Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Damour river or is a 37.5-kilometre coastal river in the Mount Lebanon Governorate in Lebanon. The river’s headwaters originate in and around the slopes of the 1943-meter peak Jabal el-Barouk, site of a nature preserve where some of Lebanon’s largest and oldest Cedars of Lebanon are found, flows west through the Jisr Al-Kadi valley, where it receives water from the creeks of the Chouf mountains; the river flows towards the Mediterranean Sea, south of Damour, both the largest town on its banks and the one which bears the river’s name. During the Phoenician time, Canaanite people being affected by drought seasons, called the river "Damoros" ancient Tamyrus, in attribution of'Damoros' god of immortality, related to'Achtarout', god of love and beauty; this attribution symbolised the immortality of the river'Arabic: النهر الدامر' and the beauty of the region. In 1302, the river being a strategic point towards the holy land, a crusade battle took place on its edge. Following the battle, French crusaders nicknamed the river "Fleuve D'amour".
The city was founded on the river's edge by poor people who wanted to charge the right of way to the emirs. Because the river have big flow rate in the winter season, residents assured the transport of passengers from side to other, obliging passengers to pay dearly for this service
Elie Saab is a Lebanese fashion designer. His main workshop is with additional workshops in Milan and Paris, he started his business in the specialized in bridal couture. He is the first Arab to be admitted to the fashion industry’s governing body, Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture. Saab appeared as a judge on Project Runway: Middle East in 2016; as of March 2017, his couture collections are available in Paris and Beirut, while his ready-to-wear clothes were in 160 retailers and his own boutiques. Elie Saab is the eldest son of a wood merchant who raised five children in Damour, a southern coastal Beirut suburb. Born to Maronite Catholic parents in Beirut, Saab began sewing as a child. At the age of eight, his attention had turned to fashion. With his sisters serving as models, he would cut patterns out of newspaper and search his mother's closet for materials. In 1981, Saab moved to Paris to study fashion, he dropped out to return to Beirut and open his fashion label. In 1982, when he was 18 years old, he worked with a team of 15 employees.
At first his atelier specialized in bridal couture, making wedding dresses and gowns using expensive fabrics, detailed embroidery, pearls and silk threads. In Beirut his reputation grew from dressing women in his neighborhood, was soon enhanced by high society women sporting his designs. In 1997, Saab was the first non-Italian designer to become a member of the National Chamber of Italian Fashion, in 1997 he showed his first collection outside Lebanon in Rome. In 1998, he started his ready-to-wear line in Milan, as well as an accessories line; that year Elie Saab signed a contract with Beauté Prestige International for fragrance and cosmetics. During the same year, Saab held a fashion show in Monaco, with Princess Stéphanie of Monaco in attendance. In 1999, one of his dresses thickly embroidered with emeralds and diamonds was sold for $2.4 million. Saab became more well known in the United States after he became the first Lebanese designer to dress an Oscar winner, Halle Berry, in 2002. In May 2003, the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture invited him to become a member, he showed his first haute couture collection in Paris in July 2003.
In 2003, he teamed up with Pronovias to create Elie by Elie Saab. The Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture inducted him as a membre correspondent in 2006, his first ready-to-wear collection in Paris was the Spring-Summer 2006 collection. Saab, Tina Knowles, House of Deréon, Giorgio Armani and Herve Leger served as the designers for the outfits of the 2007 The Beyoncé Experience tour. In 2010, Saab dressed 102 celebrities for events overall, up from 40 in 2009; the figure for 2011, up until March, was 88. In 2011, Madame Tussauds unveiled a wax statue of Kate Winslet draped in the Elie Saab dress she wore at 63rd Primetime Emmy Awards. In 2011, Elie Saab launched his first fragrance Le Parfum. In 2012, he worked with the Lebanese American University and London College of Fashion to launch a bachelor’s degree in fashion design; as of 2013, the brand had boutiques located in Beirut, Doha, London, Hong Kong, New York City, Mexico, with 100 retail outlets total. Saab's son, Elie Saab Jr, became brand director in 2013.
Saab appeared as a judge on Project Runway: Middle East in 2016. Between 2015 and 2017, the Elie Saab company opened a second Paris boutique and a new location in London's Mayfair, in Manhattan; the Manhattan store that opened in October 2016 was his first in the country. As of March 2017, his couture collections are available in Paris and Beirut, while his ready-to-wear clothes were in 160 retailers and his own boutiques; that month, the Elie Saab company opened a new Madison Avenue store. The Lebanese fashion designer and the real estate development company Emaar reveal luxurious Elie Saab at Emaar Beachfront property in Dubai; the luxurious gated island property, Grand Bleu Tower at Emaar Beachfront, will include one,two and three-bedroom apartments as well as four-bedroom penthouses with interiors by Elie Saab. The residential tower boasts views of The Palm and Dubai Marina, he has been worn by Queen Rania of Jordan, Crown Princess of Sweden, Princess Madeleine of Sweden, Princess Maria-Olympia of Greece and Stéphanie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Luxembourg.
In 1999, Queen Rania of Jordan wore Elie Saab for her enthronement. Countess Stéphanie and the Hereditary Grand Duke married in a civil ceremony married in 2012, where the bride wore a dress designed by Elie Saab. Princess Claire of Luxembourg wore an Saab-designed dress on her wedding. First Lady of France Brigitte Macron wore an Elie Saab outfit of military coat and skinny trousers during a state visit to China. Halle Berry wore a burgundy gown by Saab to the 2002 Academy Awards. In a poll by Debenhams published in The Daily Telegraph the dress was voted the 8th greatest red carpet gown of all time. Cosmopolitan magazine cited the dress as one of the Best Oscar dresses of all time. Berry wore another dress by Saab to the 2003 Oscars. Sandra Bullock wore Elie Saab at the 85th Academy Awards in 2013 and at the world premiere of the movie Ocean's 8 in New York. In 2018, Rose Leslie wore a floral embroidered Elie Saab wedding dress when she wed her Game of Thrones co-star Kit Harington. Other notable clients of Saab's work have included Nicole Kidman, Eva Green, Yulia Alipova, Nicki Minaj, Beyoncé, Aishwarya Rai, Anna Kendrick, Christina Aguilera, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Angelina Jolie, Celine Dion, Elena Anaya, Elsa Zylberstein, Heidi Klum, Karlie Kloss, Helen Mirren, Emilia Clarke, Priyanka Cho
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Mount Lebanon is a mountain range in Lebanon. It averages above 2,500 m in elevation; the Mount Lebanon range extends along the entire country for about 170 km, parallel to the Mediterranean coast. Their highest peak is Qurnat as Sawda', at 3,088 m; the range receives a substantial amount of precipitation, including snow, which averages around 4 m deep. Lebanon has been defined by the mountains, which provided protection for the local population. In Lebanon, changes in scenery are related less to geographical distances than to altitudes; the mountains were known for their pine forests. The last remaining old growth groves of the famous Cedar of Lebanon are on the high slopes of Mount Lebanon, in the Cedars of God World Heritage Site; the Phoenicians used the forests from Mount Lebanon to build their ship fleet and to trade with their Levantine neighbors. The Phoenicians and successor rulers replanted and restocked the range; the name Mount Lebanon traces back to the Semitic root LBN, meaning "white" a reference to the snow-covered mountains.
Mount Lebanon is mentioned in the Old Testament several times. King Hiram I of Tyre sent engineers with Cedar wood, abundant in Mount Lebanon, to build the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem. Since the Cedar species known scientifically as Cedrus libani is associated with Mount Lebanon; the Phoenicians used cedar to build ships in which they sailed the Mediterranean, thus they were the first to establish villages in Mount Lebanon and would live from cutting down Cedars and sending them to the coast. Eusebius records that the Emperor Constantine destroyed a temple of Venus'on the summit of Mount Lebanon.' After the 5th century AD, Christian monks who were followers of a hermit named Maron, arrived from the Orontes valley in Northern Syria and began preaching their religion to the inhabitants of the northernmost parts of the mountain range. In the late 8th century a group known as the Mardaites settled in North Lebanon following the order of the Byzantine Emperor, they merged with the local population, refusing to leave after the emperor struck a deal with the Muslim Caliph of Damascus.
In 1291 after the fall of Acre, the last crusader outpost in the Levant, the remnants of the European settlers who succeeded in escaping capture by the Mamelukes, settled in the Northern part of Lebanon and become part of the Maronite society. In the 9th century AD, tribes from the "Jabal el Summaq" area north of Aleppo in Syria began settling the southern half of the mountain range; these tribes were known as the Tanoukhiyoun and in the 11th century they converted to the Druze faith and ruled the areas of Mount Lebanon stretching from Metn in the north to Jezzine in the south. This entire area became known as the ‘Jabal ad-Duruz’. In the early 17th century, Emir Fakhr-al-Din II ascended the throne in the Druze part of the mountains known as the Chouf. In an effort to unify Mount Lebanon, Emir Fakhreddine opened the door to Christians and in particular the Maronite settlement of the Chouf and Metn. Throughout the 18th century and into the 19th century more and more Maronites settled in the Druze regions of the Mount.
The Druze viewed these Maronite settlements as a threat to their power in Mount Lebanon and in a series of clashes in the 1840s and 1860s, a miniature civil war erupted in the area resulting in the massacre of thousands of Christians. The Druze won militarily, but not politically, because European powers intervened on behalf of the Maronites and divided Mount Lebanon into two areas. Seeing their authority decline in Mount Lebanon, a few Lebanese Druze began migrating to the new Jabal ad-Duruz in southern Syria. In 1861, the "Mount Lebanon" autonomous district was established within the Ottoman system, under an international guarantee. For centuries, the Maronites of the region have been protected by the noble Khazen family, endowed the responsibility by Pope Clement X and King Louis XIV and given Cheikh status in return for guarding the princes Fakhr-al-Din II and Younès al-Maani; the Khazen crest reflects the family's special closeness to Mount Lebanon, with snowy mountains and a cedar tree depicted.
Mount Lebanon lent its name to two political designations: a semi-autonomous province in Ottoman Syria that existed since 1516 and the central Governorate of modern Lebanon. The Mount Lebanon administrative region emerged in a time of rise of nationalism after the civil war of 1860: France intervened on behalf of the local Christian population and Britain on behalf of the Druze after the 1860 massacres, when 10,000 Christians were killed in clashes with the Druze. In 1861 the "Mount Lebanon" autonomous district was established within the Ottoman system, under an international guarantee, it was ruled by a non-Lebanese Christian subject of the Ottoman Empire known locally as the "Mutasarrıf". Christians formed the majority of the population of Mount Lebanon, with a significant number of Druze. For decades the Christians pressured the European powers, to award them self determination by extending their small Lebanese territory to what they dubbed "Greater Lebanon", referring to a geographic unit comprising Mount Lebanon and its coast, the Beqaa Valley to its east.
After the First World War, France took hold of the Ottoman holdings in the norther
Battle of Damour
The Battle of Damour was the final major operation of the Australian forces during the Syria-Lebanon Campaign of World War II. In 1941, Damour was the French administrative capital. Damour is a large town on the coast of Lebanon and is 30 kilometres south of Beirut; the Wadi Damour, with the Damour River in its bed, was a further three kilometres to the south of the town. These features were the last major natural obstacles that had to be crossed prior to reaching Beirut. Having captured the heights overlooking Damour on the south bank of the wadi, the plan developed by Major General Arthur "Tubby" Allen, commanding the 7th Australian Division, involved encircling the Vichy French positions at Damour. On the night of 5 July 1941, the operation began with troops of the 21st Brigade moving into position to cross the Damour River in two places. Early on 6 July, the Australians attacked Vichy French positions on the northern side; the 2/16th Battalion attacked at El Atiqa. The 2/27th Battalion attacked at El Boum.
By nightfall, both positions were in Australian hands. In the early hours of 7 July, the 2/3rd Battalion and the 2/5th Battalion, along with two companies of the 2/14th Battalion, moved northwards through El Boum, they outflanked Damour to the east. At Daraya, the 2/14th companies swung west to advance on Damour from the east, while the 2/3rd Battalion and the 2/5th Battalion continued north to cut the road to Beirut north of the town. On 8 July, the Australians accomplished cutting the road. In the south, the 2/2nd Pioneer Battalion and elements of the 6th Divisional Cavalry Regiment were advancing along the axis of the coastal road. By 2 am on 9 July, the Pioneers were advancing into the southern outskirts of the town. At 4 am a patrol from the cavalry were able to drive right through Damour; the remaining Vichy French forces had managed to slip out of the Australian encirclement and had withdrawn from Damour. The Australians began pushing along the coastal road towards Beirut. After the Battle of Damour, the fate of Beirut was sealed.
On 8 July before the fall of Damour, the Vichy French commander, General Henri Dentz, had sought an armistice. At one minute past midnight on 12 July a ceasefire came into effect. For all intents and purposes, this ended the campaign. Arthur Roden Cutler Long, Gavin. "Chapters 24 & 25". Greece and Syria. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 1 – Army. Volume II. Canberra: Australian War Memorial