A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency. The history of mints correlates with the history of coins. In the beginning, hammered coinage or cast coinage were the chief means of coin minting, with resulting production runs numbering as little as the hundreds or thousands. In modern mints, coin dies are manufactured in large numbers and planchets are made into milled coins by the billions. With the mass production of currency, the production cost is weighed. For example, it costs the United States Mint much less than 25 cents to make a quarter, the difference in production cost and face value helps fund the minting body; the earliest metallic money did not consist of coins, but of unminted metal in the form of rings and other ornaments or of weapons, which were used for thousands of years by the Egyptian and Assyrian empires. Metals were well suited to represent wealth, owing to their great commodity value per unit weight or volume, their durability and rarity.
The best metals for coinage are gold, platinum, tin, aluminum, zinc and their alloys. The first mint was established in Lydia in the 7th century BC, for coining gold and electrum; the Lydian innovation of manufacturing coins under the authority of the state spread to neighboring Greece, where a number of city-states operated their own mints. Some of the earliest Greek mints were within city-states on Greek islands such as Crete. At about the same time and mints appeared independently in China and spread to Korea and Japan; the manufacture of coins in the Roman Empire, dating from about the 4th century BC influenced development of coin minting in Europe. The origin of the word "mint" is ascribed to the manufacture of silver coin at Rome in 269 BC at the temple of Juno Moneta; this goddess became the personification of money, her name was applied both to money and to its place of manufacture. Roman mints were spread across the Empire, were sometimes used for propaganda purposes; the populace learned of a new Roman Emperor when coins appeared with the new Emperor's portrait.
Some of the emperors who ruled only for a short time made sure. Ancient coins were made by striking between engraved dies; the Romans cast their larger copper coins in clay moulds carrying distinctive markings, not because they knew nothing of striking, but because it was not suitable for such large masses of metal. Casting is now used only by counterfeiters; the most ancient coins were cast in bulletshaped or conical moulds and marked on one side by means of a die, struck with a hammer. The "blank" or unmarked piece of metal was placed on a small anvil, the die was held in position with tongs; the reverse or lower side of the coin received a “rough incuse” by the hammer. A rectangular mark, a “square incuse,” was made by the sharp edges of the little anvil, or punch; the rich iconography of the obverse of the early electrum coins contrasts with the dull appearance of their reverse which carries only punch marks. The shape and number of these punches varied according to their weight-standard. Subsequently, the anvil was marked in various ways, decorated with letters and figures of beasts, still the anvil was replaced by a reverse die.
The spherical blanks soon gave place to lenticular-shaped ones. The blank was struck between cold dies. One blow was insufficient, the method was similar to that still used in striking medals in high relief, except that the blank is now allowed to cool before being struck. With the substitution of iron for bronze as the material for dies, about 300 AD, the practice of striking the blanks while they were hot was discarded. In the Middle Ages bars of metal were hammered out on an anvil. Portions of the flattened sheets were cut out with shears, struck between dies and again trimmed with shears. A similar method had been used in Ancient Egypt during the Ptolemaic Kingdom, but had been forgotten. Square pieces of metal were cut from cast bars, converted into round disks by hammering and struck between dies. In striking, the lower die was fixed into a block of wood, the blank piece of metal laid upon it by hand; the upper die was placed on the blank, kept in position by means of a holder round, placed a roll of lead to protect the hand of the operator while heavy blows were struck with a hammer.
An early improvement was the introduction of a tool resembling a pair of tongs, the two dies being placed one at the extremity of each leg. This avoided the necessity of readjusting the dies between blows, ensured greater accuracy in the impression. Minting by means of a falling weight intervened between the hand hammers and the screw press in many places. In Birmingham in particular this system became developed and was long in use. In 1553, the French engineer Aubin Olivier introduced screw presses for striking coins, together with rolls for reducing the cast bars and machines for punching-out round disks from flattened sheets of metal. 8 to 12 men took over from each other every quarter of an hour to maneuver the arms driving the screw which struck the medals. The rolls were driven by horses, mules or water-power. Henry II came up against hostility on the par
A martyr is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party. This refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of the martyr by the oppressor. Applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people killed for a political cause. Most martyrs are considered holy or are respected by their followers, becoming symbols of exceptional leadership and heroism in the face of difficult circumstances. Martyrs play significant roles in religions. Martyrs have had notable effects in secular life, including such figures as Socrates, among other political and cultural examples. In its original meaning, the word martyr, meaning witness, was used in the secular sphere as well as in the New Testament of the Bible; the process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers and from the New Testament that witnesses died for their testimonies.
During the early Christian centuries, the term acquired the extended meaning of believers who are called to witness for their religious belief, on account of this witness, endures suffering or death. The term, in this sense, entered the English language as a loanword; the death of a martyr or the value attributed. The early Christians who first began to use the term martyr in its new sense saw Jesus as the first and greatest martyr, on account of his crucifixion; the early Christians appear to have seen Jesus as the archetypal martyr. The word martyr is used in English to describe a wide variety of people. However, the following table presents a general outline of common features present in stereotypical martyrdoms. In the Bahá'í Faith, martyrs are those who sacrifice their lives serving humanity in the name of God. However, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, discouraged the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life. Instead, he explained. Martyrdom was extensively promoted by the Kuomintang party in modern China.
Revolutionaries who died fighting against the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution and throughout the Republic of China period, furthering the cause of the revolution, were recognized as martyrs. In Christianity, a martyr, in accordance with the meaning of the original Greek martys in the New Testament, is one who brings a testimony written or verbal. In particular, the testimony is that of the Christian Gospel, or more the Word of God. A Christian witness is a biblical witness. However, over time many Christian testimonies were rejected, the witnesses put to death, the word martyr developed its present sense. Where death ensues, the witnesses follow the example of Jesus in offering up their lives for truth; the concept of Jesus as a martyr has received greater attention. Analyses of the Gospel passion narratives have led many scholars to conclude that they are martyrdom accounts in terms of genre and style. Several scholars have concluded that Paul the Apostle understood Jesus' death as a martyrdom.
In light of such conclusions, some have argued that the Christians of the first few centuries would have interpreted the crucifixion of Jesus as a martyrdom. In the context of church history, from the time of the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire, it developed that a martyr was one, killed for maintaining a religious belief, knowing that this will certainly result in imminent death; this definition of martyr is not restricted to the Christian faith. Though Christianity recognizes certain Old Testament Jewish figures, like Abel and the Maccabees, as holy, the New Testament mentions the imprisonment and beheading of John the Baptist, Jesus's possible cousin and his prophet and forerunner, the first Christian witness, after the establishment of the Christian faith, to be killed for his testimony was Saint Stephen, those who suffer martyrdom are said to have been "crowned." From the time of Constantine, Christianity was decriminalized, under Theodosius I, became the state religion, which diminished persecution.
As some wondered how they could most follow Christ there was a development of desert spirituality, desert monks, self-mortification, following Christ by separation from the world. This was a kind of white martyrdom, dying to oneself every day, as opposed to a red martyrdom, the giving of one's life in a violent death. In Christianity, death in sectarian persecution can be viewed as martyrdom. For example, there were martyrs recognised on both sides of the schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England after 1534, with two hundred and eighty Christians martyred for their faith by public burning between 1553 and 1558 by the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I in England leading to the reversion to the Church of England under Queen Elizabeth I in 1559 and three hundred Roman Catholics martyred by the Church authorities in England over the following hundred and fifty years in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. More modern day accounts of martyrdom for Christ exist, depicted in books such as Jesus Freaks though the numbers are disputed.
There are claims that the numbers of Christians killed for their faith annually are exaggerated. Despite the promotion of ahimsa within Sanatana Dharma
Takht Sri Damdama Sahib
The Takht Sri Darbar Sahib Damdama Sahib, one of the five Takhts or Seat of Temporal Authority of Sikhism, Takht Sri Damdama Sahib is in Bathinda in Punjab, India and is the place where Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, prepared the full version of the Sikh scriptures called Sri Guru Granth Sahib in 1705. The other four Takhts are the Akal Takht, Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib, Takht Sri Patna Sahib and Takht Sri Huzur or hazur Sahib; the Takht is in 28 km southeast of Bathinda. Damdama means breathing place. Guru Gobind Singh stayed here. A combination of Mughals and hillmen besieged Anandpur Sahib on the orders of emperor Aurangzeb; the stock of food in the town ran out. The Mughals promised safe passage to Punjab for the Sikhs if they would hand over the fortress of Anandpur. At first Guru Gobind tested their promise of safe passage by staging a test which the attackers failed miserably. With promises written in the margins of the Muslims' Holy Qur'an and some of the sacred writings of the Hindu elements of the army that had all but starved his small contingent of family and Sikhs and a personal promise of safety by Aurangzeb sent by an agent of the Emperor, fighting in the distant Deccan, the Guru was persuaded to agree to their offer, leaving Anandpur with his family and a small band of retainers.
During the flight from Anandpur when the Sikhs were promised safe passage to Punjab, Sahibzada Fateh Singh was, with his elder brother Zorawar Singh, put under the care of his grandmother, Mata Gujari Kaur ji. In the confusion of the rain-swollen Sarsa and an attack by Muslim pursuers, the Guru's two youngest sons and their grandmother were separated from the main body of Sikhs. Managing to get across, they were befriended by one of the Guru's former cooks. Betrayed and handed off by the authorities of the small village where they had been given sanctuary, they were handed over to agents of Wazir Khan, carted off to Sirhind, placed under arrest in the Khan's Thanda Burj; the Thanda Burj was built to capture the cool night breezes of air drawn over water channels in the hot summers, during the dead of winter the unheated burj offered no comfort for the Guru's mother and sons. On 26 December 1705, his elder brother Zorawar were martyred at Sirhind. Fateh Singh is the youngest recorded martyr in history: He knowingly laid down his life at the age of six years.
Brothers Sahibzada Fateh Singh and Sahibzada Zorawar Singh are among the most hallowed martyrs in Sikhism. Today, the place is known as Fatehgarh Sahib. An unequal but grim battle commenced with the sunrise on 7 December 1705 in the words of Guru Gobind Singh's Zafarnamah, a mere forty defying a hundred thousand; the besieged, after they had exhausted the meagre stock of ammunition and arrows, made sallies in batches of five each to engage the encircling host with sword and spear. Sahibzada Ajit Singh led one of the sallies and laid down his life fighting in the thick of the battle, he was 18 years old at the time of his supreme sacrifice for his faith. Gurdwara Qatalgarh now marks the spot where he fell, followed by Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, 14, who led the next sally; the valour displayed by the young sons of Guru Gobind Singh has been poignantly narrated by a modern Muslim poet Allahyar Khan Jogi who used to recite his Urdu poem, "ShahidaniWafa." From Sikh pulpits during the third decades of the twentieth century.
By nightfall Guru Gobind Singh was left with only five Sikhs in the fortress. These five urged him to escape so that he could rally his followers again and continue the struggle against oppression; the Guru agreed. He gave his own attire to Sangat Singh, who resembled him somewhat in physical stature. Under cover of darkness, he made his way through the encircling host slackened by the fatigue of the day's battle. Daya Singh, Dharam Singh and Man Singh escaped leaving behind only two Sikhs: Sangat Singh and Sant Singh; the next morning as the attack was resumed, the imperial troops entered the garhi without much resistance and were surprised to find only two occupants who, determined to die rather than give in, gave battle till the last. Having reached safety Gobind wrote a letter in Persian prose, called the Zafarnamah, to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb calling him to task as he had guaranteed safe passage to the Punjab for the Sikhs who had abandoned the city of Anandpur and its forts only to be attacked.
Guru Gobind Singh fought a successful battle at Muktsar and moved towards Talwandi Sabo. Before leaving to visit Sikh Sangats in the Deccan, Guruji blessed Talwandi Sabo, as Guru Ki Kashi. Now known better as Damdama Sahib after the Gurdwara became one of the five temporal Takhats of the Sikh religion. Another great Shaheed of Sikhi, Baba Deep Singh ji was installed as the first Jathedar of this temporal seat, he penned additional copies of the Adi Sri Granth Sahib ji and sent them to the other four temporal seats. This title was given because of the intense literary activities that Guru Gobind Singh engaged in during his stay here, it is said that one day Guru Gobind flung a handful of reed pens over the heads of the congregation, saying: "Here we will create a pool of literature. No one of my Sikhs should remain illiterate." The Damdama Wali Bir as the Guru Granth Sahib is sometimes called was completed here, being dictated by the Guru to one of his disciples Bhai Mani Singh. It was at this time when the hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, the ninth Guru and father of Guru Gobind Singh were added to the Bir.
This Takht was recognized as the fourth Takht of Sikhism on 18 November 1966. On a demand
Amritsar also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in northwestern India, the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district and is located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab. According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761, it is one of ten Municipal Corporations in the state and Karamjit Singh Rintu is the current mayor of the city. The city is situated 217 km northwest of state capital Chandigarh and 455 km northwest of New Delhi, the national capital, it is with the Wagah Border being only 28 km away. Amritsar has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. Amritsar is home to the Harmandir Sahib, popularly known as "the Golden Temple," one of Sikhism's most spiritually significant and most-visited gurudwaras; the Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana.
As per the Ramayana, Sita gave birth to Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar and Kasur were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha Yagna by Lord Rama and Kush captured the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple. During Navratra festivities it is considered to be auspicious by Hindu population of the city to visit that temple. Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Two versions of stories exist regarding the land. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. After his coronation in 1574, the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur".
He started by completing the pool, building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him; the town expanded during the time of Arjan constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604; the construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text composed in 1741, the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa. In the Punjab, during World War I, there was considerable unrest among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi and because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites all of whom were Sikhs.
In India as a whole, there had been a spurt in political activity owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India in January 1915, Annie Besant, head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India at an early date". On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh; this led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marching on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders.
The crowd, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress put the number of the dead between 20 and 30. Three days on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers. Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for ten minutes. A British inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379; the Indian National Congress determined that 1,000 people were killed. Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India to curb and remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar.
The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured
Guru Granth Sahib
Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the Sikh scriptures. It was compiled by the ten gurus of Sikhism and is itself regarded by Sikhs as the final and eternal living guru. Adi Granth, the first rendition, was compiled by Guru Arjan; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, added one shloka, dohra mahala 9 ang, 1429 and all 115 hymns of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur. This second rendition came to be known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib. After Guru Gobind Singh's death in 1708, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib for distribution; the text consists of 1,430 angs and 6,000 śabads, which are poetically rendered and set to a rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music. The bulk of the scripture is divided into sixty rāags, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author; the hymns in the scripture are arranged by the rāgas in which they are read. The Guru Granth Sahib is written in the Gurmukhī script, in various languages, including Lahnda, Braj Bhasha, Sanskrit and Persian.
Copies in these languages have the generic title of Sant Bhasha. Guru Granth Sahib was composed by the Sikh Gurus: Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Angad Dev, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh added 1 sloakh in mahala 9 Ang 1429, it contains the traditions and teachings of Indian sants, such as Ravidas, Ramananda and Namdev among others, two Muslim Sufi saints Bhagat Bhikan and: Sheikh Farid. The vision in the Guru Granth Sahib is of a society based on divine justice without oppression of any kind. While the Granth acknowledges and respects the scriptures of Hinduism and Islam, it does not imply a moral reconciliation with either of these religions, it is installed in a Sikh gurdwara. The Granth is revered as the spiritual authority in Sikhism. During the guruship of Guru Nanak Dev, collections of his holy hymns were compiled and sent to distant Sikh communities for use in morning and evening prayers, his successor Guru Angad Dev began collecting his predecessor's writings.
This tradition was continued by the fifth gurus as well. When the fifth guru Guru Arjan Dev was collecting religious writings of his predecessor, he discovered that pretenders to the guruship were releasing what he considered as forged anthologies of writings of the previous guru and including their own writings with them. In order to prevent spurious scriptures from gaining legitimacy, Guru Arjan Dev began compiling a sacred scripture for the Sikh community, he finished collecting the religious writings of Guru Ram Das, his immediate predecessor, convinced Mohan, the son of Guru Amar Das, to give him the collection of the religious writings of the first three gurus. In addition, he sent disciples to go across the country to find and bring back any unknown religious writings of theirs, he invited members of other religions and contemporary religious writers to submit writings for possible inclusion. Guru Arjan pitched a tent by the side of Ramsar tank in Amritsar and started the task of compiling the holy Granth.
He selected hymns for inclusion in the Adi Bhai Gurdas acted as his scribe. While the holy hymns and verses were being put together Akbar, the Mughal Emperor, received a report that the Adi Granth contained passages vilifying Islam. Therefore, while travelling north, he asked to inspect it. Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas brought him a copy of the Adi Granth. After choosing three random passages to be read, Akbar decided. In 1604, Adi Granth was completed and installed at the Harmandir Sahib, with Baba Buddha as the first granthi, or reader. Since communities of Sikh disciples were scattered all over northern India, copies of the holy scripture needed to be made for them; the sixth guru added the tunes of 9 out of 22 Vars. Seventh and eighth guru did not have writings of their own added to the holy scripture; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, included writings of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur in the Guru Granth Sahib, included 1 salokh in mahala 9 Ang 1429. In 1704 at Damdama Sahib, during a one-year respite from the heavy fighting with Aurangzeb which the Khalsa was engaged in at the time, Guru Gobind Singh and Bhai Mani Singh added the religious compositions of Guru Tegh Bahadur to Adi Granth to create a definitive compilation.
Religious verses of Guru Gobind Singh were not included in Guru Granth Sahib, but he added 1 sloak in mahala 9 Ang 1429. His banis are found in the Sri Dasam Granth, they are part in the daily prayers of Sikhs During this period, Bhai Mani Singh collected Guru Gobind Singh's religious writings, as well as his court poems, included them in a secondary religious volume, today known as the Dasam Granth Sahib. Sikhs consider the Guru Granth Sahib as the eternal living guru, the highest religious and spiritual guide for Sikhs and inspire all of humanity, its place in Sikh devotional life is based on two fundamental principles: on the "Gurbani", received by the Sikh gurus in their divine consciousness from God and revealed to mankind. The Guru Granth Sahib answers all questions regarding religion and that morality can be discovered within it; the word is the guru and the guru is the word. Thus, in Sikh theology, the revealed divine word was written by past gurus. Numerous holy men, aside from the Sikh gurus, are collectively referred to as Bhagats or "devotees."
In 1708 Guru Gobin
Pundit Tara Singh
Pandit Tara Singh Narotam or Pundit Tara Singh Nawtam was a famous Punjabi scholar who belonged to the Sikh Nirmala Sect. He made many contributions to Sikh theology and Sikh literature, he discovered Hemkunt, he became the Sri Mahant of the Nirmal Pachchayati Akhara at Kankhal. Pundit Tara Singh was born into a Sikh family who were Brahmins. At the age of twenty he left his village, near Qadian, he arrived at the Niramala dera of Sant Gulab Singh at Kurala, Hoshiarpur. Here he taught the Sikh texts and scriptures. For further learning he went to Amritsar and to Kashi where he studied Sanskrit and Vedic literature, he spent some time in the Bengali city of Shantipur. He attended the Arddha Kumbha 1861 at Haridwar, he had accumulated some fame throughout the region. The Maharaja of Patiala, Maharaja Narinder Singh gave patronage to him after which Tara Singh came to Patiala and established his own Nirmala dera by the name of Dharam Dhuja and began doing scholarly work. Pundit Tara Singh taught a large group of scholars which include the famous Sikh historian Giani Gain Singh and Bishan Singh Ji Muralewale of the Damdami Taksal.
Sant Attar Singh studied from a Nirmala sect during this time. In 1875 Pundit Tara Singh was made the Sri Mahant of the Nirmal Pachchayati Akhara, the central organisation of the Nirmala sect. Maharaja Narinder Singh of Patiala commissioned to Pandit Tara Singh Narotam to compile a comprehensive list of all the gurudwaras commemorating the life and work of the Gurus; this work was entitled Sri Gur Tirath Sangrah and published in 1884. Pundit Tara Singh provided the descriptions of 508 different locations and Hemkunt was of one of these. Pundit Tara Singh was the first Sikh to trace the geographical location of Hemkunt Sahib. Using clues from the Bachitar Natak to reveal Guru Gobind Singh's tap asthan such as the place was named Sapatsring and was on or near Hemkunt Parbat he set out to explore the Garhwal Himalayas and his search took him to Badrinath and to the nearby village of Pandukeshwar, near the present-day Gobind Ghat, it seems, that Narotam's discovery was not heeded by the Sikh community until the twentieth century, when Hemkunt was rediscovered Sohan Singh and Modan Singh.
Pundit Tara Singh conforms to the Nirmala school of thought. He presents Sikhism from a Vedantic orientation, it being a blend of Sankara and Ramanuja, he believed that Guru Nanak Dev was an incarnation of Vishnu and that Waheguru was another name of Vishnu and could not refer to the nirguna concept of God. He wrote extensively about the meaning of Waheguru in his book Waheguru Shabad-Arth Tika. In the Mahan Kosh it is written that Pandit Tara Singh believes that the Sarbloh Granth was produced by Bhai Sukha Singh the head Granthi of Patna Sahib from a manuscript given by an Udasi from Jagannath who said it was Guru Gobind Singh's writing. Pandit Tara Singh believes that the entire Dasam Granth was written by Guru Gobind Singh, he may have written an commentary on the entire SGGS but it is assumed to be lost. His more famous works are Sri Gur Tirath Sangrah and Guru Girarath Kos. Other notable works include. Vahiguru Sabdarth Tika Bhagat Banika Tika Guru Bhav Dipika Sri Guru Tirath Sangrahi Granth Sri Gurmat Nirnaya Sagar Sabda Sur Kosh Akal Murati Pradarsan Guru Vans Taru Darpan Granth Guru Girarth Kosh Prikhia Prakaran Tika Sri Raga Updesh Shatak Basha Sehrafi Raje Bharthari Japji Sahib Steek
Baba Deep Singh
Baba Deep Singh is revered among Sikhs as one of the most hallowed martyrs in Sikhism and as a religious person. He is remembered for his devotion to the teachings of the Sikh Gurus. Baba Deep Singh was the first head of Misl Shaheedan Tarna Dal – an order of the Khalsa military established by Nawab Kapur Singh, the head of Sharomani Panth Akali Buddha Dal; the Damdami Taksal state that he was the first head of their order. His name is found as Deep Singh and Baba Deep Singh Ji. Baba Deep Singh was born in 1682 to his father Bhagta, his mother Jioni, he lived in the village of Pahuwind in Amritsar district. He went to Anandpur Sahib on the day of Vaisakhi in 1699, where he was baptised into Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh, through the Khande di Pahul or Amrit Sanchar; as a youth, he spent considerable time in close companionship of Guru Gobind Singh, learning weaponry and other martial skills. From Bhai Mani Singh, he learnt reading and writing Gurmukhi and the interpretation of the Gurus' words. After spending two years at Anandpur, he returned to his village in 1702, before he was summoned by Guru Gobind Singh at Talwandi Sabo in 1705, where he helped Bhai Mani Singh in making copies of the scripture Guru Granth Sahib.
In 1709, Baba Deep Singh joined Banda Singh Bahadur during the Battle of Sadhaura and the Battle of Chappar Chiri. In 1733, Nawab Kapur Singh appointed him a leader of an armed squad. On the Vaisakhi of 1748, at the meeting of the Sarbat Khalsa in Amritsar, the 65 jathas of the Dal Khalsa were reorganized into twelve Misls. Baba Deep Singh was entrusted with the leadership of the Shaheed Misl. In April 1757, Ahmad Shah Durrani raided Northern India for the fourth time. While he was on his way back to Kabul from Delhi with young men and women as captives, the Sikhs made a plan to relieve him of the valuables and free the captives; the squad of Baba Deep Singh was deployed near Kurukshetra. His squad raided Durrani's considerable treasury. On his arrival in Lahore, embittered by his loss, ordered the demolition of the Harimandir Sahib; the shrine was blown up and the sacred pool filled with the entrails of slaughtered animals. Durrani assigned the Punjab region to his son, Prince Timur Shah, left him a force of ten thousand men under General Jahan Khan.
Baba Deep Singh, 75 years old, felt that it was up to him to atone for the sin of having let the Afghans desecrate the shrine. He emerged from scholastic retirement and declared to a congregation at Damdama Sahib that he intended to rebuild the temple. Five hundred men came forward to go with him. Deep Singh offered prayers before starting for Amritsar: "May my head fall at the Darbar Sahib." As he went from hamlet to hamlet, many villagers joined him. By the time baba Deep Singh reached Tarn Taran Sahib, ten miles from Amritsar, over five thousand Sikhs armed with hatchets and spears accompanied him. Baba Deep Singh had vowed to avenge the desecration of the Golden Temple by the Afghan army. In 1757, he led an army to defend the Golden Temple; the Sikhs and the Afghans clashed in the Battle of Amritsar on 13 November 1757, in the ensuing conflict Baba Deep Singh was decapitated. There are two accounts of Baba Deep Singh's death. According to one popular version, Baba Deep Singh continued to fight after having been decapitated, slaying his enemies with his head in one hand and his sword in the other.
In this version, only upon reaching the sacred city of Amritsar did he stop and die. According to the second version, he was mortally wounded with a blow to the neck, but not decapitated. After receiving this blow, a Sikh reminded Baba Deep Singh, "You had resolved to reach the periphery of the pool." On hearing the talk of the Sikh, he held his head with his left hand and removing the enemies from his way with the strokes of his 15 kg Khanda "with his right hand, reached the periphery of Harmandir Sahib where he breathed his last. The Singhs celebrated the Bandhi-Sor Divas of 1757 A. D. in Harmandir Sahib". The Sikhs recovered their prestige by defeating the Afghan army and the latter were forced to flee; the spot where Baba Deep Singh's head fell is marked in the Golden Temple complex, Sikhs from around the world pay their respects there. Baba Deep Singh's Khanda, which he used in his final battle, is still preserved at Akal Takht, first of the five centers of temporal Sikh authority. Baba Deep Singh Shaheed Baba Deep Singh