McKinsey & Company
McKinsey & Company is an American worldwide management consulting firm. It conducts qualitative and quantitative analysis to evaluate management decisions across public and private sectors. Considered the most prestigious management consultancy, McKinsey's clientele includes 80% of the world's largest corporations, an extensive list of governments and non-profit organisations. More current and former Fortune 500 C. E. O.s are alumni of McKinsey than of any other company, a list including Google C. E. O. Sundar Pichai, Morgan Stanley C. E. O. James P. Gorman, many more. McKinsey publishes the McKinsey Quarterly since 1964, funds the McKinsey Global Institute research organization, publishes reports on management topics, has authored many influential books on management, its practices of confidentiality, influence on business practices, corporate culture have experienced a polarizing reception. McKinsey was founded in 1926 by James O. McKinsey in order to apply accounting principles to management. McKinsey died in 1937, the firm was restructured several times, with the modern-day McKinsey & Company emerging in 1939.
Marvin Bower is credited with establishing McKinsey's culture and practices in the 1930s based on the principles he experienced as a lawyer. The firm developed an "out" policy, where consultants who are not promoted are asked to leave. McKinsey was the first management consultancy to hire recent college graduates, rather than experienced managers. In the 1980s and 1990s, the firm established new practice areas, it had 88 staff in 1951, 7,700 by the early 2000s and 27,000+ by 2018. McKinsey's consulting has helped to establish many of the norms in business and contributed to many of the major successes and failures in business in the modern era. McKinsey & Company was founded in Chicago under the name James O. McKinsey & Company in 1926 by James McKinsey, a professor of accounting at the University of Chicago, he conceived the idea after witnessing inefficiencies in military suppliers while working for the U. S. Army Ordnance Department; the firm called itself an "accounting and management firm" and started out giving consulting on using accounting principles as a management tool.
McKinsey's first partners were Tom Kearney, hired in 1929, Marvin Bower, hired in 1933. In its first few years, the firm grew and began developing rapport among corporations. In 1935, McKinsey left the firm temporarily to serve as the Chairman and CEO of client Marshall Field's as it implemented the restructuring plan created by his firm. McKinsey was merged with accounting firm Scovell, Wellington & Company that same year, creating the New York-based McKinsey, Wellington & Co. and splitting off the accounting practice into Chicago-based Wellington & Company. A Wellington project that accounted for 55 percent of McKinsey, Wellington & Company's billings was about to expire and Kearney and Bower had disagreements about how to run the firm. Bower wanted to expand nationally and hire young business school graduates, whereas Kearney wanted to stay in Chicago and hire experienced accountants. Additionally, in 1937 James O. McKinsey died after catching pneumonia; this led to the division of McKinsey, Wellington & Company in 1939.
The accounting practice returned to Scovell, Wellington & Company, while the management engineering practice was split into McKinsey & Company and McKinsey, Kearney & Company. Bower had partnered with Guy Crockett from Scovell Wellington, who invested in the new McKinsey & Company and became managing partner, while Marvin Bower is credited with founding the firm's principles and strategy as his deputy; the New York office purchased exclusive rights to the McKinsey name in 1946. McKinsey & Company grew in the 1940s and 50s in Europe, it had 88 staff in 1951 and more than 200 by the 1960s, including 37 in London by 1966. In the same year, McKinsey had six offices in major US cities like San Francisco, Los Angeles and Washington D. C. as well as six abroad. These foreign offices were in Europe, such as in London, Amsterdam, as well as in Melbourne. By this time, one third of the company's revenues originated from its European offices. Guy Crockett stepped down as managing director in 1950, Marvin Bower was elected in his place.
McKinsey's profit-sharing and planning committees were formed in 1951. The organization's client base expanded among governments, defense contractors, bluechip companies and military organizations in the post-World War II era. After seven years of consideration, McKinsey became a private corporation with shares owned by McKinsey employees in 1956. After Bower stepped down in 1967, the firm's revenues declined. New competitors like the Boston Consulting Group and Bain & Company created increased competition for McKinsey by marketing specific branded products, such as the Growth-Share Matrix, by selling their industry expertise. In 1971, McKinsey created the Commission on Firm Aims and Goals, which found that McKinsey had become too focused on geographic expansion and lacked adequate industry knowledge; the commission advised that McKinsey develop industry specialties. In 1976, Ron Daniel was elected managing director, serving until 1988. Daniel and Fred Gluck helped shift the firm away from its generalist approach by developing 15 specialized working groups within McKinsey called Centers of Competence and by developing practice areas called Strategy and Organization.
Daniel began McKinsey's knowledge management efforts in 1987. This led to the creation of an IT system that tracked McKinsey engagements, a process to centralize knowledge from each practice area and a resource directory of internal experts." By the end of hi
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation. It was founded by Sime Silverman in New York in 1905 as a weekly newspaper reporting on theater and vaudeville. In 1933 it added Daily Variety, based in Los Angeles. Variety.com features breaking entertainment news, box office results, cover stories, photo galleries and more, plus a credits database, production charts and calendar, with archive content dating back to 1905. Variety has been published since December 16, 1905, when it was launched by Sime Silverman as a weekly periodical covering theater and vaudeville with its headquarters in New York City. Sime was fired by The Morning Telegraph in 1905 for panning an act which had taken out an advert for $50, said that it looked like he would have to start his own paper in order to be able to tell the truth. With a loan of $1,500 from his father-in-law, he launched Variety as editor. In addition to Sime's former employer The Morning Telegraph, other major competitors on launch were The New York Clipper and the New York Dramatic Mirror.
The original cover design, similar to the current design, was sketched by Edgar M. Miller, a scenic painter, who refused payment; the front cover contained pictures of the original editorial staff, who were Alfred Greason, Epes W Sargeant and Joshua Lowe, as well as Sime. The first issue contained a review by Sime's son Sidne known as Skigie, claimed to be the youngest critic in the world at seven years old. In 1922, Sime acquired The New York Clipper, reporting on the stage and other entertainment since 1853 and folded it two years merging some of its features into Variety. In 1922, Sime launched the Times Square Daily, which he referred to as "the world's worst daily" and soon scrapped. During that period, Variety staffers worked on all three papers. After the launch of The Hollywood Reporter in 1930, which Variety sued for alleged plagiarism in 1932, Sime launched Daily Variety in 1933, based in Hollywood, with Arthur Ungar as the editor, it replaced Variety Bulletin, issued in Hollywood on Fridays.
Daily Variety was published every day other than Sunday but on Monday to Friday. Ungar was editor until 1950, followed by Joe Schoenfeld and Thomas M. Pryor, succeeded by his son Pete; the Daily and the Weekly were run as independent newspapers, with the Daily concentrating on Hollywood news and the Weekly on U. S. and International coverage. Sime Silverman had passed on the editorship of the Weekly Variety to Abel Green as his replacement in 1931. Green remained as editor from 1931 until his death in 1973. Sime's son Sidne succeeded him as publisher of both publications. Following his death from tuberculosis in 1950, his only son Syd Silverman, was the sole heir to what was Variety Inc. Young Syd's legal guardian Harold Erichs oversaw Variety Inc. until 1956. After that date Syd Silverman managed the company as publisher of both the Weekly Variety in New York and the Daily Variety in Hollywood, until the sale of both papers in 1987 to Cahners Publishing for $64 million, he remained as publisher until 1990 when he was succeeded on Weekly Variety by Gerard A. Byrne and on Daily Variety by Sime's great grandson, Michael Silverman.
Syd became chairman of both publications. In 1953, Army Archerd's "Just for Variety" column appeared on page two of Daily Variety and swiftly became popular in Hollywood. Archerd broke countless exclusive stories, reporting from film sets, announcing pending deals, giving news of star-related hospitalizations and births; the column appeared daily for 52 years until September 1, 2005. On December 7, 1988, the editor, Roger Watkins and oversaw the transition to four-color print. Upon its launch, the new-look Variety measured one inch shorter with a washed-out color on the front; the old front-page box advertisement was replaced by a strip advertisement, along with the first photos published in Variety since Sime gave up using them in the old format in 1920: they depicted Sime and Syd. For twenty years from 1989 its editor-in-chief was Peter Bart only of the weekly New York edition, with Michael Silverman running the Daily in Hollywood. Bart had worked at Paramount Pictures and The New York Times.
In April 2009, Bart moved to the position of "vice president and editorial director", characterized online as "Boffo No More: Bart Up and Out at Variety". From mid 2009 to 2013, Timothy M. Gray oversaw the publication as Editor-in-Chief, after over 30 years of various reporter and editor positions in the newsroom. In October 2012, Reed Business Information, the periodical's owner, sold the publication to Penske Media Corporation. PMC is the owner of Deadline Hollywood, which since the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike has been considered Variety's largest competitor in online showbiz news. In October 2012, Jay Penske, Chairman and CEO of PMC, announced that the website's paywall would come down, the print publication would stay, he would invest more into Variety's digital platform in a townhall. In March 2013, Variety owner Jay Penske appointed three co-editors to oversee different parts of the publication's industry coverage; the decision was made to stop printing Daily Variety with the last printed edition published on March 19, 2013 with the headline "Variety A
Bad Robot Productions
Bad Robot is an American film and television production company led by J. J. Abrams. Under its Bad Robot Productions division, the company is responsible for the television series Alias, Fringe, Person of Interest and Westworld alongside the feature-length films Cloverfield, Star Trek, Super 8, Star Trek Into Darkness, Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol, Mission: Impossible – Rogue Nation, Star Wars Episodes VII and IX, 10 Cloverfield Lane, Star Trek Beyond, The Cloverfield Paradox, Mission: Impossible – Fallout, Overlord. Bad Robot was based at Touchstone Television, but was moved by Abrams to Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros. Television, after his contract with ABC expired in 2006. Bad Robot produced Lost in association with ABC Studios Touchstone Television; the two companies jointly produced What About Brian. Abrams is Chairman and Co-Chief Executive Officer of Bad Robot, Katie McGrath serves as the Company's Co-Chief Executive Officer. In June 2017, Bad Robot announced that Brian Weinstein would become President and Chief Operating Officer, overseeing daily operations and spearhead the company’s growth strategy in its existing businesses, while developing new areas of expansion across the entire Bad Robot platform and pursuing alternative financing options.
In May 2015, Ben Stephenson left the BBC where he had been head of drama to helm Bad Robot Television. Lindsey Weber leads Bad Robot's feature film division; the production logo has appeared since 2001, featuring a red rectangular headed robot running through a meadow silhouetted until it appears in front of the camera, followed by voices provided by two of Abrams's children and Gracie Abrams, saying "Bad robot!" Although some fans believe that the name comes from a line in the animated film The Iron Giant, Abrams told Entertainment Weekly that it came to him during a writers' meeting. In February 2013, it was announced that Bad Robot would be partnering with the Valve Corporation to produce a Half-Life or Portal film in the distant future. In August 2015, Valve released a new beta game mode to Team Fortress 2, PASS Time, which Bad Robot worked on. On July 7, 2016 the PASS Time game mode became official. Bad Robot released a trailer entitled "Stranger", rumoured to be Abrams' next film or television project even a Lost spin-off, but it was explained to be promoting S. Abrams and Doug Dorst's new novel, as a new trailer for S. was released.
In February 2017, it was announced Julius Avery is attached to direct a Paramount coproduction, the World War II zombie film Overlord, from screenwriter Billy Ray. Bad Robot Productions is based in Santa Monica, California, in a building, incorrectly labeled on purpose as the home of the fictional "National Typewriter Company" because Abrams "likes typewriters — and misdirection."In June 2018, the company announced a spin-off venture formed with the Chinese video game publisher Tencent to launch Bad Robot Games for the development of video games on mobile and consoles, with Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment as a minority investor. Bad Robot Games will develop and publish titles related to Abrams' works and other Bad Robot Production contents, with Tencent holding the rights for distribution in China; the division will be helmed by Dave Baronoff, who has worked on the Cloverfield franchise and in developing Spyjinx as a joint project between Bad Robot Productions and Epic Games, while Tim Keenan, who helped develop Duskers, will serve as the creative director.
In 2006, Bad Robot teamed up with Warner Bros.. Television for a $60 million development deal that lasted through 2018. In late 2018, it was announced that Bad Robot was seeking a new overall deal. In January 2019, it was announced that Universal and Warner Bros. were the top three studios battling it out for what could be a record breaking overall deal including theme parks, music labels, TV, streaming services as Bad Robot plans on ramping up production in the coming years. Nominations2002 Emmy Award Nomination, Outstanding Writing for A Drama Series 2005 Emmy Award Nomination, Outstanding Writing for A Drama Series 2007 Golden Globe Award Nomination, Best Television Series – Drama Wins2005 Emmy Award Winner, Outstanding Drama Series 2005 Emmy Award Winner, Outstanding Directing for A Drama Series 2006 Golden Globe Award Winner, Best Television Series – Drama Official website Bad Robot Productions on Twitter iOS App Action Movie FX. On iTunes https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/action-movie-fx/id489321253?mt=8 "Bad Robot Productions Signs Far-Reaching Production Deals With Columbia Pictures, Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros.
Television". Time Warner. July 15, 2006. Andreeva, Nellie. "Abrams builds his Robot". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 14, 2008
Princeton High School (New Jersey)
Princeton High School is a four-year comprehensive public high school in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, operating as part of the Princeton Public Schools district, which serves all public school students in Princeton. Students from Cranbury Township attend PHS as part of a sending/receiving relationship with the Cranbury School District; the school has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools since 1932. As of the 2015-16 school year, the school had an enrollment of 1,578 students and 126.2 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 12.5:1. There were 25 eligible for reduced-cost lunch. PHS is notable for its high academic standards and strong arts programs that rival many of the nation's private schools; the school ranks amongst the top open-admissions public high schools in the state concerning SAT scores, was ranked first in the state amongst open-admissions schools in 2009. Princeton High is located between Walnut Lane.
The district middle school, John Witherspoon Middle School, is located across from the high school athletic fields on Walnut Lane. The school offers 200 courses in many subjects and levels, including most of the courses in the Advanced Placement Program. More than 70 % of students take at least one accelerated course. Additionally, the High School Program at Princeton University permits qualified juniors and seniors to take free courses at Princeton University if they have exhausted all high school course alternatives within a discipline, receiving only high school credit for any university courses completed; the school contains over 250 classrooms, several equipped science labs, two gymnasiums, a performing arts center, a fitness center, a garden, athletic turf and tennis courts. Some of this came from significant reconstruction from 2003 to 2007 as part of an $86 million project to renovate the district's school buildings including a new mathematics wing and renovated library; the school's principal is Gary R. Snyder, its assistant principals are Jessica Baxter, Angela Siso-Stentz and Jared Warren.
Nationally, Princeton High School ranked in Newsweek's top high school list in 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009. In The Washington Posts's "Most Challenging High Schools" list, PHS ranked in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014. In U. S. News & World Report, Princeton High School was ranked in 2009, 2010 and 2014. In 2007, The Wall Street Journal, ranking the country's high schools based on a percentage of 2007 high school seniors sent to eight selective colleges, placed Princeton High School at #27. PHS was the second highest ranked publicly funded school, with a total of 31 students matriculating to those schools. Statewide, New Jersey Monthly's "Top Public High Schools" has ranked Princeton High in 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014. Schooldigger ranked the school in 2011, 2013 and 2014; the 2009 U. S News & World Report ranked Princeton High as the highest ranked open-admissions high school in New Jersey. School is held Monday through Friday from 8:20 a.m. - 3:20 p.m. for 180 days per year. The daily schedule consists of eight academic periods.
There are four minutes between each class period for the students to get to their next class. Every Wednesday, on days when special events are planned, the school day is shortened and ends at 1:49 p.m. Students attend 35 minute class periods, homeroom and break periods are not shortened. Short Wednesdays exist to permit the operation of the mandatory freshmen Peer Group program between 1:49 and 2:51; this period of time is used for community service group meetings for sophomores, other extracurricular activities, school-wide events such as pep rallies, the Fall Festival, Spring Fling. The school days are assigned letter labels, cycling from A through F; because of a partial-block schedule, only days A–D contain all eight academic periods. Days E and F consist of only four academic periods, each 88 minutes long, with 10 minutes in between each period. Periods 3, 1, 7, 5 occur on E days, while periods 4, 2, 8, 6 occur on F days, in the order listed. In addition to this, the order of periods cycles throughout letter days A–D, with periods 1–4 cycling independently from periods 5–8.
An example is shown below. In order to receive a diploma from Princeton High School, students must complete a minimum of 120 credits from grade 9 to grade 12; each year-long class counts for 5 credits. The exception is science classes that have one or two lab periods count for 5.7 and 6.4 credits, respectively. Additionally, each student must have completed 50 hours of community service completed during a students sophomore year. Required courses include English I and English II and two more years of English. In addition, students must show proficiency in the PARCC assessment; the school used the HSPA 11 - the class of 2015 is the last class to rely on this. Students must pass the Biology State Assessment the year they
Grand Piano (film)
Grand Piano is a 2013 English-language Spanish thriller film directed by Eugenio Mira and starring Elijah Wood and John Cusack. The film is about a once-promising pianist returning for a comeback performance, only to be the target of a sniper who will kill him if he plays one wrong note; the film premiered at Fantastic Fest on 20 September 2013 and was given a VOD release on 30 January 2014. It was given a limited release in U. S. theatres on 7 March. Tom Selznick was an up-and-coming concert pianist until he developed stage fright while attempting to play a complex piece, "La Cinquette". Five years he is slated to appear in Chicago for a comeback performance, dedicated to the memory of his late mentor and composer Patrick Godureaux. Godureaux posthumously acquired massive media coverage due to the mysterious disappearance of his vast fortune. Tom's return to the stage is prompted by the encouragement of Emma; as Tom arrives at the theater, his friend Norman offers Tom assurance. Shortly thereafter, a house usher hands Tom a folder of sheet music.
Within, he discards it. During the concert, Tom finds a note written on his sheet music that reads "Play one wrong note and you DIE". Believing it to be a prank, he ignores it, only to find further notes that threaten Emma, as well as a laser dot that tracks his movement. Disturbed, Tom leaves shocking the audience, he returns to his dressing room, where he receives a text that instructs him to locate and wear an earpiece, allowing communication with the would-be assassin, Clem. When Tom returns to the stage, Clem demonstrates the stealth and range of his silenced rifle by firing a shot into the floor to Tom's left. Desperate, Tom surreptitiously uses his cell phone to contact his friend Wayne, in the audience; when Wayne's phone rings, it momentarily disrupts the performance. As he plays, Tom texts Wayne. Shortly thereafter, Clem tells Tom to look up. Wayne's girlfriend Ashley leaves the hall in search of him, but she is killed by the usher. Clem tells Tom that instead of performing Beethoven's "Tempest Sonata", as Norman announced, he must perform "La Cinquette" flawlessly, as an embedded lock in the piano depends on a flawless performance.
Clem further reveals that the release of said lock would yield a key to a safe deposit box containing Patrick Godureaux's disappeared fortune. Tom insists. During intermission, Tom runs backstage in search of the crumpled manuscript, only to find that the janitor has destroyed it. Tom returns to his dressing room and listens to the piece on a tablet that Emma gave him earlier that evening, feverishly taking notes to help himself remember before returning to the stage. Norman announces Tom's solo performance of the Tempest Sonata, but Tom interrupts and trepidatiously announces that he will instead perform "La Cinquette", to the audience's delight. Clem warns Tom to pace himself. Tom plays the piece free of error, until he gets to the last note, which he deliberately misplays, infuriating Clem. Tom retorts that the audience does not know the difference - he receives a standing ovation, during which Tom realizes that he has conquered both "La Cinquette" and his own stage fright. Tom introduces Emma.
Much to her and the audience's surprise, Tom suggests. Emma reluctantly obliges and Norman accompanies her on a rendition of "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child"; the usher, realizing that everything he and Clem worked for is over, attempts to flee the building, but is shot by Clem. Tom runs offstage. Racing upstairs, Tom finds the usher's corpse. Clem chases Tom to the light fixture catwalk, directly above the stage. In the ensuing struggle, Clem threateningly dangles Tom over the catwalk edge, but Tom braces himself and yanks Clem over the railing. To the entire hall's horror and Clem fall to the stage. Clem crashes into the piano and is killed but Tom lands to the side and survives. Emma rushes over to him, they embrace, he tells her "I think I broke my leg". While waiting with Emma for his ambulance to leave, Tom notices the obliterated piano being loaded into a shipping truck. Climbing into the truck, he plays the last four bars of "La Cinquette" but nothing happens. Disappointed, Tom turns away until he hears the gears of the internal lock system turn and the sound of a metal key hitting the floor.
He bends down to pick it up as the camera cuts to black. Elijah Wood as Tom Selznick John Cusack as Clem Kerry Bishé as Emma Selznick Tamsin Egerton as Ashley Allen Leech as Wayne Don McManus as Norman Alex Winter as Usher Elijah Wood had worked with a teacher three weeks prior to going to Barcelona and found it stressful having to play the piano and speak at the same time saying, "It was technical lots of moments where it was jumping from where I'd play, listen to a click, listen to music, have to be in the right place and the right time and hear dialogue and repeat dialogue"; the film was met with positive reviews, with a Rotten Tomatoes percentage of 79% and an average rating of 6.5/10, based on 68 reviews. The site's critics consensus states: "Grand Piano is so tense in its best moments — and appealingly strange overall — that it remains rewarding in spite of its flaws." On Metacritic
Academy Award for Best Director
The Academy Award for Best Director is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of a film director who has exhibited outstanding directing while working in the film industry; the 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with the award being split into "Dramatic" and "Comedy" categories. However, these categories were merged for all subsequent ceremonies. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the directors branch of AMPAS. For the first eleven years of the Academy Awards, directors were allowed to be nominated for multiple films in the same year. However, after the nomination of Michael Curtiz for two films, Angels with Dirty Faces and Four Daughters, at the 11th Academy Awards, the rules were revised so that an individual could only be nominated for one film at each ceremony; that rule has since been amended, although the only director who has received multiple nominations in the same year was Steven Soderbergh for Erin Brockovich and Traffic in 2000, winning the award for the latter.
The Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture have been closely linked throughout their history. Of the 91 films that have been awarded Best Picture, 65 have been awarded Best Director. Since its inception, the award has been given to directing teams. John Ford has received the most awards in this category with four. William Wyler was nominated on twelve occasions, more than any other individual. Damien Chazelle became the youngest director in history to receive this award, at the age of 32 for his work on La La Land. Two directing teams have shared the award; the Coen brothers are the only siblings to have won the award. Kathryn Bigelow is the only woman to have won the award, for 2009's The Hurt Locker. Since the 82nd ceremony held in 2010, when the Best Picture category was no longer limited to 5 nominees, only Bennett Miller and Paweł Pawlikowski have been nominated for films not nominated for Best Picture; as of the 2019 ceremony, Alfonso Cuarón is the most recent winner in this category for his work on Roma.
In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County, California. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31. For the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1, 1932, to December 31, 1933. Since the 7th ceremony held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31; as of the 91st Academy Awards, four Asian directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, one has won the award two times. 1965 – Hiroshi Teshigahara for Woman in the Dunes 1985 – Akira Kurosawa for Ran 1999 – M. Night Shyamalan for The Sixth Sense † 2000 – Ang Lee for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon † 2005 – Ang Lee for Brokeback Mountain † 2012 – Ang Lee for Life of Pi † As of the 91st Academy Awards, six black directors have been nominated a total of six times in this category, none have won the award.
1991 – John Singleton for Boyz n the Hood § 2009 – Lee Daniels for Precious † 2013 – Steve McQueen for 12 Years a Slave ‡ 2016 – Barry Jenkins for Moonlight ‡ 2017 – Jordan Peele for Get Out §† 2018 – Spike Lee for BlacKkKlansman † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five Latin American directors have been nominated a total of eight times in this category, three have won the award five times. 1985 – Héctor Babenco for Kiss of the Spider Woman † 2003 – Fernando Meirelles for City of God 2006 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Babel † 2013 – Alfonso Cuarón for Gravity † 2014 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for Birdman ‡ 2015 – Alejandro G. Iñárritu for The Revenant † 2017 – Guillermo del Toro for The Shape of Water ‡ 2018 – Alfonso Cuarón for Roma † As of the 91st Academy Awards, seven Oceanic directors have been nominated a total of eleven times in this category, one has won the award. 1942 – John Farrow for Wake Island † 1983 – Bruce Beresford for Tender Mercies † 1985 – Peter Weir for Witness † 1989 – Peter Weir for Dead Poets Society † 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 1995 – Chris Noonan for Babe † 1998 – Peter Weir for The Truman Show 2001 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring † 2003 – Peter Jackson for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King ‡ 2003 – Peter Weir for Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World † 2015 – George Miller for Mad Max: Fury Road † As of the 91st Academy Awards, five female directors have been nominated a total of five times in the category, one has won the award.
1976 – Lina Wertmüller for Seven Beauties 1993 – Jane Campion for The Piano † 2003 – Sofia Coppola for Lost in Translation † 2009 – Kathryn Bigelow for The Hurt Locker ‡ 2017 – Greta Gerwig for Lady Bird §† As of the 91st Academy Awards, twenty-five directors of non-English language films have been nominated a total of thirty times in this category, one has won the award. 1961 - Federico Fellini for La Dolce Vita, Italian 1962 - Pietro Germi for Divorce Italian Style, Italian 1963 - Federico Fellini for 8½, Italian 1964 - Michael Cacoyannis for Zorba the Greek, Greek 1965 -
Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township. As of the 2010 United States Census, the municipality's population was 28,572, reflecting the former township's population of 16,265, along with the 12,307 in the former borough. Princeton was founded before the American Revolution, it is the home of Princeton University, which bears its name and moved to the community in 1756 from its previous location in Newark. Although its association with the university is what makes Princeton a college town, other important institutions in the area include the Institute for Advanced Study, Westminster Choir College, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton Theological Seminary, Opinion Research Corporation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Siemens Corporate Research, SRI International, FMC Corporation, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Amrep and Dwight, Berlitz International, Dow Jones & Company.
Princeton is equidistant from New York City and Philadelphia. It is close to many major highways that serve both cities, receives major television and radio broadcasts from each, it is close to Trenton, New Jersey's capital city, Edison. The New Jersey governor's official residence has been in Princeton since 1945, when Morven in what was Princeton Borough became the first Governor's mansion, it was replaced by the larger Drumthwacket, a colonial mansion located in the former Township. Morven became a museum property of the New Jersey Historical Society. Princeton was ranked 15th of the top 100 towns in the United States to Live and Work In by Money Magazine in 2005. Throughout much of its history, the community was composed of two separate municipalities: a township and a borough; the central borough was surrounded by the township. The borough seceded from the township in 1894 in a dispute over school taxes. Princeton Borough contained Nassau Street, the main commercial street, most of the University campus, incorporated most of the urban area until the postwar suburbanization.
The borough and township had equal populations. The Lenni Lenape Native Americans were the earliest identifiable inhabitants of the Princeton area. Europeans founded their settlement in the late part of the 17th century; the first European to find his home in the boundaries of the future town was Henry Greenland. He built his house in 1683 along with a tavern. In this drinking hole representatives of West Jersey and East Jersey met to set boundaries for the location of the township. Princeton was known only as part of nearby Stony Brook. Nathaniel Fitz Randolph, a native of the town, attested in his private journal on December 28, 1758, that Princeton was named in 1724 upon the making/construction of the first house in the area by James Leonard, who first referred to the town as Princetown when describing the location of his large estate in his diary; the town bore a variety of names subsequently, including: Princetown, Prince's Town and Princeton. Although there is no official documentary backing, the town is considered to be named after King William III, Prince William of Orange of the House of Nassau.
Another theory suggests that the name came from a large land-owner named Henry Prince, but no evidence backs this contention. A royal prince seems a more eponym for the settlement, as three nearby towns had similar names: Kingston and Princessville; when Richard Stockton, one of the founders of the township, died in 1709 he left his estate to his sons, who helped to expand property and the population. Based on the 1880 United States Census, the population of the town comprised 3,209 persons. Local population has expanded from the nineteenth century. According to the 2010 Census, Princeton Borough had 12,307 inhabitants, while Princeton Township had 16,265; the numbers have become stagnant. Aside from housing the university of the same name, the settlement suffered the revolutionary Battle of Princeton in 1777, when George Washington forced the British to evacuate southern New Jersey. After the victory, the town hosted the first Legislature under the State Constitution to decide the State's seal and organization of its government.
In addition, two of the original signers of the Declaration of Independence—Richard Stockton and John Witherspoon lived in Princeton. Princetonians honored their citizens' legacy by naming two streets in the downtown area after them. On January 10, 1938 Henry Ewing Hale called for a group of citizens to discuss opening a "Historical Society of Princeton." The Bainbridge House would be dedicated for this purpose. The house was used once for a meeting of Continental Congress in 1783, a general office, as the Princeton Public Library; the House is owned by Princeton University and is leased to the Princeton Historical Society for one dollar per year. The house has kept its original staircase and paneled walls. Around 70% of the house has been unaltered. Aside from safety features such as wheelchair access and electrical work, the house was has been restored to its original look. During the most stirring events in its history, Princeton was a wide spot in the ro