Animal roleplay is a form of roleplay where at least one participant plays the part of a non-human animal. As with most forms of roleplay, its uses include psychodrama. Animal roleplay may be found in BDSM contexts, where an individual may take part in a dominant/submissive relationship by being treated as an animal; the activity is referred to as petplay. However, not all types of animal roleplay within BDSM are petplay and not all petplay in BDSM involves roleplaying as an animal; the origins of animal roleplay and petplay are various and diverse, again depending upon the participants involved. However, its origins are influenced by costuming, fiction and legend, roleplay and psychodrama in their various aspects; some of the earliest published images of animal play are to be found in the work of John Willie in Bizarre magazine published from 1946 to 1959. Some of the equipment that can be used in animal roleplay include leash, bit gag, neck collar, bondage harness, bodystocking, butt plug, ballet boots, etc.
Non-sexual animal roleplay was a common and integral part of ritual in many tribal cultures both in recent and prehistoric times, where a member of the tribe would take the role physically and spiritually of an animal, either revered or hunted. Examples of the former include many of Arctic native peoples. Examples of the latter are evidenced by cave paintings. In 1911, Julia Tuell photographed the last Animal Dance performed by the Northern Cheyenne of Montana, it is sometimes used in education physical education, as a way to encourage people to exercise the body in unusual ways, by mimicking various animals. Some superheroes and villains feature elements related to pet play. All involve animal qualities taken on by a human; some would count the enactment or spiritual belief in therianthropy as falling under human animal roleplay or transformation play as well. Peter Shaffer's 1973 play Equus tells the story of a young man who has a pathological religious fascination with horses, but this appears closer to zoophilia than pet play.
Andrew Lloyd Webber's 1981 musical Cats traces a tribe of urban cats, in 2007 War Horse used full size puppets to play horses on stage. Like much of erotic play and roleplay, animal roleplay in an erotic or relational context is defined by the people involved and by their mood and interests at the time of play, it ranges from the simple imitation of a vocal "whinnying" of a horse to the barking, panting or playful nudging of a puppy, or playful behaviour of a kitten, to crawling around on all fours and being fed, or petted, by hand. To the greater extremes of dressing up as a pony in modified horse tack, masks and temporary bondage based body modification. Public participation in human animal roleplay is varied. A couple could inconspicuously role-play a pet play scene in public, which would look to the casual observer like one partner is stroking the other's neck. In the case of some BDSM fetishists, one partner may wear a dog collar with a leash attached; the reasons for playing such a character or animal can vary as much as the physical manifestations and intensity of the play.
Some people enjoy being able to "cut loose" into a more dynamic personality. In some cases, pet play is seen as a loving, quiet cuddling time where there is no need for verbalizations and the simple act of stroking and holding the other partner is satisfying or reassuring in and of itself for those involved. For others, there may be a spiritual side to it; some feel closer to their animal totem, while others may identify with something akin to a deeper side or part of their own psyche. For still others, there is the experience of power exchange setup in a context or structure which they can accept; some cases could be considered a type of animal transformation fantasy. They can have strong elements of exhibitionism, be enjoyed in the privacy of the home, or lie somewhere between either boundary. While not widespread, erotic human-animal roleplay is still enjoyed by a sizable number of people. However, it is still identified with BDSM practice. Though misinterpreted as being associated with furry or other alternative lifestyle activities, not the case though some instances may exist.
For most participants, it has no connection whatsoever with bestiality, controversial and would be considered edgeplay in BDSM circles. Autozoophilia is sexual arousal that depends on imagining one's self as an animal. Paraphilic interests that involve being in another form have been referred to as erotic target location errors, autozoophilia would represent an autoerotic form of zoophilia. Autozoophilia is practised by wearing an animal costume, such as a latex mask, mascot costume or fursuit; each type of play can focus on a certain "strength" of an animal character. Pony play involves the practice and training that a horse owner or trainer would put their horse through to learn how to walk, etc. as modified for human limbs. Puppy and kitten play can involve BDSM related discipline. Cow Play involves fantasies of lactation and
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are known as CBC and Radio-Canada and both short-form names are commonly used in the applicable language to refer to the corporation as a whole. Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936. Radio services include CBC Radio One, CBC Music, Ici Radio-Canada Première, Ici Musique. Television operations include CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel, Ici ARTV; the CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC Radio-Canada Nord. The CBC operates digital services including CBC.ca/Ici. Radio-Canada.ca, CBC Radio 3, CBC Music/ICI.mu and Ici.
TOU. TV, owns 20.2% of satellite radio broadcaster Sirius XM Canada, which carries several CBC-produced audio channels. CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English and eight aboriginal languages on its domestic radio service, in five languages on its web-based international radio service, Radio Canada International. However, budget cuts in the early 2010s have contributed to the corporation reducing its service via the airwaves, discontinuing RCI's shortwave broadcasts as well as terrestrial television broadcasts in all communities served by network-owned rebroadcast transmitters, including communities not subject to Canada's over-the-air digital television transition. CBC's federal funding is supplemented by revenue from commercial advertising on its television broadcasts; the radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, but since its primary radio networks have been commercial-free. In 2013, CBC's secondary radio networks, CBC Music and Ici Musique, introduced limited advertising of up to four minutes an hour, but this was discontinued in 2016.
In 1929, the Aird Commission on public broadcasting recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network. A major concern was the growing influence of American radio broadcasting as U. S.-based networks began to expand into Canada. Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a radio network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival, CP. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC. Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League. In 1932 the government of R. B. Bennett established the CBC's predecessor, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; the CRBC took over a network of radio stations set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage in central and eastern Canada. On November 2, 1936, the CRBC was reorganized under its present name. While the CRBC was a state-owned company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the British Broadcasting Corporation, reformed from a private company into a statutory corporation in 1927.
Leonard Brockington was the CBC's first chairman. For the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada; this was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster, but the chief regulator of Canadian broadcasting. It used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada, it began a separate French-language radio network in 1937. It introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasn't launched until 1960. Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6, 1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal, a station in Toronto, Ontario opening two days later; the CBC's first owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, launched in October 1953. From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two services known as the Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network; the latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, while the former became known as CBC Radio.
On July 1, 1958, CBC's television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBC's own The Forest Rangers in 1963. Colour television broadcasts began on July 1, 1966, full-colour service began in 1974. In 1978, CBC became the first broadcaster in the world to use an orbiting satellite for television service, linking Canada "from east to west to north". Starting in 1967 and continuing until the mid-1970s, the CBC provided limited television service to remote and northern communities. Transmitters were built in a few locations and carried a four-hour selection of black-and-white videotaped programs each day; the tapes were flown into communities to be shown transported to other communities by the "bicycle" method used in television syndication. Transportation delays ranged from one week for larger centres to a month for small communities; the first FCP station was started in Yellowknife in May 1967, the second in Whitehorse in No
Yorkton is a city located in south-eastern Saskatchewan, Canada. It is about 450 kilometres north-west of Winnipeg and 300 kilometres south-east of Saskatoon and is the sixth largest in the province; as of 2017 the census population of the city was 19,643. Yorkton has had a growth rate of 4.3% since 2011. Yorkton was founded in 1882 and incorporated as a city in 1928; the city is bordered by the RM of Orkney No. 244 to the west and the RM of Wallace No. 243 on the east. In 1882 a group of businessmen and investors formed the York Farmers Colonization Company. Authorized to issue up to $300,000 in debentures and lenient government credit terms on land purchases encouraged company representatives to visit the District of Assiniboia of the North-West Territories with the intent to view some crown land available near the Manitoba border, they were impressed with what they saw and the group purchased portions of 6 townships near the Little Whitesand River for the purpose of settlement and to establish a centre for trade there.
This centre would become known as York Colony. The company founded the settlers' colony on the banks of the Little Whitesand River where lots were given to settlers who purchased land from them; the colony remained at its site until 1889. It was located at PT SE 1/4 13-26-4 W2M. In 1889 the rail line was extended to the Yorkton area, it was at this time the colony townsite relocated alongside the new rail line. Yorkton is located in the aspen parkland ecosystem; the terrain is one of agriculture and there is no forestry industry. It is in an area of black calcareous chernozemic soils; the Yorkton area was located on the edge of an area of a maximum glacial lake. The quaternary geology has left the area as a moraine plain consisting of glacial deposits; the bedrock geology is the pembina member of Vermillion River Formation and Riding Mountain Formation. Yorkton is located in the physiographic region of the Quill Lake-Yorkton Plain region of the Saskatchewan Plains Region. Yorkton has a humid continental climate, with extreme seasonal temperatures.
It has warm summers and cold winters, with the average daily temperatures ranging from −17.9 °C in January to 17.8 °C in July. The highest temperature recorded in Yorkton was 40.6 °C on 19 July 1941. The coldest temperature recorded was −46.1 °C on 20 January 1943. On the evening of July 1, 2010, Yorkton received a severe thunderstorm warning. Soon after, Yorkton was experiencing pea sized hail, strong winds and heavy rain; the rain created a flash flood. Broadway Street received the worst of the flood with local businesses being damaged, with one being destroyed; the City of Yorkton declared a State of Emergency and the Canadian Red Cross helped out with the victims of the flood. On the weekend of June 29, 2014, Yorkton declared a State of Emergency after rain caused flash floods in south eastern Saskatchewan; the first settlers to the Yorkton colony were English from Great Britain. 6 miles west were Scottish settlers at the settlement of Orkney. A significant number of residents are descended from immigrants from Ukraine who came in the early 20th century.
The city of Yorkton, the Rural Municipality of Orkney No. 244, the town of Springside and the village of Ebenezer form the census agglomeration of Yorkton, Saskatchewan with a combined 2011 population of 18,238 on a land area of 843.37 square kilometres. The Yorkton Gallagher Centre is an entertainment complex constructed in 1977 by the civic government and the Yorkton Exhibition Association; the centre includes curling rink, conference rooms and an indoor swimming pool. Until 2005, the facility was called the Parkland Agriplex. In the early 1900s an older Agriplex building was located on the fair grounds adjacent to the Gallagher Centre. Yorkton is home to a branch of the Saskatchewan Western Development Museum, which houses a number of exhibits depicting pioneer life in the town and on the surrounding prairie; the museum includes an early pioneer log home and an extensive outdoor exhibit of agricultural machinery, including early tractors and steam engines. Located on several buildings in downtown Yorkton are murals depicting historic personalities.
A number of heritage buildings are located within the city. Yorkton Tower Theatre is a single screen movie theatre built in the 1950s. Army Navy and Air Force Veterans Building, Dulmage Farmstead, Hudson's Bay Company Store, St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Yorkton Armoury, Yorkton Court House, 29 Myrtle Avenue, 81 Second Avenue North, Old Land Titles Building and Yorkton Organic Milling Ltd are listed historic places. Film Festivals have been an enduring part of life in Yorkton since the projector spun to life in October 1950. At that time the Yorkton International Documentary Film Festival was born; the international component was dropped in 1977. The festival renamed itself the Yorkton Short Film Festival in 1977. In 2009 it became the Yorkton Film Festival; the city of Yorkton hosted the 1999 Royal Bank Cup, the 2006 World Junior A Challenge and the 2009 Canada Cup of Curling. The Yorkton Terriers are a team in the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League; the Yorkton Rawtec Maulers are a Midget AAA ice hockey team and they are a member of the SMAAAHL.
The teams play their games in the 2,300 seat Farrell Agencies Arena in the Yorkton Gallagher CentreYorkton Cardinals are a baseball team playing in the Western Major Baseball League. The Yorkton Bulldogs are a retired box lacrosse team formed in 2003, they are a member of the Prairie Gold Lacrosse League. The curren
American Indian Movement
The American Indian Movement is a Native American advocacy group in the United States, founded in July 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. AIM was formed to address Native American affirmation, treaty issues and leadership while addressing incidents of police harassment and racism against Natives forced to move away from reservations and tribal culture by the Indian Termination Policies. AIM's paramount objective is to create "real economic independence for the Indians". From November 1969 to June 1971, AIM participated in the occupation of the abandoned federal penitentiary known as Alcatraz, organized by seven Indian movements, including the Indian of All Tribes and Richard Oakes, a Mohawk activist. In October 1972, AIM and other Indian groups gathered members from across the United States for a protest in Washington, D. C. known as the Trail of Broken Treaties. According to public documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, advanced coordination occurred between Washington, D. C.-based Bureau of Indian Affairs and the authors of a twenty-point proposal drafted with the help of the AIM for delivery to the United States government officials focused on proposals intended to enhance United States–Indian relations.
In the decades since AIM's founding, the group has led protests advocating indigenous American interests, inspired cultural renewal, monitored police activities and coordinated employment programs in cities and in rural reservation communities across the United States. AIM has supported indigenous interests outside the United States as well. By 1993, AIM had split into two main factions. One faction is the AIM-Grand Governing Council based in Minneapolis; the other faction is AIM-International Confederation of Autonomous Chapters, based in Denver Colorado. While government-directed Indian termination policies were enforced during the Eisenhower administration, hastily executed uranium mining contracts to permit it preceded the imposition of unprecedented-scale government-sanctioned commercial uranium extraction operations from various parts of traditional Indian western North American tribal lands and the uranium mining was permitted. However, the uranium mining contracts were signed without tribal permissions, Navajo workers were not informed of the health risks involved with working in uranium mines.
On March 6, 1968, President Johnson signed Executive Order 11399, establishing the National Council on Indian Opportunity. President Johnson said "the time has come to focus our efforts on the plight of the American Indian" and NCIO's formation would "launch an undivided, Government-wide effort in this area". While knowing little of the American Indian issues, Johnson tried to connect the nation's trust responsibility to the tribes and nations to civil rights, an area with which he was much more familiar. In Congress, the Democratic chairman of the House Subcommittee on Indian Affairs, James Haley from Florida, supported Indian rights. In the 1960s Haley met with president Kennedy and then-vice-president Johnson, pressed for Indian self-determination and control in transactions over land. One struggle was over the long-term leasing of American Indian land. Non-Indian businesses and banks said they could not invest in leases of 25 years with generous options, as the time was too short for land-based transactions.
Relieving the long-term poverty on most reservations through business partnerships by leasing land was seen as infeasible. A return to the 19th century 99-year leases was seen as a possible solution. But, an Interior Department memo said, "a 99-year lease is in the nature of a conveyance of the land"; these battles over land had their beginnings in the 1870s when federal policy related to wholesale taking, not leases. In the 1950s, many Native Americans believed that leases were too a way for outsiders to control Indian land. Wallace "Mad Bear" Anderson was a Tuscarora leader in New York in the 1950s, he struggled to resist the New York City planner Robert Moses' plan to take tribal land in upstate New York for use in a state hydropower project to supply New York City. The struggle ended in a bitter compromise; as had civil rights and antiwar activists, AIM used the American press and media to present its message to the United States public. It created events to attract the press. If successful, news outlets would seek out AIM spokespersons for interviews.
Rather than relying on traditional lobbying efforts, AIM took its message directly to the American public. Its leaders looked for opportunities to gain publicity. Sound bites such as the "AIM Song" became associated with the movement. During ceremonies on Thanksgiving Day 1970 to commemorate the 350th anniversary of the Pilgrims' landing at Plymouth Rock, AIM seized the replica of the Mayflower in Boston. In 1971, members occupied Mount Rushmore for a few days, as it was created in the Black Hills of South Dakota, long sacred to the Lakota; this area was within the Great Sioux Reservation as created by the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868. After the discovery of gold, in 1874, the federal government took the land in 1877 and sold it for mining and settlement to European Americans. Native American activists in Milwaukee staged a takeover of an abandoned Coast Guard station along the Lake Michigan; the takeover was inspired by the 1969 Alcatraz occupation. Activists cited the Treaty of Fort Laramie and demanded the abandoned federal property revert to the control of the Native peoples of Milw
Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art
The Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art is located in downtown Indianapolis and houses an extensive collection of visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas, as well as Western American paintings and sculptures collected by businessman and philanthropist Harrison Eiteljorg. The museum houses one of the finest collections of Native contemporary art in the world; the museum is part of Indianapolis's White River State Park which houses the neighboring Indiana State Museum, the Indianapolis Zoo, the White River Gardens, NCAA Hall of Champions, Victory Field and Military Park. The museum offers free parking to its visitors in the White River State Park Garage; the Gund Gallery has an appreciable collection of paintings and bronzes by Frederic Remington and Charles Russell. It has paintings by: George Winter, Thomas Hill, Albert Bierstadt, Charles King, Olaf Seltzer. In another room, there is a large collection of paintings by New Mexico-associated painters, such as: Joseph Henry Sharp, William Victor Higgins, Ernest L. Blumenschein, John French Sloan, Georgia O'Keeffe.
In June 2005, the museum opened an extensive expansion that doubled the public space of the museum by adding three new galleries, the Sky City Café, an education center, outdoor gardens, event space. The new galleries include two galleries dedicated to the museum’s extensive contemporary art collection; the collection includes works by T. C. Cannon, Kay WalkingStick, Andy Warhol, many more; the other gallery added in the expansion is the Gund Gallery of Western Art. This gallery is dedicated to the 57-piece collection of traditional Western art donated to the museum by the George Gund Family; the Sky City Café offers Southwestern-style food. The museum offers the prestigious Eiteljorg Contemporary Art Fellowship biennially to recognize some of the most innovative and influential contemporary Native artists active today. Eiteljorg fellows include: Official website
Mukluks or Kamik are a soft boot, traditionally made of reindeer skin or sealskin, worn by Arctic aboriginal people, including the Inuit, Iñupiat, Yupik. Mukluks may be worn under a protective overshoe; the term mukluk is used for any soft boot designed for cold weather, modern designs may use both traditional and modern materials. The word "mukluk" is of Iñupiat and Yupik origin, from maklak, the bearded seal, while "kamik" is an Inuit word. In the Inuipiaq language the "u" makes an "oo" sound, so the spelling "maklak" is used with the same pronunciation. Another type of boot, sometimes called an Inuit boot, originating in Greenland and the eastern part of Alaska, is made by binding it with animal cartilage, has a centre seam running down to the foot of the boot. Another type has a soft leather sole. Called "Slipper Socks", these are traditionally worn by the people of the Hindu Kush Mountains. In the early 1990s, Métis entrepreneur Sean McCormick went into the mukluk business and launched Manitobah Mukluks.
The shoes were based on traditional Métis footwear with a city-friendly rubber sole and the brand became the fastest-growing footwear line in Canada. In 2006 many celebrities were seen wearing the footwear; as mukluks are soft-soled, flex with the feet, they allow hunters to move quietly. A wearer can run, tip-toe, dance in mukluks, they are designed for use in the tundra. Mukluks weigh little. While, for instance, U. S. Marine extreme-cold-weather boots weigh eight pounds, soft-soled boots made using modern materials weigh less than a tenth of that; because mukluks weigh little, there is no need for heavy lacing. Some mukluks are lightly laced, they may be laced around the top of the boot to stiffen it. Many, have no lacing to constrict the circulation and make the foot cold; the top of the boot stands up somewhat stiffly, may be open at the top, which allows moisture to escape. The design of the mukluk is used for the industrial manufacture of cold-weather boots paired with a rugged contemporary sole.
The key component of its success is its ability to breathe, that is. This is an advantage in cold conditions where perspiration may become a factor in frostbite on one's feet; the bulkiness paired with their poor performance in slush makes them less ideal for the casual winter wearer. Mukluks are made with a wrapped sole, so that the seam around the sole is on the top and sides of the boot, not on the bottom edge; this helps avoid wear on the leaks. Kamiks made for cold, dry winter weather may have fur low down on the outside, other features that would be a problem when not on dry, powdery snow. Kamiks for warm, muddy, or open-ocean conditions are stitched finely from waterproof sealskin. Blind-stitching with sinew, which shrinks when wet, helps keep mukluks watertight. Commercial boots of modern materials will require seam-sealing after purchase if they are to be waterproof; the uppers of summer kamik are made ringed seal skin, while the soles are made of bearded seal, tougher. The skin requires laborious preparation.
Winter kamik are made of caribou leg fur. The short overshoes may be made waterproof for wet conditions or furry and grippy for dry ones. For insulation, mukluks may be lined with furs such as caribou, rabbit and raccoon. Down and closed-celled EVA foam is used in soft-soled boots; the inner boot is made with the fur facing inwards. It may be made of textile. Mukluks may be adorned with pompons, beads and other methods. After a year's storage, traditional skin kamiks tend to stiffen and need to be worked and stretched to make them pliable again. Ugg boots Yup'ik clothing
Vancouver Art Gallery
The Vancouver Art Gallery is the fifth-largest art gallery in Canada, the largest in Western Canada. It is located at 750 Hornby Street in Vancouver, British Columbia, its permanent collection of about 11,000 artworks includes more than 200 major works by Emily Carr, the Group of Seven, Jeff Wall, Harry Callahan and Marc Chagall. The gallery has 41,400 square feet of exhibition space and more than 11,000 works in its collection, most notably its Emily Carr collection, it has amassed a significant collection of photographs. In addition to exhibitions of its own collection, the gallery hosts international touring exhibitions; the gallery features a variety of public programmes and lectures. The gallery has a gift shop, a café, a library; the Vancouver Art Gallery had its first home at 1145 West Georgia Street. In 1983 it moved to the former provincial courthouse, it was renovated at a cost of $20 million by architect Arthur Erickson, which completed his modern three city-block Robson Square complex.
The gallery connects to the rest of the complex via an underground passage below Robson Street to an outdoor plaza, the University of British Columbia's downtown satellite campus, government offices, the new Law Courts at the southern end. In March 2007, the 2010 Olympic countdown clock was placed in the front lawn of the VAG, it was open for free for the public to see. The clock has since been disassembled, with one half going to BC Place and the other to Whistler Village. In November 2007, the gallery announced plans to move to a new building at Larwill Park, a block occupied by a bus depot on the corner of Cambie and Georgia streets opposite the Queen Elizabeth Theatre; the new building would be about 30,000 square metres 10 times the current building size, would include more gallery space for the permanent collection now in storage, a larger exhibit space for visiting international works, more children's and community programming, an improved storage and display environment. Construction was planned to begin after the 2010 Olympics with a tentative opening date in 2013.
The projected cost was in the hundreds of millions of dollars, the gallery hoped to secure funding from provincial and federal governments, as well as private donors. In May 2008, a different site was chosen for the new gallery, on land occupied by the Plaza of Nations near BC Place; the new plans would double the gallery size to 320,000 square feet. In 2013, the decision was made to go back to the Cambie site. In April, 2014, Vancouver Art Gallery selected Herzog & de Meuron, from a group of five shortlisted firms, from across the globe following a series of in-depth interviews and site visits to significant projects designed by each firm; the finalists, announced in January 2014, represented five of 75 firms from 16 different countries, who submitted their credentials through an open request for qualifications process issued by the gallery. The new Vancouver Art Gallery building is Herzog & de Meuron’s first project in Canada, working in collaboration with Vancouver-based Perkins + Will as executive architect in the realization of the design.
In September 2015, the gallery unveiled its conceptual design for the new building in a public event held at the Queen Elizabeth Theatre. The project is expected to break ground in 2018; the VAG is located in the former main courthouse for Vancouver. The original 165,000-square-foot neoclassical building was designed by Francis Rattenbury after winning a design competition in 1905. Rattenbury designed the British Columbia Parliament Buildings and the Empress Hotel in Victoria; the design includes ionic columns, a central dome, formal porticos, ornate stonework. The building was constructed using marble imported from Alaska and Vermont; the new building was constructed in 1906 and replaced the previous courthouse located at Victory Square. At the time, the building contained 18 courtrooms. An annex designed by Thomas Hooper was added to the western side of the building in 1912; the Annex Building is the only part of the VAG, not converted to use as an art gallery. It was declared a heritage site and retains the original judges' benches and walls as they were when the building was a courthouse.
On the Georgia Street side of the building is the Centennial Fountain. This fountain was installed in 1966 to commemorate the centennial of the union of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia; the Centennial Fountain was removed in 2017 as part of the Georgia Street plaza renovations. The plaza opened to the public in late 2017; the building was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1980. Both the main and annex portions of the building are municipally designated "A" heritage structures; the steps on both the Robson Street and Georgia Street sides of the building are popular gathering spots for protest rallies. The Georgia Street side is a popular place in the summertime for people to relax or socialize. A regular gathering spot for protests and demonstrations, the Vancouver Art Gallery's lawn and steps hosts gatherings several times a week; the Vancouver Art Gallery is the monthly meeting spot for Vancouver's Critical Mass, as well as flash mobs, the Zombie Walk, Pro-Marijuana rallies, numerous environmental demonstrations.
The Vancouver Art Gallery's collection of about 11,000 works grows by several hundred works every year. Established in 1931, it is a principle repository of works produced in this region, as well as related works by other Canadian and international artists; the gallery’s European historical collection includes Dutch paintings from the seventeenth century by Jan Anthoniszoon van Ravestyn, Jan Wynants (1