Tina Strobos, née Tineke Buchter, was a Dutch physician and psychiatrist from Amsterdam, known for her resistance work during World War II. While a young medical student, she worked with her mother and grandmother to rescue more than 100 Jewish refugees as part of the Dutch resistance during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. Strobos provided her house as a hiding place for Jews on the run, using a secret attic compartment and warning bell system to keep them safe from sudden police raids. In addition, Strobos smuggled guns and radios for the resistance and forged passports to help refugees escape the country. Despite being arrested and interrogated nine times by the Gestapo, she never betrayed the whereabouts of a Jew. After the war, Strobos became a psychiatrist, she studied under Anna Freud in England. Strobos emigrated to the United States to study psychiatry under a Fulbright scholarship, she subsequently settled in New York, she had three children. Strobos built a career as a family psychiatrist, receiving the Elizabeth Blackwell Medal in 1998 for her medical work, retired from active practice in 2009.
In 1989, Strobos was honored as Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem for her rescue work. In 2009, she was recognized for her efforts by the Holocaust and Human Rights Education Center of New York City. Tina Strobos was born Tineke Buchter on May 1920, in Amsterdam, her parents, Marie Schotte and Alphonse Buchter, were socialist atheists and fluent in four languages. Schotte supported the women's peace movement. Strobos' maternal grandfather had founded a freethinking movement, her maternal grandmother had been part of the labor movement in the late nineteenth century; the family had a history of offering shelter to those in need: Strobos' parents had taken in refugees from earlier conflicts, while Strobos' grandmother had sheltered Belgian refugees during World War I. When Strobos was ten years old, her parents divorced, she lived with her mother. By the age of sixteen, Strobos had decided. At university, she began studying medicine, but her studies were interrupted after Germany invaded the Netherlands in 1940.
When the Germans invaded the Netherlands in May 1940, Strobos was living with her mother and their maid in Amsterdam. She was just about to turn twenty. University students were ordered to sign an oath of loyalty to Hitler, but Strobos and her classmates refused to sign; the medical school was subsequently shut down, Strobos and many other students joined the underground movement. Strobos began her rescue work by hiding a Jewish girl named Tirtsah Van Amerongen. Family friend Henry Polack—a socialist writer and labor leader—also decided to go into hiding, Strobos' grandmother agreed to help him. Working with her mother and grandmother over the course of the war, Strobos rescued over 100 Jewish refugees by hiding them—four or five at a time—at the family's boarding house at 282 Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal; the house had once been a city school, had three floors. Once Strobos and her mother started hiding refugees, a carpenter from the Dutch underground arrived at their house and constructed a small hiding place in the attic.
The secret compartment was located inside a gable. Although the Gestapo raided the house eight times, they never found this secret compartment. Strobos and her mother had a warning bell system installed in the house, which they used to warn refugees on the upper floors of unexpected Gestapo visits. If the Jews had no time to hide in the secret compartment, they could escape through the window to an adjoining building; the family was assisted by an anonymous ally at the Gestapo headquarters, who sometimes phoned them to warn of an impending Nazi raid. They never learned the identity of this ally. Although some Jews stayed at their house for longer periods of time and her mother used their house as a temporary safe space, sheltering Jews for a short time until they could be moved to a safer refuge; some refugees were subsequently smuggled to the Dutch countryside. Strobos and her mother visited the people that they had arranged hiding places for, cycling miles out into the countryside to provide isolated refugees with valuable news and conversation.
Among the refugees Strobos helped was impressionist painter Martin Monnickendam, who painted her portrait and gave it to her as a gift. She kept the painting well into her old age; the Strobos residence was only a ten-minute walk away from Anne Frank's hiding place at 263 Prinsengracht, Amsterdam. Although Strobos never met the Frank family, she expressed her vexation at the fact that the Franks had not had an escape route built into their refuge: "If I knew they were there, I would have gotten them out of the country." During the course of the war, Strobos was interrogated by the Gestapo nine times. During these encounters, Strobos was seized by her wrists and thrown against a wall, she was once knocked unconscious, she never once betrayed the whereabouts of a Jew. In order to pass interrogations safely, Strobos learned certain tactics, she always asked for an interpreter—despite being fluent in German—in order to buy extra time to compose herself. When a Nazi officer once commented on her legs, Strobos gained more courage: "I realized that he was just a man and he was interested in my legs.
So that gave me a sense of power. I got cocky. I could say'I didn't know he was a Jew' in a stronger, more convincing way." During the early years of the war, Strobos was engaged to Abraham "Bram" Pais, a young Jewish particle physicist. She and her mother found hiding many of his relatives. Although they ended their engagement in 1943
Jan Karski was a Polish World War II resistance-movement soldier, a professor at Georgetown University. In 1942–43 Karski reported to the Polish Government-in-Exile and to Poland's Western Allies about the situation in German-occupied Poland about Germany's destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto and about Germany's extermination camps on Polish soil that were murdering Jews, ethnic Poles, other nationalities. Jan Karski was born Jan Kozielewski on 24 June 1914 in Poland, he was born on St John's Day, named Jan according to the old Polish custom of naming newborns after the saints. An error was made in the baptismal records listing 8 August, as Karski explained in interviews on several occasions as well as published interviews with his family. Karski remained so throughout his life, he grew up in a multi-cultural neighborhood where the majority of the population was Jewish. Jan Karski remarked that, he had failed to fulfill his wartime mission, he said: "And thus I myself became a Jew. And just as my wife's entire family was wiped out in the ghettos of Poland – in Nazi concentration camps and crematoria – so have all the Jews who were slaughtered become my family.
But I am a Christian Jew... I am a practicing Catholic... My faith tells me the second original sin; this sin will haunt humanity to the end of time. And I want it to be so."After intensive military training in the prestigious school for mounted artillery officers in Włodzimierz Wołyński, he graduated with a First in the Class of 1936 and ordered to the 5th Regiment of Mounted Artillery, the same military unit where Colonel Józef Beck, Poland's Foreign Affairs Minister, served. He completed his diplomatic education between 1935 and 1938 in various posts in Romania, Germany and the United Kingdom, went on to join the Diplomatic Service. After completing and gaining a First in Grand Diplomatic Practice, on 1 January 1939 he started work in the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. During the Polish September Campaign, Kozielewski's 5th Regiment was a unit of the Kraków Cavalry Brigade, under General Zygmunt Piasecki and a part of Armia Kraków defending the area between Zabkowice and Częstochowa. After the last Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski on 10 September 1939, some units including 1st Battery of 5th Regiment with Kozielewski tried to reach Hungary but were captured by the Red Army between 17 and 20 September.
Kozielewski was held prisoner in Kozielszczyna camp. He concealed his true rank of 2nd Lieutenant and after a uniform exchange, was identified by the NKVD commander as a Private, he was handed over to the Germans as a person born in Łódź, incorporated into the Third Reich, thus escaping the Katyn massacre. In November 1939 on a train to a POW camp in General Government, Karski managed to escape, found his way to Warsaw. There he joined the SZP – the first resistance movement in occupied Europe organized by General Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski and a predecessor of ZWZ the Home Army. About that time he adopted a nom de guerre of Jan Karski, which became his legal name. Other noms de guerre used by him during World War II included Piasecki, Kwaśniewski, Kruszewski and Witold. In January 1940 Karski began to organize courier missions with dispatches from the Polish underground to the Polish Government in Exile based in Paris; as a courier, Karski made several secret trips between France and Poland.
During one such mission in July 1940 he was arrested by the Gestapo in the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia. Tortured, he was transported to a hospital in Nowy Sącz, from which he was smuggled out with vital help of Józef Cyrankiewicz. After a short period of rehabilitation, he returned to active service in the Information and Propaganda Bureau of the Headquarters of the Polish Home Army. In 1942 Karski was selected by Cyryl Ratajski, the Polish Government Delegate's Office at Home, to perform a secret mission to prime minister Władysław Sikorski in London. Karski was to contact Sikorski as well as various other Polish politicians and inform them about Nazi atrocities in occupied Poland. In order to gather evidence, Karski met Bund activist Leon Feiner and was twice smuggled by Jewish underground leaders into the Warsaw Ghetto for the purpose of directly observing what was happening to Polish Jews. My job was just to walk, and observe. And remember; the odour. The children. Dirty. Lying. I saw a man standing with blank eyes.
I asked the guide: what is he doing? The guide whispered: “He’s just dying”. I remember degradation and dead bodies lying on the street. We were walking the streets and my guide kept repeating: “Look at it, remember” And I did remember; the dirty streets. The stench. Everywhere. Suffocating. Nervousness. Disguised as an Estonian camp guard he visited what he thought was Bełżec death camp. In actuality, it seems that Karski only managed to get close enough to witness a Durchgangslager for Bełżec in the town of Izbica Lubelska, located midway between Lublin and Bełżec. Many historians have accepted this theory. Starting in 1942, Karski reported to the Polish, British and U. S. governments on the situation in Poland on the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto and the Holocaust of Polish Jews. He had carried out of Poland a microfilm with further information from the underground movement on the extermination of European Jews in German-oc
Chiune Sugihara was a Japanese government official who served as vice consul for the Japanese Empire in Kaunas, Lithuania. During the Second World War, Sugihara helped some six thousand Jews flee Europe by issuing transit visas to them so that they could travel through Japanese territory, risking his job and his family's lives; the fleeing Jews were refugees from German-occupied Western Poland and Soviet-occupied Eastern Poland, as well as residents of Lithuania. A few decades after the war, in 1985, the State of Israel honored Sugihara as one of the Righteous Among the Nations for his actions, he is the only Japanese national to have been so honored. Sugihara told the refugees to call him "Sempo" – the Sino-Japanese reading of the Japanese characters of his given name – as it was easier for non-Japanese persons to pronounce. Chiune Sugihara was born on 1 January 1900,in the Kitayama district of the village of Yaotsu, Gifu prefecture, to a middle-class father, Yoshimi Sugihara, an upper-middle class mother, Yatsu Sugihara.
When he was born, his father worked at a tax office in Kozuchi-town and his family lived in a borrowed temple, with the Buddhist temple Kyōsen-ji where he was born nearby. He was the second son among one girl, his father and family moved into the tax office within the branch of the Nagoya Tax Administration Office one after another. In 1903 his family moved to Asahi Village in Fukui Prefecture. In 1904 they moved to Yokkaichi city Mie Prefecture. On 25 October 1905, they moved to Nakatsu Ena-gun, Gifu Prefecture. In 1906 on 2 April, Chiune entered Nakatsu Town Municipal Elementary School. On 31 March 1907, he transferred to Kuwana Municipal Kuwana Elementary School in Mie Prefecture. In December of that same year, he transferred to Nagoya Municipal Furuwatari Elementary School. In 1912, he graduated with top honors from Furuwatari Elementary School and entered Aichi prefectural 5th secondary school, a combined junior and senior high school, his father wanted him to become a physician, but Chiune deliberately failed the entrance exam by writing only his name on the exam papers.
Instead, he majored in English language. At that time, he entered Yuai Gakusha, the Christian fraternity, founded by Baptist pastor Harry Baxter Benninhof, to improve his English. In 1919, he passed the Foreign Ministry Scholarship exam. From 1920 to 1922, Sugihara served in the Imperial Army as a second lieutenant with the 79th Infantry, stationed in Korea a Japanese colony, he resigned his commission in November 1922 and took the Foreign Ministry's language qualifying exams the following year, passing the Russian exam with distinction. The Japanese Foreign Ministry recruited him and assigned him to Harbin, where he studied the Russian and German languages and became an expert on Russian affairs; when Sugihara served in the Manchurian Foreign Office, he took part in the negotiations with the Soviet Union concerning the Northern Manchurian Railroad. During his time in Harbin, Sugihara married Klaudia Semionovna Apollonova and converted to Christianity for the wedding, using the baptismal name Sergei Pavelovich.
In 1935, Sugihara quit his post as Deputy Foreign Minister in Manchuria in protest over Japanese mistreatment of the local Chinese. Sugihara and his wife divorced in 1935, before he returned to Japan, where he married Yukiko Kikuchi, who became Yukiko Sugihara after the marriage; as of 2010, Nobuki represents the Chiune Sugihara family. Chiune Sugihara served in the Information Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as a translator for the Japanese delegation in Helsinki, Finland. In 1939, Sugihara became a vice-consul of the Japanese Consulate in Lithuania, his duties included reporting on Soviet and German troop movements, to find out if Germany planned an attack on the Soviets and, if so, to report the details of this attack to his superiors in Berlin and Tokyo. Sugihara had cooperated with Polish intelligence as part of a bigger Japanese–Polish cooperative plan; as the Soviet Union occupied sovereign Lithuania in 1940, many Jewish refugees from Poland as well as Lithuanian Jews tried to acquire exit visas.
Without the visas, it was dangerous to travel, yet it was impossible to find countries willing to issue them. Hundreds of refugees came to the Japanese consulate in Kaunas. At the time, on the brink of the war, Lithuanian Jews made up one third of Lithuania's urban population and half of the residents of every town as well. In the period 16 July - 3 August 1940 the Dutch Honorary Consul Jan Zwartendijk provided over 2,200 Jews with an official third destination to Curaçao, a Caribbean island and Dutch colony that required no entry visa, or Surinam. At the time, the Japanese government required that visas be issued only to those who had gone through appropriate immigration procedures and had enough funds. Most of the refugees did not fulfill these criteria. Sugihara dutifully contacted the Japanese Foreign Ministry three times for instructions; each time, the Ministry responded that anybody granted a visa should have a visa to a third destination to exit Japan, with no exce
Blessed Odoardo Focherini was an Italian Roman Catholic journalist. He issued false documents to Jewish people during World War II in order to escape the Nazi regime but was arrested and sent to a concentration camp where he died. Yad Vashem recognized him as a Righteous Among the Nations in 1969 for his efforts. Focherini's beatification was held on 15 June 2013 in Modena under Pope Francis who had Cardinal Angelo Amato preside over the celebration on his behalf. Odoardo Focherini was born on 6 June 1907 in Modena as the third son to Tobia Focherini and Maria Bertacchini, he had three brothers. Focherini married Maria Marchesi on 9 July 1930 and the couple had seven children together between 1931 and 1943; the children in order of birth were: Olga, Attilio, Gianna and Paola. The couple was to have an eighth child but this could not happen because Focherini was arrested; the couple met while he was on vacation in Trento and the couple became engaged in 1925. On 1 January 1934 he gained work with the Società Assicurazione Cattolica di Verona, an insurance corporation, worked as an agent for the Modena branch.
In 1933 he left his line of work in order to become a journalist and he became the managing director of L'Avvenire d'Italia. A fellow friend and journalist was the Jewish-Italian Giacomo Lampronti. In 1936 he became the diocesan president of Catholic Action. Pope Pius XI awarded him the Order of Saint Sylvester. In 1942 his activism in saving the lives of Jewish people during World War II and the Holocaust first manifested when the first he saved came from Poland on a train to Genoa. On 8 September 1943 he got in touch with people who provided him with blank identification cards with false data and took a group of Jewish people to the border, he issued this fake documentation to them in order for them to escape Nazi persecution to neutral Switzerland and with his priest friend Dante Sala provided documents on one occasion for his friend Lampronti and his relations. He was a friend of the Venerable Teresio Olivelli; the Nazis discovered this covert operation and arrested him at the Carpi Hospital on 11 March 1944 while he organized the escape of Enrico Donati.
On 13 March 1944 he was taken to San Giovanni in Monte prison in Bologna and remained there until 5 July when he was moved to Fossoli. From there Focherini was sent to a labour camp in Bolzano and remained there until 4 August when he was deported to the German state. Focherini sent a total of 166 letters to his wife while in imprisonment; the Nazis sent him to a concentration camp in Hersbruck where he died on 27 December 1944 due to an untreated leg infection while confirmation of his death came on 4 June 1945. His final words were reported as: "I declare that I die in the purest Roman Catholic faith and in full submission to the will of God", he had saved a total of 105 Jewish lives. In 1969 he received posthumous recognition from Yad Vashem for his heroic efforts during the war in saving the lives of countless Jewish people and awarded him the title of Righteous Among the Nations. In 2007 the then-President of the Italian Republic Giorgio Napolitano awarded him the Gold Medal for Civil Merit for his heroic actions during World War II.
The beatification cause commenced under Pope John Paul II on 12 February 1996 after he was titled a Servant of God after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints issued the official "nihil obstat" to the cause and allowed for it to commence on a diocesan level. The C. C. S. Validated this process on 28 May 1999 in Rome; the postulation drafted and submitted the Positio to the C. C. S. in 2003 and it allowed for a board of theologians to approve the cause on 16 October 2007 and for the C. C. S. to do so as well on 3 April 2012. Pope Benedict XVI - on 10 May 2012 - confirmed that Focherini had died "in odium fidei" and thus approved his beatification. Cardinal Angelo Amato presided over the beatification in Modena on 15 June 2013 on the behalf of Pope Francis. Focherini's friend Lampronti attended the beatification; the current postulator for this cause is the Franciscan priest Giovangiuseppe Califano. Hagiography Circle Saints SQPN
Johan van Hulst
Johan Willem van Hulst was a Dutch school director, university professor and politician. In 1943, with the help of the Dutch resistance and students of the nearby University of Amsterdam, he was instrumental in saving over 600 Jewish children from the nursery of the Hollandsche Schouwburg who were destined for deportation to Nazi concentration camps. For his humanitarian actions he received the Yad Vashem distinction Righteous Among the Nations from the State of Israel in 1973. Van Hulst served as Senator of the Netherlands from July 1956 to June 1981, he was elected to be the parliamentary leader of the Christian Historical Union in the Senate from December 1968 until June 1977, when the CHU merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal CDA. He became the first CDA Leader in the Senate. Van Hulst served as the party chair of the CHU from September 1969 until February 1972, he was a Member of the European Parliament for the Christian Democratic Group from October 1961 until September 1968. He was an emeritus professor of pedagogy at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and a prolific author with more than a hundred publications.
He was a noted chess player. Van Hulst was born on 28 January 1911 in Amsterdam, the son of Gerrit van Hulst and Geertruida Hofman, he studied pedagogy at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. In the meantime he worked as a teacher and mentor in Oudewater and Purmerend. In 1942 van Hulst was the director of the Reformed Teacher Training College, a Protestant religious seminary at Plantage Middenlaan 27, Amsterdam. Across the street at Plantage Middenlaan 24 was the Hollandse Schouwberg theatre, the main clearing site for the Jews living in Amsterdam, issued deportation notices by the Nazi government. Children who arrived at the Schouwberg were separated from their families and sent to the neighbouring crèche at Plantage Middenlaan 31 run by Henriëtte Pimentel; the créche shared a back garden with the college. Starting in January 1943, Pimentel and Walter Süskind, a German Jew, appointed by the Nazis to run the Hollandsche Schouwberg operation, began canvassing potential adoptive families for physical descriptions of children who could fit into their families without detection.
Once the children's parents had agreed, the names of the children to be rescued were removed from the Nazi's registry of Jews who had passed through the Schouwberg theatre. Working with Pimentel, Süskind and dozens of other volunteers, Van Hulst arranged for the children to be spirited over the hedge separating the neighbouring back yards of the crèche and the teachers' college assisted by the teachers-in-training or local university students; when the time came to move the rescued children and babies away from the school, they would be hidden in containers such as bags, sacks or laundry baskets. Numerous methods were used to move the hidden children from the school. In one method, the operation's helpers would wait for the moment a tram passed, blocking the view of Nazi guards at the facing Hollandsche Schouwberg, to cycle away with the hidden child; the operation came to a halt on 29 September 1943 when the Nazis sent Pimentel and 100 children from the crèche to Nazi concentration camps. Decades Van Hulst described his experience: "Now try to imagine 80, 90 70 or 100 children standing there, you have to decide which children to take with you.
That was the most difficult day of my life. You know for a fact. I took 12 with me. On I asked myself: ‘Why not 13?'" Van Hulst thought twelve was the right number, otherwise the Germans would notice his plan and shut it down. In total, the operation had rescued children. Van Hulst received the Yad Vashem distinction in 1973. During a visit to the Netherlands in 2012, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said of Van Hulst: "We say, those who save one life saves a universe. You saved hundreds of universes. I want to thank you in the name of the Jewish people, but in the name of humanity." Van Hulst replied, talking about the children he could not save: "I only can hope the angels may conduct you into paradise."In 2016, the former Reformed Teacher Training College became the Dutch National Holocaust Museum. Shortly before his 107th birthday in 2018, Van Hulst gave an interview on Dutch television, talking about his experiences during the war. Van Hulst served a member of the Senate of the Netherlands from 1956 to 1981 and from 1961 until 1968 he was a Member of the European Parliament.
He was Chairman of the CHU from 1969 until 1972. From 1972 until 1981 Van Hulst was group leader in the Senate. Van Hulst was elected as Chairman of the CHU on 5 October 1968 during the CHU party conference of 1968. Van Hulst was tasked with preparing for the upcoming general election of 1971. Van Hulst was an active chess player. At the age of 95 he won the Corus Chess Tournament for former politicians, he won it again in 2010. According to René van der Linden, who served as President of the Senate of the Netherlands, Van Hulst was the first former member of the Senate to reach the age of 100 since the establishment of the upper house in 1815. On 22 March 2018, Van Hulst died at the age of 107. Amsterdam's bridge number 233 was dedicated to Van Hulst shortly after his death; the Johan van Hulstbrug is located in the Hortus Botanicus in Amsterdam-Centrum, near the school he managed. U. S. Ambassador to the Netherlands Pete Hoekstra stated after Van Hulst died: "Mister Van Hulst is an inspiration for how one person can make a real difference in the darkest of times."
The Senate of the Netherlands commemorated Mr. Van Huls
Seven Laws of Noah
The Seven Laws of Noah referred to as the Noahide Laws or the Noachide Laws, are a set of imperatives which, according to the Talmud, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah" – that is, all of humanity. According to Jewish tradition, non-Jews who adhere to these laws because they were given by Moses are said to be followers of Noahidism and regarded as righteous gentiles, who are assured of a place in Olam Haba, the final reward of the righteous; the Seven Laws of Noah include prohibitions against worshipping idols, cursing God, murder and sexual immorality, eating flesh torn from a living animal, as well as the obligation to establish courts of justice. According to the Genesis flood narrative, a deluge covered the whole world, killing every surface-dwelling creature except Noah, his wife, his sons and their wives, the animals taken aboard Noah's Ark. According to this, all modern humans are descendants of Noah, thus the name Noahide Laws is referred to the laws that apply to all of humanity.
After the flood, God sealed a covenant with Noah with the following admonitions: Flesh of a living animal: "However, flesh with its life-blood, you shall not eat." Murder and courts: "Furthermore, I will demand your blood, for your lives, I shall demand it from any wild animal. From man too, I will demand of each person's brother the blood of man, he who spills the blood of man, by man his blood shall be spilt. The Book of Jubilees dated to the 2nd century BCE, may include an early reference to Noahide Law at verses 7:20–28: And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordinances and commandments, all the judgments that he knew, he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, to cover the shame of their flesh, to bless their Creator, honour father and mother, love their neighbour, guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth... For whoso sheddeth man's blood, whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, shall all be destroyed from the earth.
The Jewish Encyclopedia article on Saul of Tarsus states: According to Acts, Paul began working along the traditional Jewish line of proselytizing in the various synagogues where the proselytes of the gate and the Jews met. The article "New Testament" states: For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws—namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal—should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church. David Novak presents a range of theories regarding the origin of the Noachide laws, including the Bible, Hittite law, the Maccabean period, the Roman period; the seven Noahide laws as traditionally enumerated are the following: Not to worship idols. Not to curse God. To establish courts of justice.
Not to commit murder. Not to commit adultery or sexual immorality. Not to steal. Not to eat flesh torn from a living animal. According to the Talmud, the rabbis agree. However, they disagree on which laws were given to Adam and Eve. Six of the seven laws are exegetically derived from passages in Genesis, with the seventh being the establishing of courts; the earliest complete rabbinic version of the seven laws can be found in the Tosefta where they are listed as follows. Seven commandments were commanded of the sons of Noah: concerning adjudication concerning idolatry concerning blasphemy concerning sexual immorality concerning blood-shed concerning robbery concerning a limb torn from a living animal According to the Talmud, the Noahide Laws apply to all humanity. In Judaism, בני נח B'nei Noah refers to all of humankind; the Talmud states: "Righteous people of all nations have a share in the world to come". Any non-Jew who lives according to these laws is regarded as one of "the righteous among the gentiles".
The rabbis agree. However, they disagree on which laws were given to Adam and Eve. Six of the seven laws are exegetically derived from passages in Genesis; the Talmud adds extra laws beyond the seven listed in the Tosefta which are attributed to different rabbis, such as the grafting of trees and sorcery among others, Ulla going so far as to make a list of 30 laws. The Talmud expands the scope of the seven laws to cover about 100 of the 613 mitzvoth. In practice Jewish law makes it difficult to apply the death penalty. No record exists of a gentile having been put to death for violating the seven laws; some of the categories of capital punishment recorded in the Talmud are recorded as having never been carried out. It is thought that the rabbis included discussion of them in anticipation of the coming messianic age; the Talmud lists the punishment for bl
George II of Greece
George II reigned as King of Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947. George was born at the royal villa at Tatoi, near Athens, the eldest son of Prince Constantine of Greece and his wife, Princess Sophia of Prussia. George pursued a military career, training with the Prussian Guard at the age of 18 serving in the Balkan Wars as a member of the 1st Greek Infantry; when his grandfather was assassinated in 1913, his father became King Constantine I and George became the crown prince. After a coup deposed King Constantine during the First World War, Crown Prince George, by a Major, followed his father into exile in 1917. George's younger brother, was installed as king by prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos, an avowed Republican; when Alexander I died following an infection from a monkey bite in 1920, Venizelos was voted out of office, a plebiscite restored Constantine to the throne. Crown Prince George served as a colonel, a major general in the war against Turkey. During this time he married his second cousin, on 27 February 1921 in Bucharest, Princess Elisabeth of Romania, daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Marie of Romania.
When the Turks defeated Greece at the Battle of Dumlupınar, the military forced the abdication of Constantine, George succeeded to the Greek throne on 27 September 1922. Following a failed royalist coup in October 1923, the Revolutionary Committee asked him to depart Greece while the National Assembly considered the question of the future form of government, he complied and, although he refused to abdicate, he left on 19 December 1923 for exile in his wife's home nation of Romania. When a republic was proclaimed on 25 March 1924, he was deposed and stripped of his Greek nationality, his property was confiscated, his wife stayed in Bucharest whilst he spent more and more time abroad visiting Britain, his mother in Florence. In 1932 he moved to Britain. Elisabeth and he had no children, were divorced on 6 July 1935. In Greece between 1924 and 1935 there were 23 changes of government, a dictatorship, 13 coups. General Georgios Kondylis, a former Venizelist who had decided to throw in his lot with the monarchist forces, overthrew the government in October 1935 and appointed himself Prime Minister.
He arranged a plebiscite both to approve his government and to bring an end to the republic. On 3 November 1935 98% of the reported votes supported restoration of the monarchy; the balloting was not secret, participation was compulsory. As Time described it at the time, "As a voter one could drop into the ballot box a blue vote for George II and please General George Kondylis, or one could cast a red ballot for the Republic and get roughed up." George, living at Brown's Hotel in London, returned to Greek soil on November 25. He and Kondylis disagreed over the terms of a general amnesty the King wanted to declare, George appointed an interim Prime Minister, Konstantinos Demertzis. New elections were held in January, which resulted in a hung parliament with the Communists holding the balance of power. A series of unexpected deaths amongst the better-known politicians, as well as the uncertain political situation, led to the rise to power of veteran army officer Ioannis Metaxas. On 4 August 1936, George endorsed Metaxas's establishment of dictatorship – the "4th of August Regime", signing decrees that dissolved the parliament, banned political parties, abolished the constitution, purported to create a "Third Hellenic Civilization."
The King, ruling with Prime Minister Metaxas, oversaw a right-wing regime in which political opponents were arrested and strict censorship was imposed. An Index of banned books during that period included the works of Plato and Xenophon. Despite the nationalist government's strong economic and military ties to Germany, a connection which continued with Nazi Germany, King George was known to have pro-British feelings at the start of World War II. On 28 October 1940 Metaxas rejected an Italian ultimatum demanding the stationing of Italian troops in Greece, Italy invaded, starting the Greco-Italian War; the Greeks mounted a successful defense and occupied the southern half of Albania, but when the Germans invaded from Bulgaria on 6 April 1941 the Greeks and the British Expeditionary Force were overrun, mainland Greece occupied. On April 23 the King and the government left the Greek mainland for Crete, but after the German airborne attack on the island he was evacuated to Egypt. Once again he went into exile to Great Britain at the behest of King Farouk of Egypt and Farouk's pro-Italian ministers.
During the war he remained the internationally recognized head of state, backed by the exiled government and Greek forces serving in the Middle East. In occupied Greece, the leftist partisans of the National Liberation Front and National Popular Liberation Army, now unfettered by Metaxas' oppression, had become the largest Greek Resistance movement, enjoying considerable popular support; as liberation drew nearer, the prospect of the King's return caused dissensions both inside Greece and among the Greeks abroad. Although the King renounced the Metaxas regime in a radio broadcast, a large section of the people and many politicians rejected his return on account of his support of the dictatorship. In November 1943 George wrote to the Prime Minister-in-exile Emmanouil Tsouderos, "I shall examine anew the question of the date of my return to Greece in agreement with the Government". Either deliberately or accidentally, the version