Damon Graham Devereux Hill, is a British former racing driver. He is the son of Graham Hill, along with Nico Rosberg, one of only two sons of a Formula One world champion to win the title, he started racing on motorbikes in 1981, after minor success moved on to single-seater racing cars. Despite progressing up the ranks to the International Formula 3000 championship by 1989, being competitive, he never won a race at that level. Hill became a test driver for the Formula One title-winning Williams team in 1992, he was promoted to the Williams race team the following year after Riccardo Patrese's departure and took the first of his 22 victories at the 1993 Hungarian Grand Prix. During the mid-1990s, Hill was Michael Schumacher's main rival for the Formula One Drivers' Championship, which saw the two clash several times on and off the track, their collision at the 1994 Australian Grand Prix gave Schumacher his first title by a single point. Hill was dropped by Williams for the following season, he went on to drive for the less competitive Arrows and Jordan teams, in 1998 gave Jordan their first win.
Hill retired from racing after the 1999 season. He has since launched several businesses and has made appearances playing the guitar with celebrity bands. In 2006, he became president of the British Racing Drivers' Club. Hill was succeeded by Derek Warwick, he presided over the securing of a 17-year contract for Silverstone to hold Formula One races, which enabled the circuit to see extensive renovation work. Hill works as part of the Sky Sports F1 broadcasting team. Hill was born in London, to Graham and Bette Hill. Graham Hill was a racing driver in the international Formula One series, he won the world Drivers' Championship in 1962 and 1968 and became a well-known personality in the United Kingdom. Graham Hill's career provided a comfortable living. Bette was a former medalist at the European Rowing Championships. By 1975 the family lived in a "25-room country mansion" in Hertfordshire and Damon attended the independent The Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School; the death of his father in an aeroplane crash in 1975 left the 15-year-old Hill, his mother, sisters Samantha and Brigitte in drastically reduced circumstances.
Hill worked as a motorcycle courier to support his further education. Hill is married to Susan George and they have four children: Oliver, Joshua and Rosie. Oliver was born with Down syndrome and Hill and Georgie are both patrons of the Down's Syndrome Association. In 2008, Hill became the first patron of St. Joseph's Specialist School and College, a school for children with severe learning disabilities and autism in Cranleigh, Surrey. Joshua started racing in 2008, competing in the British Formula Renault Championship in 2011. On 9 July 2013 Joshua announced his retirement from motor racing. Hill is a supporter of Arsenal FC. Hill started his motorsport career in motorcycle racing in 1981, he used the same simple identifiable helmet design as his father: eight white oar blades arranged vertically around the upper surface of a dark blue helmet. The device and colours represent the London Rowing Club for which Graham Hill rowed in the early 1950s. Although he won a 350 cc clubman's championship at the Brands Hatch circuit, his racing budget came from working as a building labourer and he "didn't look destined for great things" according to Motorcycle News reporter Rob McDonnell.
He worked as a dispatch rider for Special Delivery, a London motorcycle dispatch company and was provided TZ350 racing bikes by them. His mother, concerned about the dangers of racing motorcycles, persuaded him to take a racing car course at the Winfield Racing School in France in 1983. Although he showed "above-average aptitude", Hill had only sporadic single-seater races until the end of 1984, he graduated through British Formula Ford, winning six races driving a Van Diemen for Manadient Racing in 1985, his first full season in cars, finishing third and fifth in the two UK national championships. He took third place in the final of the 1985 Formula Ford Festival, helping the UK to win the team prize. For 1986, Hill planned to move up to the British Formula Three Championship with title-winning team West Surrey Racing; the loss of sponsorship from Ricoh, the death of his proposed teammate Bertrand Fabi in a testing accident, ended Hill's proposed drive. Hill says "When Bert was killed, I took the conscious decision that I wasn't going to stop doing that sort of thing.
It's not just competing, it's doing something more exciting. I'm at racing or whatever, and I'm more frightened of letting it all slip and reaching 60 and finding I've done nothing." Hill borrowed £100,000 to finance his racing and had a steady first season for Murray Taylor Racing in 1986 before taking a brace of wins in each of the following years for Intersport. He finished third in the 1988 championship. In Europe in the 1990s, a successful driver would progress from Formula Three either directly to Formula One, the pinnacle of the sport, or to the International Formula 3000 championship. However, Hill did not have enough sponsorship available to fund a drive in F3000, he says "I ended up having to reappraise my career a bit. The first thing was to realise. I made the decision that whatever I drove I would do it to the best of my ability and see where it led." He took a one-off drive in the lower level British F3000 championship and shared a Porsche 962 at Le Mans fo
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1470. Benin Empire – Ewuare the Great, Oba of Benin Bornu Empire – Ali Gazi, King of the Bornu Empire Ethiopian Empire – Baeda Maryam I Adal Sultanate – Muhammad ibn Badlay Jolof Empire - Birayma N'dyeme Eter, Buur-ba Jolof of the Jolof Empire Kingdom of Kongo – Nkuwu a Ntinu, Manikongo João I, Manikongo Mali Empire – Uli II Kingdom of Mutapa – Matope Nyanhehwe Nebedza Kingdom of Rwanda - Yuhi wa II Gahima II Songhai Empire – Sonni Ali Aztec Empire – Axayacatl Chimor – Minchancaman, last King of Chimor Inca Empire – Pachacuti Muisca Confederation zaque Hunzahúa, Michuá zipa Meicuchuca, Saguamanchica Ahom kingdom- Susenphaa Ayutthaya Kingdom – Borommatrailokkanat, King of Ayutthaya China - Chenghua Emperor Delhi Sultanate – Bahlul Khan Lodi Japan Monarch – Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado Ashikaga shogunate - Ashikaga Yoshimasa Kazakh Khanate - Janybek Khan and Kerey Khan, founders and Co-rulers of the Kazakh Khanate.
Janybek and Kerey respectively. Joseon – Seongjong Queen Jeonghui, Grand Queen Dowager and Co-Regent Ladakh – Lhachen Bhagan Malacca – Mansur Shah of Malacca Ryukyu Kingdom – Shō En Timurid Empire - Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara, Ruler of the Timurid Empire Yadgar Muhammad Mirza, Ruler of the Timurid Empire Đại Việt - Lê Thánh Tông, Emperor Vijayanagara Empire – Virupaksha Raya II Andorra Gaston IV, Count of Foix and Co-Prince of Andorra, Roderic de Borja i Escrivà, Bishop of Urgell and Co-Prince of Andorra, Crown of Aragon – John II Kingdom of Bohemia – George of Poděbrady Duchy of Burgundy – Charles I Crown of Castile – Henry IV, King of Castile and Leon Principality of Catalonia – René I Crimean Khanate - Meñli I Giray, Khan of Crimea Denmark and Norway – Christian I of Denmark, King of Denmark, King of Norway Kingdom of England – Edward IV Henry VI of England Kingdom of France - Louis XI Kingdom of Georgia – Bagrat VI Granada - Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of Granada, Holy Roman Empire – Frederick III Republic of Florence – Lorenzo de' Medici and Giuliano de' Medici, Co-rulers of Florence, Duchy of Milan – Galeazzo Maria Sforza Kingdom of Hungary – Matthias Corvinus Khanate of Kazan – Ibrahim of Kazan Principality of Moldavia – Stephen the Great Monaco – Lamberto, Lord of Monaco Grand Duchy of Moscow – Ivan III Kingdom of Naples – Ferdinand I Kingdom of Navarre – Eleanor Ottoman Empire – Mehmed II, the Conqueror, Ottoman Sultan Papal States – Pope Paul II, Polish–Lithuanian union – Casimir IV, Grand Prince of Lithuania, King of Poland Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves – Afonso V Kingdom of Scotland – James III of Scotland Kingdom of Sweden – Carl VIII, King of Sweden Sten Sture the Elder, Regent of Sweden Republic of Venice – Cristoforo Moro Doge of Venice Principality of Wallachia – Radu cel Frumos Aq Qoyunlu – Uzun Hassan Kingdom of Cyprus – James II of Cyprus Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt – Qait Bay Ifriqiya - Uthman, Hafsid dynasty Caliph of Ifriqiya Hawaii – Liloa, Alii Nui of Hawaii Tonga – Kauʻulufonua I, Tuʻi Tonga Moʻungāmotuʻa, Tu'i Ha'atakalaua
A tetraneutron is a hypothetical stable cluster of four neutrons. The existence of this cluster of particles is not supported by current models of nuclear forces. There is some empirical evidence suggesting that this particle does exist, based on a 2001 experiment by Francisco-Miguel Marqués and co-workers at the Ganil accelerator in Caen using a novel detection method in observations of the disintegration of beryllium and lithium nuclei. However, subsequent attempts to replicate this observation have failed. Further work in 2019 suggests observable consequences in neutron star crusts, if the tetraneutron exists; as with many particle accelerator experiments, Marques' team fired atomic nuclei at carbon targets and observed the "spray" of particles from the resulting collisions. In this case the experiment involved firing beryllium-14, beryllium-15 and lithium-11 nuclei at a small carbon target, the most successful being beryllium-14; this isotope of beryllium has a nuclear halo. Current nuclear models suggest that four separate neutrons should result when beryllium-10 is produced, but the single signal detected in the production of beryllium-10 suggested a multineutron cluster in the breakup products.
A analysis of the detection method used in the Marques' experiment suggested that at least part of the original analysis was flawed, attempts to reproduce these observations with different methods have not detected any neutron clusters. If, the existence of stable tetraneutrons were independently confirmed, considerable adjustments would have to be made to current nuclear models. Bertulani and Zelevinsky proposed that, if it existed, the tetraneutron could be formed by a bound state of two dineutron systems. However, attempts to model interactions that might give rise to multineutron clusters have failed, it "does not seem possible to change modern nuclear Hamiltonians to bind a tetraneutron without destroying many other successful predictions of those Hamiltonians; this means that, should a recent experimental claim of a bound tetraneutron be confirmed, our understanding of nuclear forces will have to be changed."In 2016 researchers at RIKEN in Wako, Japan observed evidence that the tetraneutron exists as a resonance.
They fired a beam of neutron-rich helium-8 nuclei at a liquid target composed of helium-4. The reaction produced beryllium-8 nuclei with four protons and four neutrons, leaving four neutrons unaccounted for. If a four-neutron nucleus did occur, it lasted for about 10−21 seconds before decaying into other particles. Neutronium Announcement of possible tetraneutron observations Announcement of possible tetraneutron observations Announcement of possible tetraneutron observations