Sky Sports News
Sky Sports News is a British pay television sports news channel run by Sky, a division of Comcast. It is broadcast in the Republic of Ireland and Nordic countries; the channel reports on a range of sports. The programming is presented by two anchors in the studio who read the news or introduce short clips featuring highlights and interviews. Tabs at the bottom of the screen give unrelated information on other sports, while a sidebar shows unrelated league tables or other information; the content of the main studio feed repeats. The live programming is from 6:00am to midnight, it plays the replay edition of Through the Night continuously all night long. On 20 May 2007, SSN broadcast the Conference National play-off Final between Exeter City and Morecambe; this was the first live match to be shown on the channel since certain European games involving British teams were shown to provide exclusivity when competing with the operational OnSports as Sky Sports News was not available at that time via digital terrestrial platforms.
This was due to all other Sky Sports channels being occupied by live sport. This enabled Freeview viewers to watch a live match on Sky Sports; the station had live coverage of Wales v New Zealand on 26 May 2007 and the La Liga tie between Espanyol and Barcelona in December 2007. Sky Sports News launched on 1 October 1998, the launch date of BSkyB's Digital Satellite service, was BSkyB's first digital only channel. On 10 April 2000, SSN relaunched as Sky Sports.com TV, to tie with the launch of the SkySports.com website. The channel scrapped its ".com TV" look, on 1 July 2001, Sky Sports News launched another graphics change. A major part of this was the standardisation; the channel scrapped its slogan and just paid attention to the fact of the news. From April 2002, Sky Sports News had another face-lift; the channel stayed in the same studio, but with a silver look replacing the old wooden bench, there was a promise of being first for breaking news, along with much more useful information. In 2004, Sky Sports News changed its image, with a more open blue look to the channel.
The titles featured players such as Frank Lampard, Tim Cahill, Thierry Henry and Ryan Giggs passing the football to each other and unveiling the Sky Sports News logo. Programmes such as Ford Sports Centre were dropped, replaced with shows such as Sky Sports Now, Sky Sports Today, Sports Saturday, Sports Sunday, Good Morning Sports Fans, Through the Night, News HQ at 5, News HQ at 6, Gillette Soccer Special, Goals Express, Today's Goals Now and Sky Sports News at Ten; the channel previously used a different piece of music for each news programme, the most well-known of these being Republica's "Ready to Go", "The Time Is Now" by Moloko, "Surface to Air" by The Chemical Brothers, "Shooting Star" by Deepest Blue, "Club Foot" by Kasabian. Sky Sports News was rebranded as Sky Sports News HQ on 12 August 2014; the new studio includes an 18 square-metre video wall. As part of the change the channel moved to Sky channel 401. New graphics were introduced, as part of the launch. Following the rebrand of the Sky Sports channels in July 2017, the channel was once again renamed Sky Sports News.
A new look for the channel was introduced at 07:00 on 5 August 2007, in time for the 2007–08 football season. The main presentation structure was retained, including the right-hand information box displaying transfers and league table; the ticker at the bottom of the screen was retained, however changed from white to red, with the yellow and black breaking news ticker being tweaked but is similar to before. A black and white bar was added, this is visible for when a sports personality has died; the news ticker changed from blue to white, had a tabbed effect showing the viewer what headlines are coming next. Along with the changes to on-screen presentation, the revamp included a new studio, new title sequences and a new theme tune. All of the old music was replaced and every show used the track "Requiem for a Tower, Movement 4" by Corner Stone Cues. On 5 August 2009, the channel received a small make-over with new music sequence and a new font used for all on-screen displays. On 6 January 2010, the channel underwent another slight revamp to the side graphics.
In August 2010, the channel received an updated graphics package including new titles and side graphics in-line with the launch of Sky Sports News HD. On 4 July 2011, Sky Sports News HD moved to a new studio in Sky Studios and with that came a minor change to on-screen graphics and side graphics. On 22 April 2013, Sky Sports News revamped their onscreen graphics setup, now using more red and white colours on the information displays; this graphic was started using in Sky Sport 24 in Italia and Sky Sport News HD in Germany. Both of these channels provide rolling sports news coverage. In August 2014, Sky Sports News was rebranded as Sky Sports News HQ and moved to Channel 401 to be at the forefront of Sky Sports channels. Within this introduction the channel introduced an updated studio including brand new features, overhauled graphics and a new theme. On 18 July 2017, Sky Sports News HQ reverted to Sky Sports News and moved to Channel 409 in line with the expansion and rebranding of all Sky Sports Channels.
Sky Sports News HD launched on 23 August 2010 on Sky channel 455, transferring to channel 405 several months later. The HD channel offered enhancements such as sharper graphics. A range of new p
A presenter is a person who introduces or hosts television programs. Nowadays, it is common for personalities in other fields to take on this role, but some people have made their name within the field of presenting within children's television series, to become television personalities; some presenters may double as an actor, singer, etc. Others may be subject matter experts, such as scientists or politicians, serving as presenters for a programme about their field of expertise; some are celebrities who have made their name in one area leverage their fame to get involved in other areas. Examples of this latter group include British comedian Michael Palin who now presents programmes about travel, American actor Alan Alda, who presented Scientific American Frontiers for over a decade. Another example would be American stand-up comedian Joe Rogan, a commentator and post-fight interviewer in UFC; the term is used in other countries including Ireland and Sri Lanka. In the US, such a person is called a host, such as in the terminology talk show host, or an MC.
In the context of TV news programs, they are known as anchors. News presenter Radio personality Horror host Sports commentator
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site
Texas hold 'em
Texas hold'em is a variation of the card game of poker. Two cards, known as hole cards, are dealt face down to each player, five community cards are dealt face up in three stages; the stages consist of a series of three cards an additional single card, a final card. Each player seeks the best five card poker hand from any combination of the seven cards of the five community cards and their two hole cards. Players have betting options to check, raise, or fold. Rounds of betting take place before the flop is dealt and after each subsequent deal; the player who has the best hand and has not folded by the end of all betting rounds wins all of the money bet for the hand, known as the pot. Texas hold'em is the H game featured in HORSE and in HOSE. In Texas hold'em, as in all variants of poker, individuals compete for an amount of money or chips contributed by the players themselves; because the cards are dealt randomly and outside the control of the players, each player attempts to control the amount of money in the pot based either on the hand they are holding, or on their prediction as to what their opponents may be holding and how they might behave.
The game is divided into a series of hands. A hand may end at the showdown, in which case the remaining players compare their hands and the highest hand is awarded the pot; the other possibility for the conclusion of a hand occurs when all but one player have folded and have thereby abandoned any claim to the pot, in which case the pot is awarded to the player who has not folded. The objective of winning players is not to win every individual hand, but rather to make mathematically and psychologically better decisions regarding when and how much to bet, call—or fold. By making such decisions to place influential bets, one can non-verbally represent or suggest holding or not-holding a certain or possible hand by either betting or not-betting pre-flop, by venturing smaller or larger bets or raises at more advantageous times, throughout the stages of the hand being dealt. One's pattern of betting may encourage opponents to bet or to fold, without verbalizing a discouraging or dishonest word; the winning poker players know how to enhance their opponents' betting and maximize their own expected gain on each round of betting, to thereby increase their long-term winnings.
Although little is known about the invention of Texas hold'em, the Texas Legislature recognizes Robstown, Texas, as the game's birthplace, dating it to the early 1900s. After the game spread throughout Texas, hold'em was introduced to Las Vegas in 1963 at the California Club by Corky McCorquodale; the game became popular and spread to the Golden Nugget and Dunes. In 1967, a group of Texan gamblers and card players, including Crandell Addington, Doyle Brunson, Amarillo Slim were playing in Las Vegas; this is. Addington said the first time he saw the game was in 1959. "They didn't call it Texas hold'em at the time, they just called it hold'em.… I thought that if it were to catch on, it would become the game. Draw poker, you bet only twice; that meant. This was more of a thinking man's game."For several years the Golden Nugget Casino in Downtown Las Vegas was the only casino in Las Vegas to offer the game. At that time, the Golden Nugget's poker room was "truly a'sawdust joint,' with…oiled sawdust covering the floors."
Because of its location and decor, this poker room did not receive many rich drop-in clients, as a result, professional players sought a more prominent location. In 1969, the Las Vegas professionals were invited to play Texas hold'em at the entrance of the now-demolished Dunes Casino on the Las Vegas Strip; this prominent location, the relative inexperience of poker players with Texas hold'em, resulted in a remunerative game for professional players. After a failed attempt to establish a "Gambling Fraternity Convention", Tom Moore added the first poker tournament to the Second Annual Gambling Fraternity Convention held in 1969; this tournament featured. In 1970, Benny and Jack Binion acquired the rights to this convention, renamed it the World Series of Poker, moved it to their casino, Binion's Horseshoe, in Las Vegas. After its first year, a journalist, Tom Thackrey, suggested that the main event of this tournament should be no-limit Texas hold'em; the Binions agreed and since no-limit Texas hold'em has been played as the main event.
Interest in the main event continued to grow over the next two decades. After receiving only eight entrants in 1972, the numbers grew to over one hundred entrants in 1982, over two hundred in 1991. During this time, B & G Publishing Co. Inc. published Doyle Brunson's revolutionary poker strategy guide, Super/System. Despite being self-published and priced at $100 in 1978, the book revolutionized the way poker was played, it was one of the first books to discuss Texas hold'em, is today cited as one of the most important books on this game. In 1983, Al Alvarez published The Biggest Game in Town, a book detailing a 1981 World Series of Poker event; the first book of its kind, it described the world of professional poker players and the World Series of Poker. Alvarez's book is credited with begin
Aled Jones, is a Welsh singer and radio and television presenter. As a teenage chorister, he reached widespread fame during the mid-1980s. Since he has become well known for his television work with the BBC and ITV, as well as his radio work. In September 2012, Jones joined ITV Breakfast where he presented Daybreak, alongside Lorraine Kelly and Kate Garraway. For the BBC, he has presented Cash in the Attic, Going Back Giving Back. Jones was born in St. David's Hospital in Bangor, the only child of Nest Rowlands, a teacher, Derek John Jones, a draughtsman for a shipbuilder, he was raised in the small Welsh-speaking community of Llandegfan in Anglesey, attended Ysgol David Hughes. Jones joined the choir of Bangor Cathedral at age nine and was lead soloist within two years, although he was never Head Chorister; the remarkable quality of Jones' treble voice was appreciated by a member of the congregation, Hefina Orwig Evans, who wrote a letter to local record company Sain, he was duly signed. In 1982, Jones won the Cerdd Dant solo competitions for competitors under 12 at the Urdd Eisteddfod.
Jones became famous for the cover version of "Walking in the Air", the song from Channel 4's animated film The Snowman, based on the book by Raymond Briggs. The record reached No. 5 in the UK charts in 1985. The version used in the 1982 film was performed by a St. Paul's Cathedral choirboy. In June 1985, Jones was the subject of an Emmy award-winning BBC Omnibus documentary entitled The Treble. Jones, with the National Philharmonic Orchestra, was behind the Santa Claus The Movie, original motion picture soundtrack, Every Christmas Eve of 1985. In 1985, Jones was called by Mike Oldfield to sing on Oldfield's single "Pictures in the Dark", a three-voice song, on which he performed with Anita Hegerland and Barry Palmer, which became popular. In 1986, he sang the theme song for the Siriol Animation film A Winter Story; the song was a modest success. Jones' recording career was temporarily halted when his voice broke at 16. By he had recorded 16 albums, sold more than six million copies, sung for Pope John Paul II, the Queen, the Prince and Princess of Wales in a private recital, as well as presenting numerous children's television programmes.
He sang at the wedding of celebrities Bob Geldof and Paula Yates in 1986. Jones had the distinction of being the first artist to have two classical albums listed in the popular music charts, worked with Leonard Bernstein. In 1986, he sang the oratorio Athalia with Emma Kirkby. Jones' first biography, Walking on Air, was published in 1986. In September 1990, Jones made his acting debut at the Royal Theatre in Shaun McKenna's adaptation of Richard Llewellyn's How Green Was My Valley playing the teenage Huw Morgan. Jones went on to study at the Royal Academy of Music and the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, before beginning his adult recording career which has featured a religious/inspirational repertoire. In 1995 he took the leading role in the long-running production of Andrew Lloyd Webber's Joseph and the Amazing Technicolour Dreamcoat on a Blackpool pier. From September 1996 to May 1997 Jones played the young Tom Gradgrind in a large-scale national touring production of Charles Dickens's Hard Times.
Theatres at which the play was presented included Brighton Theatre Royal, Bath Theatre Royal and Richmond Theatre. In 2005, Jones launched his autobiography, Aled: The Autobiography, written in collaboration with Darren Henley. In 2013, Jones released Aled Jones: My Story. Following the launch of his first baritone album, Aled on the Universal Music label in Australia in May 2003, Jones visited the country on a promotional tour, he has since toured in concert there five times: in Dec 2003, Aug 2006, Oct 2008, Aug/Sep 2010 and Feb 2015, performing in eight cities. Jones has released two singles with Terry Wogan in aid of the Children in Need appeal. From 3 July to 30 August 2008, Jones played the lead role of Caractacus Potts in Chitty Chitty Bang Bang at the Wales Millennium Centre, Cardiff, he returned to the stage, playing Bob Wallace in White Christmas at the Theatre Royal, at The Lowry, Salford Quays, from November 2009 until 9 January 2010, again from 11 to 26 November 2011 at the Mayflower Theatre, from 1 to 17 December at the Grand Canal Theatre, at the Empire Theatre, Liverpool On 8 November 2014 Jones made his West End debut, again playing Bob Wallace in "White Christmas", this time at the Dominion Theatre, Tottenham Court Road.
Following the publication of Aled's Forty Favourite Hymns in 2009, a further book, Favourite Christmas Carols, was published on 28 October 2010. On 29 November, Aled's Christmas Gift, was issued to accompany the book. On 11 October 2010, Jones was confirmed to take over as stand-in presenter of the early morning breakfast slot on BBC Radio 2 following the departure of Sarah Kennedy, a role he covered in the years leading up to her departure. Jones covered this slot for six weeks until the beginning of his UK tour. Jones is mentoring Isabel Suckling, the youngest classical recording artist signed by Decca Records and first choirgirl to sign a record contract with a major music label to date. Suckling's debut album was endorsed by Jones, who described it as "breathtaking" and it was released on 29 November 2010. In 2011, Jones hosted the television and DVD series, Classical Des
Daybreak (2010 TV programme)
Daybreak was a British morning television programme broadcast on ITV from 6 September 2010 to 25 April 2014. Daybreak replaced GMTV, which aired its last weekday edition on 3 September 2010. Daybreak launched three days later. In March 2014, ITV announced that the show would end in 2014 to be replaced by the launch of Good Morning Britain; the original Good Morning Britain programme, was the UK's first commercial weekday breakfast television programme broadcast by the Channel 3 breakfast franchisee TV-am. Good Morning Britain made its relaunch on 28 April 2014; the decision to replace GMTV with Daybreak followed the full takeover of GMTV by ITV. Daybreak and Lorraine made up the weekday output of ITV Breakfast. At weekends, children's programming filled this slot. An advertising campaign, promoting the new show, started on 23 August, with short break-bumpers in between the start and end of an advertisement break, broadcast during the evening schedule of ITV. An advertising campaign, promoting the new show, started on 23 August, with short break-bumpers in between the start and end of an advertisement break, broadcast during the evening schedule of ITV1.
Adverts featuring presenters Adrian Chiles and Christine Bleakley were broadcast throughout the day from 31 August 2010. Chiles and Bleakley presented The One Show on BBC One together for nearly three years before leaving in 2010 to join ITV; the first edition of Daybreak was broadcast on 6 September 2010 with ex-hosts Chiles and Bleakley introducing viewers to the new set and admiring the view from the window. It included an interview with Tony Blair and a lead story by John Stapleton on the collapse of the Farepak Christmas savings club in 2006. Views of regional locations around the United Kingdom were broadcast as well as a tour of the studio; the press offered a mixed reception to the first show. In March 2011, ITV announced that it was incorporating Daybreak into its ITV News operation as part of a management restructure. In July 2011 it was announced that production of the show, along with that of sister programme, Lorraine would be taken over by ITV Studios; as the show approached its first anniversary on air, it was announced that its editor, Ian Rumsey had resigned.
In August 2011, This Morning executive Karl Newton was being charged with the transition to ITV Studios and is revamping the show to give it "one last throw of the dice" to boost its ratings. On 2 September 2011, ITV announced that former BBC Breakfast chief, David Kermode editor of 5 News is to take over as editor of the programme from 1 December 2011, heralding a major revamp to the presenting team and the format. On 6 September 2011, the show celebrated its first anniversary on air. On 8 December 2011, Paul Connolly the deputy editor of Daybreak had departed from the programme. On 12 December 2011, it was reported that Daybreak will target'hassled mums' as part of its refreshed focus, format changes and a new presenting team were expected to be introduced in April 2012. On 26 April 2012, it was reported that ITV was to move Daybreak to the studio used by sister programme Lorraine. On 19 November 2011, it was reported that original presenters Adrian Chiles and Christine Bleakley had been axed.
Chiles confirmed that they were to depart from the programme in the New Year, however they left the show on Monday 5 December 2011 stating that "we were assured we could go with our dignity intact." Dan Lobb and Kate Garraway took over on an interim basis. On 8 December 2011, ITV chief executive Adam Crozier defended the decision of hiring Chiles and Bleakley, saying it was necessary to "take a risk". On 4 May 2012, Aled Jones and Lorraine Kelly were confirmed by ITV as the new permanent presenters, Jones said "I am looking forward to sharing the sofa every morning with such a consummate professional as Lorraine Kelly."On 28 May 2012, Ranvir Singh announced she was leaving BBC North West Tonight to join Daybreak, where she will present the first hour of the programme. On 11 June 2012, 5 News presenter Matt Barbet was confirmed as Singh's co-presenter. On 28 August 2012, it was confirmed Singh would become the newsreader following the first hour of the programme and that BBC Weather presenter Laura Tobin was joining the programme.
Garraway would present Daybreak on Fridays and cover for full-time host Lorraine Kelly in a new two-year contract. On 28 August 2012, the new Daybreak logo was unveiled; the revamped format was launched on 3 September 2012, this was greeted with a mixed reaction from viewers on social media, with some newspapers reporting that viewers reacted negatively to the "old fashioned" garish set. However, some viewers liked the change and praised the step back to the original GMTV format which the core audience had asked to return; the Sun Newspaper columnist Ally Ross said that the show was'just like GMTV, in all but name'. Like the first edition of the show, the relaunched format led with a report on the state of school buildings. Despite the changes to the ailing format, the first edition of the new look show drew only 600,000 viewers. Throughout September 2012, the programme averaged around 700,000 viewers, as viewers begun to warm to the original GMTV style format and new presenters. In October 2012, ratings continued to average at 700,000 viewers peaking at 800,000 viewers.
On 15 February 2014, Kelly announced she was to leave Daybreak in the year. She had signed a new contract to now present Lorraine each Monday to Friday. On 4 April 2014, Barbet co-presented for the final time, which made him the fourth presenter to leave the show after Chiles and Lobb. On 10 April, Kelly presented her final Daybreak before her Easter break, to concentrate on her own programme Lorraine, a
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government district, is located at the western end of the South Downs National Park, along the course of the River Itchen, it is situated 60 miles south-west of London and 13.6 miles from its closest city. At the time of the 2011 Census, Winchester had a population of 45,184; the wider City of Winchester district which includes towns such as Alresford and Bishop's Waltham has a population of 116,800. Winchester developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum, which in turn developed from an Iron Age oppidum. Winchester's major landmark is Winchester Cathedral, one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the distinction of having the longest nave and overall length of all Gothic cathedrals in Europe; the city is home to the University of Winchester and Winchester College, the oldest public school in the United Kingdom still using its original buildings. The area around Winchester has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with three Iron Age hillforts, Oram's Arbour, St. Catherine's Hill, Worthy Down all in the nearby vicinity.
In the Late Iron Age, a more urban settlement type developed, known as an oppidum, although the archaeology of this phase remains obscure. It was overrun by the confederation of Gaulish tribes known as the Belgae sometime during the first century BCE, it seems to have been known as Wentā or Venta, derived from the Brittonic for "town" or "meeting place", or the word for "white", due to Winchester's situation upon chalk. After the Roman conquest of Britain, the settlement served as the capital of the Belgae and was distinguished as Venta Belgarum, "Venta of the Belgae". Although in the early years of the Roman province it was of subsidiary importance to Silchester and Chichester, Venta eclipsed them both by the latter half of the second century. At the beginning of the third century, Winchester was given protective stone walls. At around this time the city covered an area of 144 acres, making it among the largest towns in Roman Britain by surface area. There was a limited suburban area outside the walls.
Like many other Roman towns however, Winchester began to decline in the fourth century. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 410, urban life seems to have continued at Venta Belgarum until around 450 AD, a small administrative centre might have continued after that on the site of the Anglo-Saxon palace. Ford identifies the community as the Cair Guinntguic listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain in his History of the Britons. Amid the Saxon invasions of Britain, cemeteries dating to the 6th and 7th centuries suggest a revival of settlement; the city became known as Wintan-ceastre in Old English. In 648, King Cenwalh of Wessex erected the Church of SS Peter and Paul known as the Old Minster; this became a cathedral in the 660s when the West Saxon bishopric was transferred from Dorchester-on-Thames. The present form of the city dates to reconstruction in the late 9th century, when King Alfred the Great obliterated the Roman street plan in favour of a new grid in order to provide better defence against the Vikings.
The city's first mint appears to date from this period. In the early tenth century there were two new ecclesiastical establishments, the convent of Nunnaminster, founded by Alfred's widow Ealhswith, the New Minster. Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester was a leading figure in the monastic reform movement of the tenth century, he replaced them with monks. He created the drainage system, the'Lockburn', which served as the town drain until 1875, still survives. In the late tenth century, the Old Minster was enlarged as a centre of the cult of the ninth century Bishop of Winchester, Saint Swithun; the three minsters were the home of what architectural historian John Crook describes as "the supreme artistic achievements" of the Winchester School. The consensus among historians of Anglo-Saxon England is that the court was mobile in this period and there was no fixed capital. Martin Biddle has suggested that Winchester was a centre for royal administration in the seventh and eighth centuries, but this is questioned by Barbara Yorke, who sees it as significant that the shire was named after Hamtun, the forerunner of Southampton.
However, Winchester is described by the historian Catherine Cubitt as "the premier city of the West Saxon kingdom." There was a fire in the city in 1141 during the Rout of Winchester. William of Wykeham played a role in the city's restoration; as Bishop of Winchester he was responsible for much of the current structure of the cathedral, he founded the still extant public school Winchester College. During the Middle Ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline; the curfew bell in the bell tower, still sounds at 8:00 pm each evening. While Jews lived in Winchester from at least 1148, in the 13th century the Jewish community in the city was one of the most important in England. There was an archa in the city, the Jewish quarter was located in the city's heart. There were a series of blood libel claims levied against the Jewish community in the 1220s and 1230s, the cause of the hanging of the community's leader, Abraham Pinch, in front of the synagogue that he was head of.
Simon de Montfort ransacked the Jewish quarter in 1264, in 1290 all Jews were expelled from England. The City Cross has been dated to the 15th century, features 12 statues of the Virgin Mary and various historical figures. Several statues appear to have been added t