unique—there was no standard scale. In 1665 Christiaan Huygens suggested using the melting and boiling points of water as standards, in 1694 Carlo Renaldini proposed using them as fixed points on a universal scale. In 1701, Isaac Newton proposed a scale of 12 degrees between the melting point of ice and body temperature. In 1714 Dutch scientist and inventor Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invented the first reliable thermometer, using mercury instead of alcohol and water mixtures. In 1724 he proposed a temperature scale, he could do this because he manufactured thermometers, using mercury for the first time and the quality of his production could provide a finer scale and greater reproducibility, leading to its general adoption.
In 1742, Anders Celsius proposed a scale with zero at the boiling point and 100 degrees at the freezing point of water, though the scale which now bears his name has them the other way around. French entomologist René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur invented an alcohol thermometer and temperature scale in 1730 that proved to be less reliable than Fahrenheit's mercury thermometer; the first physician that put thermometer measurements to clinical practice was Herman Boerhaave. In 1866, Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt invented a clinical thermometer that produced a body temperature reading in five minutes as opposed to twenty. In 1999, Dr. Francesco Pompei of the Exergen Corporation introduced the world's first temporal artery thermometer, a non-invasive temperatur