Damnatio memoriae

Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", indicating that a person is to be excluded from official accounts. There are and have been many routes to damnatio, including the destruction of depictions, the removal of names from inscriptions and documents, large-scale rewritings of history; the term can be applied to other instances of official scrubbing. In Latin, the term damnatio memoriae was not used by the ancient Romans; the first appearance of the phrase is in a dissertation written in Germany in 1689. The term is used in modern scholarship to cover a wide array of official and unofficial sanctions whereby the physical remnants of a deceased individual were destroyed to differing degrees. By design, evidence of this practice is scarce. One example of damnatio memoriae, or oblivion, as a punishment was meted out by the peoples of Ephesus after Herostratus set fire to the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of antiquity; the Romans, who viewed it as a punishment worse than death, adopted this practice.

Felons would be erased from history for the crimes they had committed. The sense of the expression damnatio memoriae and of the sanction is to cancel every trace of the person from the life of Rome, as if they had never existed, in order to preserve the honour of the city. In a city that stressed social appearance and the pride of being a true Roman as a fundamental requirement of the citizen, it was the severest punishment. In ancient Roman society, "a Roman's house was perceived as an extension of the self, signalling to divine protectors and social and genealogical status to the world outside." Just as the domus would have been seen as an extension of the self, memory was thought of as one of the best ways to understand the self. In a society without much written documentation, memory training was a big part of Roman education. Orators and poets alike used memory training devices or memory palaces to help give speeches or tell long epic poems. In The Natural History, Pliny writes:It would be far from easy to pronounce what person has been the most remarkable for the excellence of his memory, that blessing so essential for the enjoyment of life, there being so many that were celebrated for it.

King Cyrus knew all the soldiers of his army by name: L. Scipio the names of all the Roman people. Memory palaces provided an aid for remembering certain key ideas. By assigning locations in their homes for different ideas, poets or the like could walk back and forth through their house, recalling ideas with every step. Memory training oven involved assigning ideas to wall paintings, floor mosaics, sculptures that adorned many ancient Roman homes; the punishment of damnatio memoriae involved altering the rooms, many times destroying or tampering with the art in their homes as well, so the house would no longer be identifiable as the perpetrator's home. This would in turn, erase the perpetrator's existence. In ancient Rome, the practice of damnatio memoriae was the condemnation of Roman elites and emperors after their deaths. If the senate or a emperor did not like the acts of an individual, they could have his property seized, his name erased and his statues reworked; because there is an economic incentive to seize property and rework statues and archaeologists have had difficulty determining when official damnatio memoriae took place, although it seems to have been quite rare.

Compounding this difficulty is the fact that a successful damnatio memoriae results – by definition – in the full and total erasure of the subject from the historical record. In actual practice however it is unlikely that such complete success was possible except in cases where the individual in question was of limited contemporary notability, as comprehensive obliteration of the person's existence and actions in records and the like would continue to be visible without extensive reworking; the impracticality of such a cover-up could be vast – in the case of Emperor Geta, for example, it appears that coins bearing his effigy continued to circulate for years after his condemnation though the mere mention of his name was punishable by death. Difficulties in implementation arose if there was not full and enduring agreement with the punishment, such as when the senate's condemnation of Nero was implemented – leading to attacks on many of his statues – but subsequently evaded with the enormous funeral he was given by Vitellius.

There was little to prevent historians "resurrecting" the memory of the sanctioned person. In the Middle Ages, heresiarchs could have their memory condemned; the Council of Constance decreed the damnatio memoriae of John Wycliffe. Examples of damnatio memoriae in modern times include the removal of statues of Stalin and other Communist leaders in the former Soviet Union. Ukraine dismantled all 1,320 statues of Lenin after its independence, as well as renaming roads and structures named under Soviet authority. In a somewhat analogous fashion, in the United States, the monument for the Battle of Saratoga has a blank niche where Benedict Arnold's name is missing from the list of victorious generals. Various other Revolutionary War monuments either omit his name, or in the case of West Point, anonymously list only his rank and date of birth; the treatment of Chinese Statesman Zhao Ziyang following his fall from grace inside the Chinese Communist Party is regarded as a modern case of Damnatio Memoriae.

The diplomatic practice of persona non grata has thematic similarities to damnatio memoriae. Looking at cases of damnatio memoriae in modern Irish history, Guy Beiner has argued that iconoclastic vandal

Jack Dale Mengenen

Jack Dale Mengenen was an Australian indigenous artist and folklorist. He was a "custodian" of the traditional culture and beliefs of his Ngarinyin people, who inhabited the King Leopold Ranges of the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Mengenen preserved the Dreaming stories of the Ngarinyin. Mengenen is believed to have been born circa 1922 in Mount House Station, eastern Kimberley, Western Australia, his father, Jack Dale, was of Scottish descent, while his mother, was indigenous aboriginal and member of the Komaduwah clan who had traditionally lived on the land held by the Mount House Pastoral Lease. Mixed race children were killed at birth in Western Australia, but Mengenen's life was spared, his father was a violent man, known to have murdered indigenous laborers in the area. He once shot his own son, in the leg when he tried to run away. After Mengenen's father died an early, violent death, Mengenen fled into the rural Kimberley with his Ngarinyin mother, who raised him according to indigenous traditions.

He avoided Australian authorities. In 1942, Mengenen survived the Japanese attack on Broome, Western Australia, narrowly avoiding strafing from a plane, his friend was killed in the raid. He worked forty-six cattle stations throughout Western Australia as stockman, he did not begin painting art until his retirement from that line of work. Other notable indigenous Australian artists who began artistic careers after leaving cattle ranching included Paddy Bedford, Jack Britten, Queenie McKenzie, Rover Thomas. In 2000, Neil McLeod, an art dealer from the Burrinja Gallery in Melbourne, persuaded Mengenen to begin creating art based on his life and his indigenous Ngarinyin culture. Mengenen traveled to Melbourne to meet with McLeod in March 2000, marking the first time that he had left Western Australia. Mengenen produced hundreds of other pieces through his collaboration with McLeod, he formed a close friendship with McLeod. Mengenen's first solo exhibition was held at the Flinders Lane Gallery in Melbourne in 2000.

Examples of his portfolio of work are housed in public and private collections worldwide, including the National Museum of Australia, the Art Gallery of Western Australia, National Parliament Collection in Canberra. A major exhibition of his work was held at the Yapa Gallery in France. Jack Dale Mengenen survived 2 major strokes in 2008 and was admitted to the Numbla Nunga nursing home in Derby, it was not expected. He managed to make a remarkable recovery and created some of his best work with fellow artist and friend Mark Norval during 2012; these paintings were exhibited at the Sydney's Kate Owen Gallery in November 2012. Jack Dale Mengenen died in Derby, Western Australia, on 8 February 2013, at the age of 92, he is buried at the Derby cemetery. He was survived by his wife, Biddy Dale, daughter, Edna Dale, who are both artists based in Kimberley

Saroj Mohan Institute of Technology

Saroj Mohan Institute of Technology is a co-educational private engineering college located in Guptipara, West Bengal, India. SMIT is affiliated to Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, West Bengal and approved by All India Council for Technical Education. SMIT's undergraduate courses offer B. Tech. in several disciplines, including Information Technology. It offers bachelor's degree in several management courses - Bachelor of Business Administration and Bachelor of Computer Applications. Elementary Library Various Laboratories Extra Curricular Activity Podium Workshops Placement Cell Boys and Girls Hostel Computer labs Internet Access Cafeteria Pictures Video Universities and colleges in India Education in India West Bengal University of Technology All India Council of Technical Education Official Website